Mason Barge wrote:
I understand, but in the case of "ανα-", used as a prefix, it indicates "up" time and time again. I was just wondering if this was a lost meaning of the preposition.
Here is the entry from the LSJ, always good for the historical usages of the word up until the fall of the Roman empires:
ἀνά [ᾰνᾰ], Aeol., Thess., Arc., Cypr. ὀν, Prep. governing gen., dat., and acc. By apocope ἀνά becomes ἄν before dentals, as ἂν τὸν ὀδελόν; ἄγ before gutturals, as ἂγ γύαλα; ἄμ before labials, as ἂμ βωμοῖσι, ἂμ πέτραις, etc.;
ἀμπεπλεγμένας IG5(2).514.10 (Arc.).
WITH GEN., three times in Od., in phrase ἀνὰ νηὸς βαίνειν go on board ship, 2.416, 9.177, 15.284; ἂν τοῦ τοίχου, τᾶς ὁδοῦ, τοῦ ῥοειδίου, IG14.352i40, ii 15,83 (Halaesa).
WITH DAT., on, upon, without any notion of motion, Ep., Lyr., and Trag. (only lyr.), ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ upon the sceptre, Il.1.15, Pi.P. 1.6; ἂμ βωμοῖσι Il.8.441; ἀνὰ σκολόπεσσι 18.177; ἀνὰ Γαργάρῳ ἄκρῳ 15.152; ἀνὰ ὤμῳ upon the shoulder, Od.11.128; ἀν ἵπποις, i. e. in a chariot, Pi.O.1.41; ἂμ πέτραις A.Supp.351 (lyr.); ἀνά τε ναυσὶν καὶ σὺν ὅπλοις E.IA754; ἂγ Κόσσῳ GDI1365 (Epirus).
WITH ACCUS., the comm. usage, implying motion upwards:
of Place, up, from bottom to top, up along, κίον' ἀν' ὑψηλὴν ἐρύσαι Od.22.176; ἀνὰ μέλαθρον up to, ib.239; [φλὲψ] ἀνὰ νῶτα θέουσα διαμπερὲς αὐχέν' ἱκάνει Il.13.547; ἀνὰ τὸν ποταμόν Hdt.2.96; ἂν ῥόον up-stream, GDI5016.11 (Gortyn); κρῆς ἂν τὸν ὀδελὸν ἐμπεπαρμένον Ar.Ach.796 (Megarian); simply, along, ἂν τὼς ὄρως Tab.Heracl.2.32.
up and down, throughout, ἀνὰ δῶμα Il.1.570; ἀνὰ στρατόν, ἄστυ, ὅμιλον, ib.384, Od.8.173, etc.; ἂγ γύαλα A.Supp.550 (lyr.); ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν Μηδικήν, ἀνὰ τὴν Ἑλλάδα, Hdt.1.96, 2.135, etc.; ὀν τὸ μέσσον Alc. 18.3; ἀνὰ τὸ σκοτεινόν in the darkness, Th.3.22.
metaph., ἀνὰ θυμὸν φρονέειν, ἀνὰ στόμα ἔχειν, to have continually in the mind, in the mouth, Il.2.36,250; ἀν' Αἰγυπτίους ἄνδρας among them, Od.14.286; ἀνὰ πρώτους εἶναι to be among the first, Hdt.9.86.
of Time, throughout, ἀνὰ νύκτα all night through, Il.14.80; ἀνὰ τὰς προτέρας ἡμέρας Hdt.7.223; ἀνὰ τὸν πόλεμον 8.123; ἀνὰ χρόνον in course of time, 1.173, 2.151, 5.27; ἀνὰ μέσσαν ἀκτῖνα (i. e. in the south) S.OC1247.
distributively, ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἡμέραν day by day, Hdt.2.37,130, etc.; ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος 1.136, etc.; ἀνὰ πάντα ἔτεα 8.65: also ἀνὰ πρεσβύτᾱτα in order of age, Test.Epict.4.28.
distributively with Numerals, κρέα εἴκοσιν ἀν' ἡμιωβολιαῖα 20 pieces of meat at half an obol each, Ar.Ra.554; τῶν ἀν' ὀκτὼ τὠβολοῦ that sell 8 for the obol, Timocl. 18; ἀνὰ πέντε παρασάγγας τῆς ἡμέρας [they marched] at the rate of 5 parasangs a day, X.An.4.6.4; ἔστησαν ἀνὰ ἑκατόν μάλιστα ὥσπερ χοροί they stood in bodies of about 100 men each. ib.5.4.12; κλισίας ἀνὰ πεντήκοντα companies at the rate of 50 in each, Ev.Luc.9.14; ἔλαβον ἀνὰ δηνάριον a denarius apiece, Ev. Matt.20.10; in doctor's prescriptions, ἀνὰ ὀβολὼ β Sor.1.63, etc.: also ἀνὰ δύο ἥμισυ ζῳδίων amounting to 2 1/2 signs, Autol.1.10; multiplied by, PPetr.3p.198.
Phrases: ἀνὰ κράτος up to the full strength, i. e. vigorously, ἀνὰ κράτος φεύγειν, ἀπομάχεσθαι, X.Cyr.4.2.30, 5.3.12; ἀνὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον and ἀνὰ λόγον proportionately, Pl.Phd. 110d; esp. in math. sense, Id.Ti.37a, Arist.APo.85a38, etc.; ἀνὰ μέσον in the midst, Antiph.13, Men.531.19; ἀνὰ μέρος by turns, Arist.Pol.1287n17.
WITH NOM. of Numerals, etc., distributively, Apoc.21.21, v. l. in Sor.1.11, 12, cf. Orib.Fr.50,54.
WITHOUT CASE as Adv., thereupon, Hom. and other Poets:— and with the notion of spreading all over a space, throughout, all over, μέλανες δ' ἀνὰ βότρυες ἦσαν all over there were clusters, Il.18.562, cf. Od.24.343:—but ἀνά often looks like an Adv. in Hom., where really it is only parted from its Verb by tmesis, ἀνὰ δ' ἔσχετο; ἀνὰ δ' ὦρτο (for ἀνῶρτο δέ）; ἀνὰ τεύχε' ἀείρας (for τεύχεα ἀναείρας), etc.
as in C. 1, up to, upwards, up, opp. κατά, as ἀνα-βαίνω, -βλέπω, ἀν-αιρέω, -ίστημι: poet. sts. doubled, ἀν' ὀρσοθύρην ἀναβαίνειν Od.22.132.
hence flows the sense of increase or strengthening, as in ἀνακρίνω; though it cannot always be translated, as in Homer's ἀνείρομαι:—in this case opp. ὑπό.
from the notion throughout (E), comes that of repetition and improvement, as in ἀνα-βλαστάνω, -βιόω, -γεννάω.
the notion of back, backwards, in ἀναχωρέω, ἀνανεύω, etc., seems to come from such phrases as ἀνὰ ῥόον up, i. e. against, the stream.
ἄνα, written with anastr. as Adv., up! arise! ἀλλ' ἄνα Il.6.331, Od.18.13:—in this sense the ult. is never elided; cf. ἀλλ' ἄνα, εἰ μέμονάς γε Il.9.247; ἀλλ' ἄνα ἐξ ἑδράνων S.Aj.194.
apocop. ἄν after ὤρνυτο, ὦρτο, and up stood . . arose, Il.3.268, 23.837, etc.
when used as Prep. ἀνά never suffers anastrophe.