ἄρτι vs νῦν

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Jonathan Robie
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Re: ἄρτι vs νῦν

Post by Jonathan Robie » January 31st, 2018, 7:25 pm

Shirley Rollinson wrote:
January 31st, 2018, 6:59 pm
My gut feeling (and it's only that, I haven't the time to do a proper search right now) is that ἄρτι can carry a sense of "up until now", and νῦν can carry a sense of "now, at this moment"
Shirley R.
How do you read ἕως ἄρτι?
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Barry Hofstetter
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Re: ἄρτι vs νῦν

Post by Barry Hofstetter » January 31st, 2018, 7:55 pm

BDAG:

ἄρτι temp. adv. (Pind.+) of the immediate moment
① as class. (Phryn. p. 18 Lob.; 2 Macc 3:28), ref. to the immediate past, just (now) (Dio Chrys. 4, 61; Ael. Aristid. 48, 35 K.=24 p. 474 D.; Appian, Hann. 51 §219) ἄ. ἐτελεύτησεν she has just died Mt 9:18. ἄ. ἐγένετο ἡ σωτηρία salvation has just now come Rv 12:10.—GHb 20, 60; GMary 463, 20.
② also as class., ref. to the immediate present, at once, immediately, now (cp. Hippocr., Ep. 9, 2; Lucian, Soloec. 1, 553; Jdth 9:1; 2 Macc 10:28) παραστήσει μοι ἄ. at once he will put at my disposal Mt 26:53; ἀκολουθεῖν ἄ. follow immediately J 13:37; ἄφες ἄ. let it be so now (on the position of ἄ. s. B-D-F §474, 3) Mt 3:15.
③ later Gk. uses ἄ. as ref. to the present in general, now, at the present time (Jos., Ant. 1, 125 alternating w. νῦν; 15, 18; Epict. 2, 17, 15; PMich 203, 10; BGU 294, 5; PLond III, 937b, 9f p. 213 οὐ δύναμαι ἄρτι ἐλθεῖν πρὸς σέ) ἄ. βλέπει now he can see J 9:19, 25; cp. 13:7, 33 (πλὴν ἄρτι P66); 16:12, 31; 1 Cor 13:12; 16:7; Gal 1:9f; 4:20; 1 Th 3:6; 2 Th 2:7; 1 Pt 1:6, 8; 2 Cl 17:3. After an aor. Hs 5, 5, 1.—Used w. prep. ἀπʼ ἄρτι fr. now on (Plato Com., Fgm. 143 K. ἀπαρτί for ἄρτι ἀπὸ νῦν [but s. L-S-J-M s.v. ἀπαρτί end]) ἀπʼ ἄ. λέγω J 13:19; ἀπʼ ἄ. γινώσκετε 14:7; ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἀπʼ ἄ. Rv 14:13 (see s.v. ἀπαρτί and B-D-F §12); w. fut. (Aristoph., Plut. 388 ἀπαρτὶ πλουτῆσαι ποιήσω) ἀπʼ ἄ. ὄψεσθε Mt 26:64; J 1:51 v.l.; ἀπʼ ἄ. ἕως … Mt 23:39; 26:29; ἕως ἄ. up to the present time, until now (POxy 936, 23; Sb 4630, 3; 7036, 4; ApcSed 11:14) Mt 11:12; J 2:10; 5:17 (SBacchiocci, Andrews U. Seminary Studies 19, ’81, 3–19 [‘culmination’ of God’s activity]); 16:24; 1 Cor 4:13; 8:7; 15:6; 1J 2:9.—In attributive position ἄ. has adj. mng. as in older Gk. (Pla., Tht. 153e; Jos., Ant. 9, 264 ὁ ἄ. βίος) ἄχρι τῆς ἄ. ὥρας up to the present moment 1 Cor 4:11 (cp. PGM 4, 1469 ἐν τῇ ἄ. ὥρᾳ; 1581; 1935; 5, 195; 7, 373; 546). μέχρι τῆς ἄρτι ὥρας Ac 10:30 D. Nägeli 36, 1.—DELG. M-M. TW.

