ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

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Jacob Rhoden
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ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by Jacob Rhoden » May 6th, 2015, 12:12 am

Accordance says ηνοιγη is 3rd person singular aorist passive indicative.

I know how this works in active, i.e.: ανοιγω → ε+ανοιγ+σα → ηνοιξα

But for passive, the rules (Duff 169/170) seem to get me: ανοιγω → ε+ανοιγ+θη → ηνοιχθη

What am I missing? Are there special rules I haven't learnt yet? Thanks!
Last edited by Jacob Rhoden on May 6th, 2015, 12:32 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Louis L Sorenson
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by Louis L Sorenson » May 6th, 2015, 12:21 am

Acts 10:12
10 διελθόντες δὲ πρώτην φυλακὴν καὶ δευτέραν ἦλθαν ἐπὶ τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν τὴν φέρουσαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν, ἥτις αὐτομάτη ἠνοίγη αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐξελθόντες προῆλθον ῥύμην μίαν, καὶ εὐθέως ἀπέστη ὁ ἄγγελος ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ.
Rev. 15.5
Καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἠνοίγη ὁ ναὸς τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ,
For starters, ἀνοίγω is a very irregular verb. The verb is from the preposition ἀνα and the verb οἴγω (which you never find by itself). So this verb may not be the best verb to try to get a more global understanding of how regular changes happen in passive aorist verbs. Some forms present three different forms, e.g. ἠνέῳξα vs. ἤνοιξα vs. ἀνέῳξα. I think one perfect form has 3 augments: ἠνέῳγμαι(?). Here are the BDAG, LSJ, and Smyth form entries.

There are second aorist passives which do not contain the -θ- morpheme. See Smyth:
554. a. The second aorist and the second perfect are usually formed only from primitive verbs (372), These tenses are formed by adding the personal endings (inclusive of the thematic or tense vowel) to the verb-stem without any consonant tense-suffix. Cp. ἔλιπο-ν with ἔλῡ-σ-α, ἐτράπ-ην with ἐτρέφ-θ-ην (τρέπω turn), γέ-γραφ-α with λέλυ-κ-α.
b. The second perfect and second aorist passive are historically older than the corresponding first perfect and first aorist.
c. τρέπω turn is the only verb that has three first aorists and three second aorists (596).
d. Very few have both the second aorist active and the second aorist passive. In cases where both occur, one form is rare, as ἔτυπον (once in poetry), ἐτύπην (τύπτω strike).
e. In the same voice both the first and the second aorist (or perfect) are rare, as ἔφθασα, ἔφθην (φθάνω anticipate). When both occur, the first aorist (or perfect) is often transitive, the second aorist (or perfect is intransitive (819); as ἔστησα I erected, i.e. made stand, ἔστην I stood. In Other cases one aorist is used in prose, the other in poetry: ἔπεισα, poet. ἔπιθον (πείθω persuade); or they occur in different dialects, as Attic ἐτάφην, Ionic ἐθάφθην (θάπτω bury); or one is much later than the other, as ἔλειψα, late for ἔλιπον.


Smyth, H. W. (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges (p. 175). New York; Cincinnati; Chicago; Boston; Atlanta: American Book Company.
And BDF:
76. First-second aorist and future passive. (1) New second aorists (passive): in the Hellenistic period the second aorist is very popular (more Ionic than Attic). Thus in the NT (apart from regular Attic forms): ἠγγέλην, ἡρπάγην (along with the Attic ἡρπάσθην), ἐκάην, ἐκρύβην, ἐνύγην, ἠνοίγην, ὠρύγην, ἐπάην (§78), ἐτάγην, ἐφράγην, ἐψύγην. But ἐκλίθην κλιθήσομαι (poetic) forms a first aorist following ἐκρίθην instead of the Attic ἐκλίνην. (2) An aorist passive in place of an intransitive active or middle: a new first aorist passive replaces an intransitive in ἐτέχθην Mt 2:2, Lk 2:11 (for Attic ἐγενόμην), and often ἀπεκτάνθην (for Attic ἀπέθανον); an intransitive root-aorist (ἔφυν ἔδυν) is being replaced by a second aorist passive built on the same stem in ἐφύην ἐδύην (cf. ἐρρύην). A. Prévot, L’aoriste grec en -θην (Paris, 1935) 178ff., especially 208–14.

