ὁμο-μήτωρ and ὁμο-πάτηρ

Semantic Range, Lexicography, and other approaches to word meaning - in general, or for particular words.
Stephen Hughes
Posts: 3323
Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Arranging external details on the body of knowledge

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 20th, 2014, 10:26 am

leonardjayawardena wrote:I think fellow Christians being called brothers in the New Testament is a special extension by Christians of the classical Greek sense of ἀδελφός since God is the immediate spiritual Father of all believers.
Nobody else seems to replying here, so let me do so again.

This seems to be an example of what I meant by "socks on hands" use of Greek. I suggest that you enrol in a recognised programme to study some Greek. Like other branches of knowledge, there are recognised conventions for the arrangement of knowledge within the discipline. If you want to discuss Greek, let's discuss it primarily on it's own terms as a language. Other things could be brought to bear as corroberating evidence if they are relevant.

Contrary to one of your present underlying assumptions, there is no one "classical" sense of the word ἀδελφός. You have just shown that there were a number of uses by quoting the opening section of Antiphon Φαρμακείας κατὰ τῆς μητρυιᾶς.

We do see that there is a usage of ἀδελφός / ἀδελφή to refer to fellow christians. And there is a need for that knowledge to be placed somewhere. The relationship between a father and his children has a logical extension in some cases to the relationship between brothers and sisters. The conclusion, however, doesn't really have anything to do with a knowledge of Greek.

Contemporary evidence suggests that the use of ἀδελφός / ἀδελφή to refer to fellows of other fraternities or societies. That sort of textual evidence from a contemporary source is stronger than a conjecture based on a logical extension.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Stephen Hughes
Posts: 3323
Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Smith has grown beyond

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 20th, 2014, 10:54 am

leonardjayawardena wrote:There was an example right under my nose and I missed it: In Mark 6:17 Philip is called Herod's adelphos, though in fact he was his step-brother.
Mark 6:17 wrote:Αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ἀποστείλας ἐκράτησεν τὸν Ἰωάννην, καὶ ἔδησεν αὐτὸν ἐν φυλακῇ, διὰ Ἡρῳδιάδα τὴν γυναῖκα Φιλίππου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι αὐτὴν ἐγάμησεν.
This an historically challenged reference. Due to the conflicting evidence from other sources, we can not be concluded exactly what Luke thought was the relationship between these two.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

leonardjayawardena
Posts: 20
Joined: June 9th, 2014, 12:52 am

Re: Arranging external details on the body of knowledge

Post by leonardjayawardena » June 21st, 2014, 6:17 am

Stephen Hughes wrote:
leonardjayawardena wrote:I think fellow Christians being called brothers in the New Testament is a special extension by Christians of the classical Greek sense of ἀδελφός since God is the immediate spiritual Father of all believers.
This seems to be an example of what I meant by "socks on hands" use of Greek. I suggest that you enrol in a recognised programme to study some Greek. Like other branches of knowledge, there are recognised conventions for the arrangement of knowledge within the discipline. If you want to discuss Greek, let's discuss it primarily on it's own terms as a language. Other things could be brought to bear as corroberating evidence if they are relevant.

Contrary to one of your present underlying assumptions, there is no one "classical" sense of the word ἀδελφός. You have just shown that there were a number of uses by quoting the opening section of Antiphon Φαρμακείας κατὰ τῆς μητρυιᾶς.

We do see that there is a usage of ἀδελφός / ἀδελφή to refer to fellow christians. And there is a need for that knowledge to be placed somewhere. The relationship between a father and his children has a logical extension in some cases to the relationship between brothers and sisters. The conclusion, however, doesn't really have anything to do with a knowledge of Greek.

Contemporary evidence suggests that the use of ἀδελφός / ἀδελφή to refer to fellows of other fraternities or societies. That sort of textual evidence from a contemporary source is stronger than a conjecture based on a logical extension.
You are wrong in thinking that I have assumed that there is only one "classical sense" of the ἀδελφός. Before writing I checked with the Lydell, Scott and Jones and saw all the meanings listed there. Indeed in the other thread I wrote
In classical Greek, ἀδελφός means a "brother," as per Lydell and Scott. ἀδελφοί can mean "brother and sister" (E.El.536). The meanings "kinsman" and "tribesman" are given in this lexicon with the Septuagint as the source.
What I have meant throughout this thread is the classical Greek sense of the word ἀδελφός as "blood brother," which is its primary meaning in classical Greek so far as I know.

