Let me quickly address the easier one of these two passages:
timothy_p_mcmahon wrote:Polybius 18.15.4
BDAG ὑποτάσσω 2, i.e. add their names on into the column with (under) the heading "προδοσία" - figuratively of drawing up a (mental) list.
timothy_p_mcmahon wrote:[understanding] the range of meaning in υποτασσω and υποτασσομαι ... [and specifically how it is used here in these passages of] Polybius is a bit beyond my Greek capabilities.
Well ... let's improve the said inadequate capabilities a little then.
Generally each idimati use of a word needs to be learnt and practiced individually, to build up a learner capabilities. If you wanted to practice the usage here in Polybus with your students (or by yourself as an autodidact, if that's your situation)... try this:
- To become conversant with the use of ὑποτάσσειν in the sense of ὑποτάσσειν ὑπὸ τὸ τῆς προδοσίας ὄνομα, as used in Polybius 18.15.4
- The teacher can draw up (ἐπιγάφειν) two columns (στήλας) on the white board (ἐπὶ τοῦ πίνακος). One headed (τὸ ὄνομα μίας / πρώτης) by "ἔπιπλα" and the other (τὸ ὄνομα ἄλλης / δευτέρας) by ζῷα. Have the students arrange words from a list into the correct columns.
- The general word for making an arrangement is διατάσσω, so to introduce (εἰσάγειν) the exercise (ἄσκησιν), you could use something like, διατασσόμενοι τὰ τῶν λόγων γένη ὑποτάσσωμεν τοὺς λόγους . Then you could ask straightforward questions like, τὸ καμηλοπάρδαλις οὖν ὑποτάσσεις ὑπὸ τὸ τῶν ζῴων ὄνομα ἢ ὑπὸ τὸ τῶν ἐπιπλων ὄνομα. "Would you put giraffe on the list of animals or furniture?".
- Since the expected answers would be some variant or simplification of ἡ καμηλοπάρδαλις ζῷόν ἐστιν, τὸ οὖν καμηλοπάρδαλις ὑποτάξω ὑπὸ τὸ τῶν ζῴων ὄνομα / εἰς τὴν πρώτην στήλην / κατὰ τὸ τῶν ζῴων γένος.", your students would need to be empowered with at least some of that language before they were expected to use it.
- While comprehension of where the various words in the lιst (ὁ τῶν λόγων κατάλογος), and which column they need to go into would come relatively quickly, in regards to training productive use of the language, at the very least, a weak student would need to be able to call out "ζῷον" or "ἔπιπλον" in response to at least the single words for you to consider that students had made progress. think that it is reasonable for students to have only acquired the skills to initially only be able to produce 30% of what they have learnt to comprehend in a lesson.
- Writing out the full sentences, memorising them, and then using them in a review activity in the next lesson would probably see great progress.
- Students who were more able in vocabulary, could be able to say what other items could be added to the animals or furniture lists (ἐξαριθμεῖν). Further to that, they could be encouraged to "add" columns to the two introduced in class.
With regards to this passage of Polybius ... He has previously enumerated a number of characteristics of what he thinks traitors (προδόται - those whose behaviour or actions could be considered προδοσία) do, and the says it is reasonable (μετρίως - lit. "not extreme in any way") to put people who do those things (τοὺς τοιούτους ...πάντας) in a group / column headed "προδοσία". [NB. τοὺς τοιούτους ...πάντας is a single sense unit in this text.]
You other (first) example seems a little more similar to Plutarch, Nicias 23,4
than to the one we are discussing here.