(1) Ἠγγέλην (only in compounds) 1 P 1:12, Lk 8:20, R 9:17 OT, A 17:13 is probably not Att. (Lautensach 265f.).—Ἡρπάγην 2 C 12:2, 4, ἡρπάσθη Rev 12:5 p47ACP (-άγη S, -άχθη 046), ἁρπαγησόμεθα 1 Th 4:17.—Κατεκάη Rev 8:7, κατακαήσεται 1 C 3:15, (2 P 3:10), otherwise ἐκαύθην καυθήσομαι as in Att.; ἐκάην is Ionic (Homer, Hdt.); MGr has ἐκάηκα in addition to ἐκαύτηκα.—Ἐκρύβην Mt 5:14 etc.; cf. κρύβειν §73; these new second aorists prefer a voiced stop (as final stem-consonant) even though, as in this case (κρυφ-), it is not original (Att. -φθην, poet. -φην); Lautensach 251.—Κατενύγησαν A 2:37, cf. LXX (Thack. 237).—Ἠνοίγησαν Mk 7:35 (-οιχθ- p45 A al.), -γη A 12:10 (-χθη EHLP), Rev 11:19 (-χθη 046), ἀνοιγῶσιν Mt 20:33 (-χθ- CN al.), Rev 15:5, -γήσεται Mt 7:7, 8 (-γεται B), Lk 11:9 (-χθ- DEFG al.), 10 (-χθ- AEFG al., -γεται BD); in addition to ἀνεῴχθην, ἠνοίχθην and the like (§101); -χθ- is Att.; -γ- is found in the post-Christian pap. (Dieterich 211).—Διορυγῆναι (v.l. -χθῆναι) Mt 24:43, Lk 12:39, cf. ὠρύγη Herm Sim 9.6.7.—Διαταγείς G 3:19, ὑπετάγην R 8:20, 10:3, etc., ὑποταγήσομαι 1 C 15:28, H 12:9, (Barn 19.7); cf. προσετάγη Herm Man 4.1.10; but ποιεῖν τὰ διαταχθέντα Lk 17:9, 10 as in Att. (official language; cf. Jos., Ant. 5.252, 11.138, 20.46, Vit. 109).—Φραγῇ R 3:19, -γήσεται 2 C 11:10; LXX ἀπ- and ἐνεφράγη, ἀποφράγητε, ἐμφραχθείη, -θήσεται.—Ψυγήσεται Mt 24:12 (-χήσεται K; ἐψύχην is also class.); cf. above under ἐκρύβην (ψύγω is later; cf. Lobeck on Soph., Aj.3 p. 373 n.). Lautensach 233f.—Ἐκλίθην is also found in the LXX (Helb. 96); κλιθέντα PTebt 3.4 (epigram i BC).
(2) Ἐτέχθην and ἀπεκτάνθην are found also in the LXX (Helb. 96; Thack. 238). On ἐτέχθην also cf. Schmidt 463.5; Melcher 16; Lautensach 241.—Φυέν Lk 8:6, 8, συμφυεῖσαι 7, ἐκφυῇ Mt 24:32 = Mk 13:28; παρεισεδύησαν Jd 4 B. Cf. Reinhold 76; Helb. 96f.; Thack. 235; Schmidt 467 (Jos. ἔφυν and ἐφύην); Prévot, op. cit. 198; Mayser I2 2, 161. Ἐφύην AEM XIX 228.5, 11 (Michaïlov2 180).