In Φαρμακείας κατὰ τῆς μητρυιᾶς, adelophoi/adelphos after the first occurrence (qualified with homopatrios) refer to step brothers, which meaning comes within "blood brother." So isn't it the same sense?

Lydell, Scott and Jones has the following:

5. brother (as a fellow Christian), Ev.Matt.12.50, Act.Ap.9.30, al.; of other religious communities, e.g. Serapeum, PPar.42.1 (ii B. C.), cf. PTaur.1.1.20.

I don't have access to the non-biblical references, so I have no idea of the basis on which fellow members of these other religious communities were called "brothers." But in the Christian community brotherhood was based on the common spiritual Fatherhood of God of all believers. That being so, the relationship between His spiritual children is analagous to that between literal brothers and sisters. That is why I said that the use of adelphos to refer to fellow Christians is an "extension" of the primary meaning of adelphos, viz. 'blood brother.' Now what if the first century Greek-speaking Christians had been unaware of the use of adelphos in relation to members of other religious commufhnities? Would they have still used this word to refer to fellow Christians? I think they would and that's why I think their use is independent of its use to refer to members of other contemporary religious communities. However, the concept of God as Father is not a new teaching in the New Testament. It is found in the Old Testament.

Malachi 2:10: Οὐχὶ θεὸς εἷς ἔκτισεν ὑμᾶς; οὐχὶ πατὴρ εἷς πάντων ὑμῶν; τί ὅτι ἐγκατελίπετε ἕκαστος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ τοῦ βεβηλῶσαι τὴν διαθήκην τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν;

Because God is the common Father, every Israelite is a brother (Heb. ah). God's fatherhood of Israelites is ultimately rooted in His adopting Israelites as his sons and daughters (Exodus 4:22; Deut. 32:6; Is. 53:16; Jer. 31:9 et al). The NT church as the Israel of God fulfills the promises to Israel and become "sons" and "daughters" of God (see 2 Corinthians 6:18 and the OT passages on which that verse is based).

So unless good arguments to the contrary are adduced (not vague statements and generalities) I would think that NT Christians' use of ἀδελφός / ἀδελφή to refer to fellow believers is basically an extension of the primary meaning of those words in classical Greek to express a concept already found in the Old Testament. Or, more accurately, a continuation of an extension already present in the OT (vide Mal. 2:10).

As I also mentioned in an earlier post, a fellow Israelite is also an ah because they are all the seed of Abraham and Israel. The Septuagint renders this word as adelphos and this is followed in the NT in certain passages in reference to fellow Jews (e.g., Acts 13:26). It it evident from Romans 9:3, ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου τῶν συγγενῶν μου κατὰ σάρκα, that adelphos in this context reflects the wider sense of ah as "kinsman." Abraham and Israel are therefore "fathers" in the sense of "ancestors." Now this sense of ancestor cannot be what an Israelite meant when he called God "father" as in Malachi 2:10. If so, then a fellow Israelite is an ah of the closest degree of relationship by virtue of the common Fatherhood of all Israelites. This closest degree of relationship in this context is the meaning conveyed by the primary sense of adelphos in classical Greek, in which sense this word is used in reference to fellow believers in the NT.

That is my analysis. What do you think?

Leonard Jayawardena
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Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Cosmology and cosmogonic myths - brother

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 21st, 2014, 9:32 am

For many people in the world, their understanding of cosmology - such as the spiritual fatherhood of a deity, and cosmogonic myths - such as those in the Old Testament can affect their perception of brotherhood. The stories of a common progenitor can affect clan or tribe identity too, as you have mentioned in respect of Abraham.

Cultural anthropology offers theoretical frameworks that we can use to see the relationship between these understandings of the world and the language they used.