νῦν adv. of time (Hom.+) ‘now’
① temporal marker with focus on the moment as such, now
ⓐ of time coextensive with the event of the narrative now, at the present time, w. focus on the immediate present, designating both a point of time as well as its extent.
α. without definite article. The verbs w. which it is used are found
א . in the pres. Lk 16:25; J 4:18; 9:21; 16:29; Ac 7:4; 2 Cor 13:2; Gal 1:23; 1 Pt 3:21; 1J 3:2 and oft.
ב . in the perf., when it has pres. mng. ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ ν. ἐλήλυθεν it is now here J 16:32 v.l.; ν. ἐγνώκαμεν now we know 8:52; cp. 17:7. ν. οἶδα Ac 12:11. ν. ἡ ψυχή μου τετάρακται J 12:27. Cp. 1J 2:18.
ג . in the aor., mostly in contrast to the past, denoting that an action or condition is beginning in the present: νῦν ἐδοξάσθη ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου now the glorification of the Human One has begun J 13:31. ν. τὴν καταλλαγὴν ἐλάβομεν we have now entered into the reconciliation Ro 5:11. οὗτοι ν. ἠπείθησαν they have now become disobedient 11:31. ν. ἀπεκαλύφθη τοῖς ἁγίοις ἀποστόλοις now it has been revealed to the holy apostles Eph 3:5; cp. vs. 10; 2 Ti 1:10. ἃ ν. ἀνηγγέλη ὑμῖν that which is now proclaimed to you 1 Pt 1:12. Cp. Ro 5:9; 16:26; 1 Pt 2:10b, 25.—More rarely in contrast to the future: οὐ δύνασαί μοι νῦν ἀκολουθῆσαι, ἀκολουθήσεις δὲ ὕστερον J 13:36 (νῦν … ὕστερον as Jos., Ant. 4, 295). ἵνα ν. ἔλθῃ· ἐλεύσεται δέ 1 Cor 16:12. ἐὰν μὴ λάβῃ … ν., explained by ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ Mk 10:30.
ד . in the impv., to denote that the order or request is to be complied w. at once; ν. comes after the impv. (B-D-F §474, 3; before the impv.: TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 24 [Stone p. 14] νῦν θέασαι): καταβάτω ν. ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ now let him come down from the cross Mt 27:42; Mk 15:32. ῥυσάσθω ν. let (God) deliver him Mt 27:43. ἀντλήσατε ν. now draw some out J 2:8.
β. with the definite art.
א . as an adj. ὁ, ἡ, τὸ νῦν the present (X., An. 6, 6, 13 ὁ νῦν χρόνος; Dio Chrys. 19 [36], 55 ὁ νῦν κόσμος; PAmh 68, 66 ὁ νῦν στρατηγός; BGU 19, 5; GrBar 4:16 οἱ νῦν ἄνθρωποι; Just., D. 68, 8 ἡ νῦν ὁμιλία) ὁ νῦν αἰών the present age 1 Ti 6:17; 2 Ti 4:10; Tit 2:12. ὁ ν. καιρός (Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 239 D.) Ro 3:26; 8:18; 11:5; 2 Cor 8:14; 4:1. ἡ ν. Ἰερουσαλήμ the present Jerus. Gal 4:25. οἱ ν. οὐρανοί 2 Pt 3:7. ζωὴ ἡ ν. (opp. ἡ μέλλουσα) 1 Ti 4:8.
ב . subst. τὸ νῦν the present time (Aristot.) w. prep. (X. et al.; ins, pap LXX) ἀπὸ τοῦ ν. from now on, in the future (SIG 982, 22; BGU 153, 14; 193 II, 11; POxy 479, 6; cp. IXanthos 86 D, ln. 8; s. LRobert, Nouvelles Inscriptions di Sardes ’64, 28f [other exx. in Dssm., NB 81=BS 253]; Sir 11:23f; Tob 7:12; 1 Macc 10:41; 11:35; 15:8; ApcMos 28; Jos., Ant. 13, 50) Lk 1:48; 5:10; 12:52; 22:69; Ac 18:6; 2 Cor 5:16a; ἄχρι τοῦ ν. until now (s. ἄχρι 1aα.—μέχρι τοῦ ν.: Just., D. 78, 8; Diod S 1, 22, 2; SIG 742, 35; BGU 256, 9; 667, 8; 3 Macc 6:28; Jos., Ant. 3, 322) Ro 8:22; Phil 1:5. ἕως τοῦ ν. until now (SIG 705, 44f [112 B.C.]; PMich 173, 14 [III B.C.]; Gen 32:5; 46:34; 1 Macc 2:33) Mt 24:21; Mk 13:19.
ג . w. other particles: ἀλλὰ νῦν but now Lk 22:36; 2 Cor 5:16b. ἀλλὰ καὶ ν. (TestAbr A 16 p. 97, 5 [Stone p. 42]) J 11:22; ἄρα ν. so or thus now Ro 8:1. ν. γάρ for now 13:11. ν. δέ but now Lk 16:25; 19:42 (νῦν δέ in the reversal theme also Il. 19, 287–90; 22, 477–514 et al.); J 16:5; 17:13; Col 1:26; Hb 2:8. οὐδὲ ἔτι ν. not even now 1 Cor 3:2 (ἔτι ν.=even now: Plut., Mor. 162e; Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 302 D.; Jos., Ant. 1, 92; 2, 313). καὶ ν. even now (cp. Just., A I, 26, 4; 63, 1, D. 7, 2; Dio Chrys. 13 [7], 121) J 11:22 v.l. (perh. assuredly, but see HRiesenfeld, Nuntius 6, ’52, 41–44); Phil 1:20; ἔτι καὶ ν. and even now Dg 2:3 (Ath. 17, 2; cp. Just., A I, 26, 5 καὶ νῦν ἔτι, A II, 6, 6 καὶ ἔτι νῦν); and now (TestLevi 19:1; JosAs 28:3) J 17:5; Ac 16:37; 23:21; 26:6; Phil 1:30; AcPl Ha 8, 21. ν. οὖν so now (Gen 27:8; 1 Macc 10:71) Ac 16:36; 23:15. καὶ ν. … ἤδη and now … already 1J 4:3. ν. μέν now, to be sure J 16:22. ποτὲ … ν. δέ once … but now (Mel., P. 43, 306) Ro 11:30; Eph 5:8; 1 Pt 2:10. πολλάκις … ν. δέ often … but now Phil 3:18. τότε (μὲν) … ν. δέ then to be sure … but now Gal 4:9; Hb 12:26. ὥσπερ τότε … οὕτως καὶ ν. just as then … so also now Gal 4:29.—ALaurentin, וְעַתָּה—καὶ νῦν. Formule, etc. (J 17:5): Biblica 45, ’64, 168–95; 413–32; HBronyers, … adverbiales וְעַתָּה im AT: VetusT 15, ’65, 289–99.
ⓑ of time shortly before or shortly after the immediate pres.: ν. ἠκούσατε Mt 26:65. ν. ἐζήτουν σε λιθάσαι they were just now trying to stone you J 11:8. Cp. 21:10; Ac 7:52.—(Soon) now (Epict. 3, 24, 94) ν. ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου Lk 2:29. Cp. J 12:31ab; 16:5; Phil 1:20.
② temporal marker with focus not so much on the present time as the situation pert. at a given moment, now, as it is
ⓐ without art. as things now stand (Gen 29:32; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 10, 22) νῦν ζῶμεν ἐάν as the situation now is, we live if 1 Th 3:8. So also νῦν δέ, καὶ νῦν, νῦν οὖν: νῦν οὖν τί πειράζετε τ. θεόν; since this is so, why are you tempting God? Ac 15:10; cp. 10:33 (νῦν οὖν: TestAbr B 7 p. 112, 3 [Stone p. 72]; TestJob 23:7; ApcMos 11:30; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 25, 3; Babrius 6, 9). καὶ ν. τί μέλλεις; 22:16 (cp. TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 18 [Stone p. 10] καὶ ν., κύριε τὶ ποιήσω;). Cp. 2J 5.—Somet. in impv. statements (oft. LXX; cp. JJeremias, ZNW 38, ’39, 119f; PsSol 2:32; TestAbr A 4 p. 81, 5 [Stone p. 10]; TestSim 7:1; JosAs 6:8; GrBar 4:1; Tat. 21, 2 πείσθητέ μοι νῦν) καὶ ν. πέμψον now send Ac 10:5. Cp. 16:36; 23:15; 1J 2:28; GJs 9:2.—On ἄγε νῦν s. ἄγε.—Not infreq. νῦν δέ serves to contrast the real state of affairs with the statement made in an unreal conditional clause: εἰ ἔγνως … · νῦν δέ if you had known … ; but, as a matter of fact Lk 19:42. Cp. J 8:40; 9:41; 15:22, 24; 18:36; 1 Cor 12:18 v.l., 20; Hb 11:16.—1 Cor 5:11; 7:14; Js 4:16.
ⓑ with art.: neut. pl. τὰ ν. (also written τανῦν; cp. Tdf., Prol. p. 111) as far as the present situation is concerned = now (Trag., Pla. et al.; POxy 743, 30 [2 B.C.]; 811; PTebt 315, 25; Jdth 9:5; 1 Esdr 1:31; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 217) Ac 4:29; 17:30; 20:32; 27:22. καὶ τὰ νῦν λέγω ὑμῖν for now I tell you this 5:38. ἀλλὰ τὰ ν. Hs 5, 7, 4 (TestLevi 10:1 v.l.).—τὸ νῦν ἔχον for the present (Dio Chrys. 21 [38], 42; Tob 7:11 BA v.l.; cp. Tat. 15, 2; 41, 1 τὸ δὲ νῦν συνέχον) Ac 24:25 (B-D-F §160).—The ms. tradition oft. varies betw. ν. and νυνί.—PTachau, ‘Einst’ u. ‘Jetzt’ im NT, ’72; FDanker, Proclamation Commentaries: Luke2, ’87, 47–57. B. 962f. DELG s.v. νυ. M-M. TW.