Blass, F., Debrunner, A., & Funk, R. W. (1961). A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (p. 41). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
BDAG:
ἀνοίγω (ἀνά, οἴγω ‘open’; Hom. +) on this by-form of ἀνοίγνυμι see Kühner-Bl. II 496f; W-S. §12, 7 and §15 (p. 130); B-D-F §101; Rob. 1212f; Mayser 404. Fut. ἀνοίξω; 1 aor. ἀνέῳξα J 9:14 (vv.ll. ἠνέῳξα, ἤνοιξα), ἠνέῳξα vs. 17 (vv.ll. ἤνοιξα, ἀνέῳξα), mostly ἤνοιξα Ac 5:19; 9:40 al.; 2 pf. (intr.) ἀνέῳγα; pf. pass. ἀνέῳγμαι 2 Cor 2:12 (v.l. ἠνέῳγμαι), ptc. ἀνεῳγμένος (ἠνεῳγμένος 3 Km 8:52; ἠνοιγμένος Is 42:20), inf. ἀνεῴχθαι (Just., D. 123, 2). Pass.: 1 aor. ἠνεῴχθην Mt 3:16; v.l. 9:30; Jn 9:10; Ac 16:26 (vv.ll. ἀνεῴχθην, ἠνοίχθην); inf. ἀνεῳχθῆναι Lk 3:21 (ἀνοιχθῆναι D); 1 fut. ἀνοιχθήσομαι Lk 11:9f v.l.; 2 aor. ἠνοίγην Mk 7:35 (vv.ll. ἠνοίχθησαν, διηνοίγησαν, διηνοίχθησαν); Ac 12:10 (v.l. ἠνοίχθη); Hv 1, 1, 4 (Dssm. NB 17 [BS 189]); 2 fut. ἀνοιγήσομαι Mt 7:7; Lk 11:9f (v.l. ἀνοίγεται). The same circumstance prevails in LXX: Helbing 78f; 83ff; 95f; 102f. Thackeray 202ff.

Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 84). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
LSJ
ἀνοίγνῡμι Lys.12.10; ἀνοίγω Pi.P.5.88, Hdt.3.37, 117, and Att. as IG1.32 (συν-), al.: later ἀνοιγνύω Demetr.Eloc.122, Paus.8.41.4: impf. ἀνέῳγον Il.16.221, al., Hdt.1.187, etc.; also ἀνῷγον Il.14.168; rarely ἤνοιγον X.HG1.1.2 and 6.21; Ion. and Ep. ἀναοίγεσκον Il.24.455; late ἀνεῴγνυον App.BC4.81, etc.: fut. ἀνοίξω Ar.Pax179: aor. ἀνέῳξα Id.V.768, Th.2.2, Hp.Vict.2.56, part. ἀνεῴξας CIG (add.)4300d (Antiphellus); also ἤνοιξα X.HG1.5.13 and in late Prose; Ion. ἄνοιξα Hdt.1.68 (best codd. ἀνῷξα), 4.143, 9.118; poet. ἀνῷξα Theoc.14.15, κἀνῷξε Phld.Acad.Ind.p.103 M.: pf. ἀνέῳχα D.42.30, Men.229; ἀνέῳγα Aristaenet.2.22 also intr. (v. infr.): plpf. ἀνεῴγει Pherecr.86 (Pors.):—Pass., ἀνοίγνῠμαι E.Ion923, Ar.Eq.1326: late fut. ἀνοιχθήσομαι LXXIs.60.11, Epict.Ench.33.13 (v.l.).; ἀνοιγήσομαι LXXNe.7.3, PMag.Par.1358; ἀνεῴξομαι X.HG5.1.14: pf. ἀνέῳγμαι E.Hipp.56, Th.2.4, etc.; ἀνῷγμαι Theoc.14.47; later ἤνοιγμαι (δι-) best reading in Hp.Epid.7.80, cf. J.Ap.2.9; plpf. ἀνέῳκτο X.HG5.1.14 (pf.2 ἀνέῳγα is used in pass. sense in Hp.Morb.4.39, Cord.7, and later Prose, as Plu.2.693d, Ev.Jo.1.51, 2Ep.Cor.6.11, Luc.Nav.4 (though he condemns it Soloec.8); but in Att., only Din.Fr.81): aor. ἀνεῴχθην E.Ion1563, subj. ἀνοιχθῇ D.44.37, opt. ἀνοιχθείην Pl.Phd.59d, part. ἀνοιχθείς Th.4.130, Pl.Smp.216d; later ἠνοίχθην Paus.2.35.7, LXXPs.105(106).17; and aor. 2 ἠνοίγην Ev.Marc.7.35, Luc.Am.14, etc.—In late Gr., very irreg. forms occur, ἠνέῳξα LXXGe.8.6; ἠνέωχα PMag.Par.1.2261; ἠνέῳγμαι Apoc.10.8, Hld.9.9; ἠνεῴχθην LXXGe.7.11; also aor. 1 inf. ἀνωίξαι Q.S.12.331; ἀνωίχθην Nonn.D.7.317:—open, of doors, etc., ἀναοίγεσκον μεγάλην κληῗδα they tried to put back the bolt so as to open [the door], Il.24.455, cf. 14.168; πύλας ἀνοῖξαι A.Ag.604; θύραν Ar.V.768; also without θύραν, ἐπειδὴ αὐτῷ ἀνέῳξέ τις Pl.Prt.310b, cf.314d; χηλοῦ δʼ ἀπὸ πῶμʼ ἀνέῳγε took off the cover and opened it, Il.16.221; φωριαμῶν ἐπιθήματα κάλʼ ἀνέῳγεν 24.228; so ἀ. σορόν, θήκας, Hdt.1.68, 187; κιβωτόν Lys.12.10; ἀ. σήμαντρα, σημεῖα, διαθήκην, open seals, etc., X.Lac.6.4, D.42.30, Plu.Caes.68; and metaph., καθαρὰν ἀνοίξαντι κλῇδα φρενῶν E.Med.660; ἀ. βίβλινον (sc. οἶνον) tap it, Theoc.14.15; γῆρυν ἀνοίξας, for στόμα, Tryph.477; ἀ. φιλήματα kiss with open mouth, Ach.Tat.37.