I'm sorry, but, I'm not as confident as you seem to be about that blood relationship was the primary definition of brotherhood in Classical Athens. I think that the legality of marriage and the social status of tbe mother had a lot to do with it too. The sexual relations of males and of some classes of females were diversified. What you see in the Antiphon trial seems to be a reference to the children of two successive legal marriages.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

leonardjayawardena
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Joined: June 9th, 2014, 12:52 am

Re: ὁμο-μήτωρ and ὁμο-πάτηρ

Post by leonardjayawardena » June 25th, 2014, 4:38 am

A correction.

Please read all references to brother/s, sister/s, siblings in my posts under this thread prefixed with "step" with the prefix "step" replaced with "half." I meant to write "half'-" throughout. I regret this error.

Leonard Jayawardena
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Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

νόθος and γνήσιος

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 25th, 2014, 4:53 am

Leonard, In regard to my previous comment, you might like to look at the words νόθος -η -ον "illegitimate" and γνήσιος -α -ον "legitimate". My impression - don't quote me on it - is that ἀδελφός / ἀδελφή is only applied to legitimate children.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Betho
Posts: 1
Joined: January 23rd, 2016, 7:09 pm

Re: ὁμο-μήτωρ and ὁμο-πάτηρ

Post by Betho » January 23rd, 2016, 7:29 pm

"Ἀβραὰμ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἰσαάκ, Ἰσαὰκ δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἰακώβ, Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἰούδαν καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ," (Mat 1:2)

"εἶδεν δὲ Ιωσηφ αὐτοὺς καὶ τὸν Βενιαμιν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν ὁμομήτριον καὶ εἶπεν τῷ ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκίας αὐτοῦ εἰσάγαγε τοὺς ἀνθρώπους εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν καὶ σφάξον θύματα καὶ ἑτοίμασον μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ γὰρ φάγονται οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἄρτους τὴν μεσημβρίαν" (Gen 43:16)

"ἀναβλέψας δὲ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς Ιωσηφ εἶδεν Βενιαμιν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν ὁμομήτριον καὶ εἶπεν οὗτος ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν ὁ νεώτερος ὃν εἴπατε πρός με ἀγαγεῖν καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς ἐλεήσαι σε τέκνον" (Gen 43:29)

1º - "…τὰ πρότερα, πῶς ἔχουσι τοῦ τῆς χώρας ἐπιτρόπου σκοποῦντος εὐνοίας πρὸς τὸν ὁμομήτριον ἀδελφόν• ἐδεδίει γάρ, μὴ φυσικῇ τινι ἀλλοτριώσει κέχρηνται, καθάπερ οἱ ἐκ …" (About Jose- 232)

2º - "…ὅσον ἀνεθεὶς τῆς φροντίδος, καλέσας ἐπὶ ξενίαν καὶ ἑστιῶν πολυτελεστέραι εὐώχει τὸν ὁμομήτριον παρασκευαῖς, ἀποβλέπων εἰς ἕκαστον καὶ τεκμαιρόμενος ἐκ τῆς ὄψεως, εἴ τις …" (About Jose - 234)

3º - "…τε καὶ μάμμην, τὸν δὲ ὧν ἐγέννησεν ἐν ταὐτῷ πατέρα τε καὶ ὁμομήτριον ἀδελφόν" (Special laws, III 14)

4º - "κατευξάμενος δ’ ἐκείνῳ καὶ θεοφιλέστατον προσειπών, τὸν ὁμομήτριον περιβλεψάμενος ἀδελφὸν ὡς εἶδεν, οὐ κατασχὼν ἀλλ’ ἤδη νικώμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ …" (About Jose - 200)

5º - "τὰς δὲ πρεσβυτέρας αὐτοῦ θυγατέρας ὁμομητρίας τῶν περὶ Ἀλέξανδρον ὧν περιεώρα Φερώρας τὸν γάμον συνῴκουν ἡ μὲν Ἀντιπάτρῳ τοῦ βασιλέως ἀδελφῆς παιδὶ ὄντι Φασαήλῳ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα καὶ οὗτος Ἡρώδου ἀδελφοῦ παῖς ἐγεγόνει καὶ τοῦτο μὲν Ἡρώδου τὸ γένος ἦν" (Ant 17:22)

