Fingers and toes

How can I best learn new vocabulary items? What aids are there and what pitfalls should be avoided? How does a beginner learn to use a lexicon?
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Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Fingers and toes

Post by Stephen Hughes » January 15th, 2015, 4:27 am

This is perhaps better suited to a beginner's vocabulary section than in a discussion on Xenophon's text.
Stephen Hughes in the [url=http://www.ibiblio.org/bgreek/forum/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=2846&p=18760#p18756]Xenophon, The Frugal Estate Manager, Chapter 2[/url] thread wrote:the Greek word for index finger, forefinger is ὁ δείκτης (not listed itself in LSJ if you were thinking to check, but ὁ ἀντίχειρ, "thumb" and ὁ δάκτυλος "finger" or "toe", and ὁ μείζων δάκτυλος "big toe" are).
The middle finger is the ὁ μέσος and the one next to it is the ὁ παράμεσος, and the pinky is ὁ μικρός.

A joint is an ἄρθρον (cf. ἀρθρῖτις , ιδος, ἡ "gout", but cf. ἄρθρων πόνοι "joint pains"). A knuckle is a κόνδυλος, and to punch (hit with the knuckles) is κονδυλίζειν. The palm is τὸ θέναρ (-αρος), and to slap is τύπτειν as you know. The back of the hand is ὀπισθέναρ. The wrist is the καρπός.

Not relevant to this topic, but just to shoot the breeze, an artery is ἀρτηρία, and a vein is φλέψ, ἡ, (gen. φλεβός), but the aorta is still the ἀορτή.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Wes Wood
Posts: 691
Joined: September 20th, 2013, 8:18 pm

Re: Fingers and toes

Post by Wes Wood » January 16th, 2015, 12:57 am

κόνδυλος: Condyles are often found at the “contact points” of bones. If you punch someone, your knuckles may make contact with their face. (The quotes indicate what is probably an obvious simplification.)

θέναρ: The thenar muscles are found in the fleshy part of the palm of the hand below the second joint of the thumb.

καρπός: The eight bones of the wrist are the carpals. Starting from your shoulder down you will find the five metacarpals after (μετά) the carpals.

φλεβός: A φλεβοtomist may stick a ῥαφίς (or βελόνη) in a φλέψ on the ὀπισθέναρ. The ὀπισθέναρ is on the back (ὀπίσσω) of the θέναρ.

If you can forgive the poor use of Greek, I will contribute to this a bit for different memory connections and all that. This seems like it is more in my wheelhouse.
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Ἀσπάζομαι μὲν καὶ φιλῶ, πείσομαι δὲ μᾶλλον τῷ θεῷ ἢ ὑμῖν.-Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους 29δ

Stephen Hughes
Posts: 3323
Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Re: Fingers and toes

Post by Stephen Hughes » January 16th, 2015, 1:31 am

Wes Wood wrote:φλεβός: A φλεβοtomist may stick a ῥαφίς (or βελόνη) in a φλέψ on the ὀπισθέναρ. The ὀπισθέναρ is on the back (ὀπίσσω) of the θέναρ.
Perhaps φλεβοτόμος is the word you are looking for.

ὀπίσω has only one sigma.

Yes, βελόνη, but injections into the blood is perhaps a more modern concept. Even Galen thought that blood vessels were filled with air. When they examined the cadavers, the blood vessels were empty.

"Injections" (εἰσηθέω) with an ἐνετήρ "syringe" were for an ἔνεμα "therapeutic injection with a clyster pump for cleansing" another word for the syringe / pump is κλυστήρ. Additional female douching needs are referred to by ἐγκολπίζειν.

[ῥαφίς is for stitching things together. (A word for thread is νῆμα.)]
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Wes Wood
Posts: 691
Joined: September 20th, 2013, 8:18 pm

Re: Fingers and toes

Post by Wes Wood » January 16th, 2015, 1:57 am

Stephen Hughes wrote:Perhaps φλεβοτόμος is the word you are looking for.
I have not encountered φλεβοτόμος, but I am not surprised it exists. I would not be sure if it would fit this context if I had known it.

My Greek vocabulary might be slightly greater than I know if I could track down and verify all of the medical/science terms that I have learned. They might be some of the easiest ones I have ever learned. :lol:
Stephen Hughes wrote: Yes, βελόνη, but injections into the blood is perhaps a more modern concept.
Well, I did say to forgive my loose Greek, but I like your corrections better. :)
Stephen Hughes wrote:ὀπίσω has only one sigma.
An unintentional but (perhaps?) "epic" :roll: finger slip.[/quote]
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Ἀσπάζομαι μὲν καὶ φιλῶ, πείσομαι δὲ μᾶλλον τῷ θεῷ ἢ ὑμῖν.-Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους 29δ

Stephen Hughes
Posts: 3323
Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Re: Fingers and toes

Post by Stephen Hughes » January 16th, 2015, 2:04 am

Are you interested in the arm?

τὸ μετακάρπιον are the bones of the hand. (cf. μετατάρσιος - not in LSJ, but it does have ταρσός "flat of the foot", "ankle", and σφυρόν, "ankle")
βραχίων - is the upper arm or the whole arm
πρυμνὸς βραχίων - the end of the bone of the upper arm, hindmost part of the arm (closest to the shoulder), (cf. πρύμνα - stern of a boat 3x in the NT)
The forearm is the πῆχυς (also "cubit" from elbow to the extent of the fingers)
κερκίς - radius
ὠλένη - arm from the elbow down, ulna
ὦμος - shoulder and upper arm
μασχάλη - armpit.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

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