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Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 12:32 am
by Stephen Hughes
Mark 8:34, Matthew 16:24 & Luke 9:23 wrote:ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτόν
Is anyone aware of syntactic parallels for this middle with reflexive construction?

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 1:14 am
by George F Somsel
Rom 16.16
ἀσπάζομαι ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἁγίῳ
1 Cor 16.20
Ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἁγίῳ.
2 Cor 13.12
 Ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν ἁγίῳ φιλήματι
1 Pet 5.14
ἀσπάσασθε* ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἀγάπης.

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 3:25 am
by Stephen Hughes
Is the distinction between reciprocal and reflexive pronouns an artificial one?

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 5:49 am
by Jonathan Robie
Stephen Hughes wrote:
Mark 8:34, Matthew 16:24 & Luke 9:23 wrote:ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτόν
Is anyone aware of syntactic parallels for this middle with reflexive construction?
Is "this construction" a middle verb that has an object? I see quite a few of them.
middle-with-object-pronoun.pdf
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middle-with-nonpronoun-objects.cite.pdf
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Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 7:12 am
by cwconrad
Stephen Hughes wrote:
Mark 8:34, Matthew 16:24 & Luke 9:23 wrote:ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτόν
Is anyone aware of syntactic parallels for this middle with reflexive construction?
Perhaps the question arose from a sense that middle verbs are inherently reflexive, or perhaps it didn't; in any case, that's a misleading notion. Reflexivity is one of several categories included within the range of polysemous middle-marking that indicates subject-affected processes. The verb ἀπαρνεῖσθαι ("disavow") is indeed a middle verb (in the category of emotional speech act, but in view of the fact that the verb is regularly used with a pronominal complement (με, σε), why should it be surprising to find it with the 3d person reflexive pronoun?
ἀπαρνέομαι to deny, renounce (11)
Matt 16:24 μου ἐλθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω
Matt 26:34 νυκτὶ πρὶν ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι τρὶς ἀπαρνήσῃ με.
Matt 26:35 οὐ μή σε ἀπαρνήσομαι. ὁμοίως καὶ
Matt 26:75 ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι τρὶς ἀπαρνήσῃ με· καὶ
Mark 8:34 μου ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω
Mark 14:30 ἢ δὶς ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι τρίς με ἀπαρνήσῃ.
Mark 14:31 οὐ μή σε ἀπαρνήσομαι. ὡσαύτως δὲ
Mark 14:72 δὶς τρίς με ἀπαρνήσῃ· καὶ ἐπιβαλὼν
Luke 12:9 ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπαρνηθήσεται ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων
Luke 22:34 σήμερον ἀλέκτωρ ἕως τρίς με ἀπαρνήσῃ εἰδέναι.
Luke 22:61 ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι σήμερον ἀπαρνήσῃ με τρίς.
Stephen Hughes wrote:Is the distinction between reciprocal and reflexive pronouns an artificial one?
I think it is a distinction observed more commonly in earlier Classical/Attic usage; in the Koine ἑαυτούς seems more frequent than ἀλλήλους .
BDF§287 wrote:Ἑαυτῶν may be used for ἀλλήλων (as already in classical, K.–G. I 573; for the papyri s. Mayser I2 2, 64; II 1, 73): 1 C 6:7, C 3:13, 16, etc.; often one alongside the other for variety: Lk 23:12 μετʼ ἀλλήλων … πρὸς ἑαυτούς (SBLT πρὸς αὐτούς; the simple pronoun, however, does not appear to be admissible here). In ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον A 2:12 the elements remain separate = πρὸς ἀλλήλους; cf. εἷς τὸν ἕνα for ἀλλήλους §247(4). 1 Th 5:13 εἰρηνεύετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς (SD*FGP αὐτοῖς) = Mk 9:50 εἰρ. ἐν ἀλλήλοις (Foerster, TW II 416f.). Mk 9:16 πρὸς ἑαυτούς S*AW (ἀλλήλους Θ, ἐν ὑμῖν D, αὐτούς al.).

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 7:13 am
by George F Somsel
Jonathan Robie wrote:
Is "this construction" a middle verb that has an object? I see quite a few of them.
No, the question was not simply about a middle verb with an object but rather a middle verb with a reflexive object.

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 8:52 am
by Stephen Hughes
The question arose out a quandary mentioned as an addendum to a post here
Stephen Hughes wrote:A passage from Thucydides that fascinate and puzzles me is
ξυνεστρέφοντό ... ἐν σφίσιν αὐτοῖς
they closed ranks in on themselves
where middle / passive voice is used with a reflexive pronoun. (The Koine equivalent of ἐν σφίσιν αὐτοῖς would be ἐν ἑαυτοῖς). That medio-passive + reflexive is beyond the limit of maps ... in my grammatical atlas.
In the case in Thucydides the reflexive is used adverbially with ἐν. Here the Synoptic Evangelists use it directly.

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 9th, 2015, 10:01 am
by Jonathan Robie
George F Somsel wrote:Jonathan Robie wrote:
Is "this construction" a middle verb that has an object? I see quite a few of them.
No, the question was not simply about a middle verb with an object but rather a middle verb with a reflexive object.
Oops ... too quick on the draw. Here are some of these (not a complete list). The first three are in the title.

Matthew 16:24 ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν
Mark 08:34 ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν
Luke 09:23 ἀρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν
Acts 26:02 Περὶ πάντων ὧν ἐγκαλοῦμαι ὑπὸ Ἰουδαίων, ἥγημαι ἐμαυτὸν μακάριον ἐπὶ σοῦ μέλλων σήμερον ἀπολογεῖσθαι,
Ephesians 04:32 χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς
Colossians 03:13 χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς
2 Timothy 02:13 ἀρνήσασθαι ἑαυτὸν
Titus 02:07 περὶ πάντα σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος τύπον καλῶν ἔργων,
James 01:22 παραλογιζόμενοι ἑαυτούς.

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 10th, 2015, 1:26 am
by Stephen Hughes
Jonathan Robie wrote:Ephesians 04:32 χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς
Colossians 03:13 χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς
This is a verb of thinking and seems to be used as a reciprocal pronoun here.

The others are with verbs of perception or thinking (or causing others to think):
Jonathan Robie wrote:Acts 26:02 Περὶ πάντων ὧν ἐγκαλοῦμαι ὑπὸ Ἰουδαίων, ἥγημαι ἐμαυτὸν μακάριον ἐπὶ σοῦ μέλλων σήμερον ἀπολογεῖσθαι,
cf Philippians 2:3 ἀλλὰ τῇ ταπεινοφροσύνῃ ἀλλήλους ἡγούμενοι ὑπερέχοντας ἑαυτῶν·
Jonathan Robie wrote:Matthew 16:24 ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν
Mark 08:34 ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν
Luke 09:23 ἀρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν
2 Timothy 02:13 ἀρνήσασθαι ἑαυτὸν
James 01:22 παραλογιζόμενοι ἑαυτούς.
Of those listed, the only one where there might be some discussion that the reflexive was used as an object with a middle (in an actual), as an active would be used with an object might be this one:
Jonathan Robie wrote:Titus 02:07 περὶ πάντα σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος τύπον καλῶν ἔργων,
As BDAG notes, in earlier Greek, this would have been used with the active, not passive. Perhaps here it is also, "let others think of you as an example", as being the other side of the coin from "setting yourself up as an example".

Re: Mk.8:34, Mat.16:24, Lk.9:23 - Middle with reflexive

Posted: September 10th, 2015, 1:28 am
by Stephen Hughes
Are there any examples of the middle-passive with a reflexive that could be interpreted in a physical sense?