νυνί adv. of time (Hdt. 7, 229 al.; SIG 259, 11 [338/337 B.C.]; PPetr III, 42 H [8] f, 4 [III B.C.]; POxy 490, 5 [124 A.D.]; 506, 25; 908, 5; LXX [Thackeray 191]; TestJob; JosAs cod. A 12, 7; 13, 5 [p. 55, 15; 57, 12 Bat.]; Joseph.; Ar. 13, 7; Just., D. 11, 2; Tat. 28, 1) an emphatic form of νῦν made by adding to it the demonstrative suffix ι (Kühner-Bl. I 620; B-D-F §64, 2; Rob. 296; 523) without alteration of mng. (Mayser 456). Except for Ac 22:1 v.l.; 24:13; Hb 8:6; 9:26; 11:16 v.l.; ἐπεὶ δὲ ν̣υ̣ν̣ί̣ AcPt Ox 849; 1 Cl 47:5; 2 Cl 2:3, only in the Pauline writings and there always ν. δέ (the ms. tradition oft. varies betw. νῦν and νυνί)
① temporal marker with focus on the moment as such, now
ⓐ w. the pres. (Job 30:9; Jos., Ant. 14, 404) Ac 24:13; Ro 15:23, 25; 2 Cor 8:22; Phlm 9; cp. 11; perh. also AcPt Ox 849.
ⓑ w. the perf. in pres. sense ν. δὲ … πεφανέρωται but now … has been revealed Ro 3:21.
ⓒ w. aor. (Job 30:1; Just., D. 11, 2) Ro 6:22; 7:6; 11:30 v.l.; Eph 2:13; Col 1:22; 2 Cl 2:3. Impv.: 2 Cor 8:11; Col 3:8; 1 Cl 47:5.
ⓓ w. a subst. (PRyl 111, 4 [161 A.D.] τὴν νυνεὶ γυναῖκά μου) ἡ πρὸς ὑμᾶς ν. ἀπολογία the defense which I now make before you Ac 22:1.
② temporal marker with focus on a prevailing situation, w. the idea of time weakened or entirely absent, now, as it is
ⓐ ν. δέ but now, as the situation is Ro 7:17; 1 Cor 13:13; 14:6 v.l. (Tat. 28, 1).
ⓑ introducing the real situation after an unreal conditional clause or sentence but, as a matter of fact 1 Cor 5:11 v.l.; 12:18; 15:20; Hb 8:6; 9:26; 11:16 v.l.—DELG s.v. νυ. M-M.


Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., pp. 681–682). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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N.E. Barry Hofstetter
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Barry Hofstetter
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Re: ἄρτι vs νῦν

Post by Barry Hofstetter » January 31st, 2018, 7:59 pm

Now, having posted all the lovely lexical data from BDAG, allow me to observe that νῦν seems to have a wider range of usage than ἄρτι. When synonyms are this close, there is a lot of overlap, and it is often something that would sound better in one context than in another to a native or fluent speaker of the language.
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Stephen Carlson
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Re: ἄρτι vs νῦν

Post by Stephen Carlson » February 1st, 2018, 1:42 am

What I've learned is that ἄρτι = "this moment" and νῦν = "now"; in other words a point vs. an interval. I don't know how accurate it is, but it seems like something that can be tested.
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Shirley Rollinson
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Re: ἄρτι vs νῦν

Post by Shirley Rollinson » February 1st, 2018, 3:42 pm

Jonathan Robie wrote:
January 31st, 2018, 7:25 pm
Shirley Rollinson wrote:
January 31st, 2018, 6:59 pm
My gut feeling (and it's only that, I haven't the time to do a proper search right now) is that ἄρτι can carry a sense of "up until now", and νῦν can carry a sense of "now, at this moment"
Shirley R.
How do you read ἕως ἄρτι?
ἕως ἄρτι - "up until now" - but those are only 'gut feelings' from how I've met the expressions when reading Greek (not when trying to do translations into another language)
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