Liddell, H. G., Scott, R., Jones, H. S., & McKenzie, R. (1996). A Greek-English lexicon (p. 145). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Smyth
ἀν-οίγ-νῡμι and ἀν-οίγω open: imperf. ἀν-ἐῳγον (431), ἀν-οίξω, ἀν-έῳξα, 1 perf. ἀν-έῳχα, 2 perf. ἀν-έῳγα (rare, 443) have opened, ἀν-έῳγμαι stand open, ἀν-εῴχθην, fut. perf. ἀν-εῴξομαι, ἀν-οικτέος. Cp. 808. οἴγνῡμι and οἴγω (q.v.) poetic. Imperf. ἀνῷγον Ξ 168 may be written ἀνέῳγον w. synizesis. ἤνοιγον and ἤνοιξα in Xen. are probably wrong; Hom. has ᾦξα (οἶξα?), and ὤειξα (MSS. ὤϊξα) from ὀείγω (Lesb.); Hdt. ἄνοιξα and ἀνῷξα (MSS.). (IV.)

Smyth, H. W. (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges (p. 687). New York; Cincinnati; Chicago; Boston; Atlanta: American Book Company.
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Jacob Rhoden
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by Jacob Rhoden » May 6th, 2015, 12:34 am

So the answer (aside from buy a complex dictionary I don't yet completely understand) is that it sometimes has a regular aorist form, and sometimes has a "second aorist" type of form?
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by Louis L Sorenson » May 6th, 2015, 12:54 am

We host Funk's 'A Beginning-Intermediate Grammar of Hellenistic Greek' on B-Greek. See section 423. http://www.ibiblio.org/bgreek/project/f ... on-27.html. The below cut-and-paste may not display correctly.

423. Second aorist passive. The second aorist passive is also readily constructed from the sketch given in §§420-4200, where the aorist passive base is known:
γράφω, ἐ-γραφ-η-ν
Sg. 1. ἐγράφην Pl. 1. ἐγράφημεν
2. ἐγράφης 2. ἐγράφητε
3. ἐγράφη 3. ἐγράφησαν

424. It was noted that the second aorist passive was originally an athematic active formation (§4200.1). This accounts for the similarities in the form-sets:
'Root' aorist active (§411) Second aorist passive
Sg. 1. ἀνέβην ἐκρύβην
2. ἀνέβης ἐκρύβης
3. ἀνέβη ἐκρύβη
Pl. 1. ἀνέβημεν ἐκρύβημεν
2. ἀνέβητε ἐκρύβητε
3. ἀνέβησαν ἐκρύβησαν

Note, all the above forms are passive, but are missing the θ.
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by Louis L Sorenson » May 6th, 2015, 1:08 am

Jacob wrote:
So the answer (aside from buy a complex dictionary I don't yet completely understand) is that it sometimes has a regular aorist form, and sometimes has a "second aorist" type of form?
.

