Antonym(s) for γνήσιος?

Semantic Range, Lexicography, and other approaches to word meaning - in general, or for particular words.
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Stephen Hughes
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Antonym(s) for γνήσιος?

Post by Stephen Hughes » October 25th, 2013, 5:50 pm

Does anybody have a thought as to what the opposite(s) of γνήσιος would be as it is used in 2 Corinthians 8:8 and Philipians 4:3?

The first verse is;
2 Corinthians 8:8 wrote:Οὐ κατ’ ἐπιταγὴν λέγω, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἑτέρων σπουδῆς καὶ τὸ τῆς ὑμετέρας ἀγάπης γνήσιον δοκιμάζων.
The sense of this verse is difficult, I feel. If it is taken as "the sincerity of your love", then what is the opposite? I suspect it is κενοδοξία "outward show" (synonym with ματαιοδοξία). My basis for the line of thinking that makes κενοδοξία the opposite of τὸ γνήσιον (NB not γνησιότης which seems to have a meaning restricted to the original family sense)is;
Galatians 5:22 (part) ... 26 (part) wrote:Ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη κτλ ... Μὴ γινώμεθα κενόδοξοι
I believe that the rendering in our lexica of κενοδοξία / κενόδοξος as "conceit" is a hand-me-down rendering of a convenient Latin rendering, which was then explained with "conceit". The untranslated lexica suggest that the word κενοδοξία seems to mean "outward show" - being seen to be something, but internally having nothing. The opposite of the genuineness of "love" (and the other fruits of the spirit) is mere outward show. Love etc which is claimed, but not expressed because actually it is not there.

The next verse raises issue of it's own;
Philipians 4:3 (RP)(part)) wrote:Ναὶ, ἐρωτῶ καί σε, σύζυγε γνήσιε, συλλαμβάνου αὐταῖς
There is no indication given in the text as to whom this is addressed, so it is someone that Paul knows that everyone else who reads it will know who he is talking about. σύζυγος is ordinarily a word for "spouse", so I'm wondering whether Paul's addressing his wife here? To assume that for arguement's sake, then γνήσιος has the "legitimate member of the family", "legally married wife" meaning and the antonym would be something like παλλακή "concubine".

In the other two examples where it is statedly talking about a (father-son) family relationship, it seems that the opposite of γνήσιος would be νόθος "bastard", "illegitimate"
1Timothy 1:2 (part) wrote:Τιμοθέῳ γνησίῳ τέκνῳ ἐν πίστει·
Titus 1:4 (part) wrote:Τίτῳ γνησίῳ τέκνῳ κατὰ κοινὴν πίστιν
cf.
Hebrews 12:8 (RP)(part) wrote:ἄρα νόθοι ἐστὲ καὶ οὐχ υἱοί
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Justin Cofer
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Joined: October 20th, 2012, 12:25 pm

Re: Antonym(s) for γνήσιος?

Post by Justin Cofer » November 7th, 2013, 2:04 am

Stephen Hughes wrote:Does anybody have a thought as to what the opposite(s) of γνήσιος would be as it is used in 2 Corinthians 8:8 and Philipians 4:3?

The first verse is;
2 Corinthians 8:8 wrote:Οὐ κατ’ ἐπιταγὴν λέγω, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἑτέρων σπουδῆς καὶ τὸ τῆς ὑμετέρας ἀγάπης γνήσιον δοκιμάζων.
The sense of this verse is difficult, I feel. If it is taken as "the sincerity of your love", then what is the opposite?
ψευδής perhaps? ὑποκριτής perhaps for 2 Cor 8:8? Paul did say Ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος (Rom 12:9)
In the other two examples where it is statedly talking about a (father-son) family relationship, it seems that the opposite of γνήσιος would be νόθος "bastard", "illegitimate"
I agree.
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cwconrad
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Re: Antonym(s) for γνήσιος?

Post by cwconrad » November 7th, 2013, 9:05 am

Justin Cofer wrote:
Stephen Hughes wrote:Does anybody have a thought as to what the opposite(s) of γνήσιος would be as it is used in 2 Corinthians 8:8 and Philipians 4:3?

The first verse is;
2 Corinthians 8:8 wrote:Οὐ κατ’ ἐπιταγὴν λέγω, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἑτέρων σπουδῆς καὶ τὸ τῆς ὑμετέρας ἀγάπης γνήσιον δοκιμάζων.
The sense of this verse is difficult, I feel. If it is taken as "the sincerity of your love", then what is the opposite?
ψευδής perhaps? ὑποκριτής perhaps for 2 Cor 8:8? Paul did say Ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος (Rom 12:9).
Yes, I think ψευδής is about right. Seems to me that γνήσιον in 2 Cor 8:8 means "authenticity."; perhaps πιστός might also fill the bill. δόκιμος is another possibility.
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οὔτοι ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς πάντα θεοὶ θνητοῖς ὑπέδειξαν,
ἀλλὰ χρόνῳ ζητέοντες ἐφευρίσκουσιν ἄμεινον. (Xenophanes, Fragment 16)

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Retired)

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