"τούτων Ἰώβηλος μὲν ἐξ Ἄδας γεγονὼς σκηνὰς ἐπήξατο καὶ προβατείαν ἠγάπησεν Ἰούβαλος δέ ὁμομήτριος δ᾽ ἦν αὐτῷ μουσικὴν ἤσκησε καὶ ψαλτήρια καὶ κιθάρας ἐπενόησεν Ἰουβῆλος δὲ τῶν ἐκ τῆς ἑτέρας γεγονότων ἰσχύι πάντας ὑπερβαλὼν τὰ πολεμικὰ διαπρεπῶς μετῆλθεν ἐκ τούτων καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἡδονὴν τοῦ σώματος ἐκπορίζων χαλκείαν τε πρῶτος ἐπενόησεν" (Ant 1:64)

"Ὡς οὖν τούτου γενομένου παρῆγε τὸν ξένον τὰς μὲν καμήλους αὐτοῦ παραλαμβάνοντες οἱ Λαβάνου θεράποντες ἐτημέλουν αὐτὸς δὲ δειπνήσων εἰσήγετο σὺν αὐτῷ καὶ μετὰ τὸ δεῖπνόν φησι πρός τε αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν μητέρα τῆς κόρης Ἅβραμος Θέρρου μέν ἐστιν υἱός συγγενὴς δ᾽ ὑμέτερος Ναχώρης γὰρ ὁ τούτων ὦ γύναι τῶν παίδων πάππος ἀδελφὸς ἦν Ἁβράμου ὁμοπάτριός τε καὶ ὁμομήτριος" (Ant 1:252)

"ἀπῄει μὲν οὖν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐλπίζων Ἰάκωβον παρέξειν τὸν γάμον Ἰάκωβος δὲ τοῖς παισὶ δηλώσας τήν τε φθορὰν τῆς ἀδελφῆς καὶ τοῦ Ἐμμώρου τὴν δέησιν ἠξίου βουλεύεσθαι τί δεῖ ποιεῖν οἱ μὲν οὖν πλείους ἡσύχαζον γνώμης ἀποροῦντες Σεμεὼν δὲ καὶ Λευὶς ὁμομήτριοι τῆς κόρης ἀδελφοὶ συντίθενται πρὸς ἀλλήλους τοιάνδε τινὰ πρᾶξιν" (Ant 1:339)

"Πέμπει δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβος τῆς Χαναναίας δεινῶς ἐκτετρυχωμένης πάσης γὰρ ἥψατο τῆς ἠπείρου τὸ δεινόν τοὺς υἱοὺς ἅπαντας εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ὠνησομένους σῖτον πεπυσμένος ἐφεῖσθαι τὴν ἀγορὰν καὶ ξένοις μόνον δὲ κατέσχε Βενιαμὶν ἐκ Ῥαχήλας αὐτῷ γεγονότα ὁμομήτριον δὲ Ἰωσήπῳ" (Ant 2:95)

Septuaginta - Leviticus - Cap 10
και λαβοντες οι δυο υιοι ααρων ναδαβ και αβιουδ εκαστος το πυρειον αυτου επεθηκαν επ αυτο πυρ και επεβαλον επ αυτο θυμιαμα και προσηνεγκαν εναντι κυριου πυρ αλλοτριον ο ου προσεταξεν κυριος αυτοις και εξηλθεν πυρ παρα κυριου και κατεφαγεν αυτους και απεθανον εναντι κυριου και ειπεν μωυσης προς ααρων τουτο εστιν ο ειπεν κυριος λεγων εν τοις εγγιζουσιν μοι αγιασθησομαι και εν παση τη συναγωγη δοξασθησομαι και κατενυχθη ααρων και εκαλεσεν μωυσης τον μισαδαι και τον ελισαφαν υιους οζιηλ υιους του αδελφου του πατρος ααρων και ειπεν αυτοις προσελθατε και αρατε τους αδελφους υμων εκ προσωπου των αγιων εξω της παρεμβολης και προσηλθον και ηραν εν τοις χιτωσιν αυτων εξω της παρεμβολης ον τροπον ειπεν μωυσης

However, the word was used to the father Jacob Gen 37:3-4, with four different wives Betho, Brazil.
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