It takes a long time to be able to process a full lexicon form workup such as occurs in LSJ and BDAG. Do not feel intimidated. Michael Palmer, one of our members, has a online grammar. See his grammar for an easier formatted explanation: http://greek-language.com/grammar/19.html. In that chapter, find "Second Aorist Passive" and read those sections.

Unlike 1st aorist active and 2nd aorist active forms (which take different endings), the 1st aorist passive and 2nd aorist passive forms take the same endings, and differ only in the presence or absence of θ. Note that the absence/presence of θ may affect the preceding consonant (e.g. ἐκρύφθην ~ ἐκρύβην).

Personally, I do not like to call θη ~ η forms 'passive' forms. Sometimes those forms fit the 'active' English paradigms, e.g. ἀπεκρίθη (>απο-κριν-θη) = 'he answered', which happens to be active in meaning in the English. It would be better to call these forms theta middles (theta and eta) and eta middles. Perhaps we should stop using the term 'passive' to refer to Greek forms having the -θη or -η endings. 'Passive' is an English (Latin?) grammar term which in Greek can be one of two interpretations of any given form, in a specific context. Was Koine in the midst of a transformation from middle forms having the θη changing those forms to be exclusive passive forms? We use the term "middle-passive" or "medio-passive' to refer to the Greek middle form, which sometimes has a passive meaning. Perhaps we should use the terms theta middles, eta middles, omeset middles (ο-μαι, ε-σαι, ε-ται - or perhaps ὄτε/οὐτει middles (ο/ε; ου/ει), and no longer refer to those forms as being 'passive'. The form was a middle form - the active, middle , passive term is a grammatical analysis given to any particular form.
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by George F Somsel » May 6th, 2015, 5:56 am

Louis L Sorenson wrote:
For starters, ἀνοίγω is a very irregular verb. The verb is from the preposition ἀνα and the verb οἴγω (which you never find by itself).
One slight note on this: It is only true in Koine that οἴγω never appears as a separate form. It is used in classical Greek. I wouldn't want someone to be surprised later if they happen to venture into some of the earlier literature and discover this. For the reading of the NT, you are correct.
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by Barry Hofstetter » May 6th, 2015, 6:03 am

While there are different perspectives on how to go about t, this is why it is always good to know the principal parts of your verbs. And yes, Greek has a lot of irregular formations (they may not be irregular in fact, but the formation does something unexpected and starts quacking like a duck...). So, rules and theory aside -- memorize.
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by George F Somsel » May 7th, 2015, 2:11 am

While there are quite a number of irregular verbs, there is also a pattern according to which the principal parts are developed. It is important to learn this pattern. For the irregulars, you are largely correct that you simply need to learn them [Latin example so I don't need to change fonts: fero, ferre, tuli, latum]. It is generally the most common words which are thus irregular so be sure to learn the principal parts where they don't follow the normal development. A bit of sleuth work will frequently reveal that these irregular forms were borrowed from another verb.
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Re: ηνοιγη in passive (Acts 12:10, Revelation 15:5)

Post by cwconrad » May 7th, 2015, 6:43 am

George F Somsel wrote:While there are quite a number of irregular verbs, there is also a pattern according to which the principal parts are developed. It is important to learn this pattern. For the irregulars, you are largely correct that you simply need to learn them [Latin example so I don't need to change fonts: fero, ferre, tuli, latum]. It is generally the most common words which are thus irregular so be sure to learn the principal parts where they don't follow the normal development. A bit of sleuth work will frequently reveal that these irregular forms were borrowed from another verb.
I do agree with George here, but I think that discerning the pattern is these very old verbs that have retained centuries-old forms in the different tense/aspect systems is very difficult. Understanding them requires, I think, a grasp of the phonetic basis for the forms as well as a recognition of a pattern, especially in verbs that have second aorists of either the thematic or athematic type, second perfects in -α rather than in -κα, and second aorist passives in -ην/ης/η rather than in -θην/θης/θη. I'm thinking of verbs like γίνεσθαι/γενήσεσθαι/γενέσθαι/γεγονέναι and σήπεσθαι/σαπῆναι/σεσηπέναι. One needs to grasp the entire verbal system pretty well to understand these patterns; Smyth's appendix of primitive verbs is really very useful, but I'm not sure that it's useful for beginners.
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