Πείθω in the perfect - Active form, passive sense?

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theophilus490
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Πείθω in the perfect - Active form, passive sense?

Post by theophilus490 » March 30th, 2019, 1:12 pm

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I have noticed that in the NT, the instances of Πείθω in the perfect (24x out of 53) are some times passive in meaning ("having been persuaded"), but active in form.

Some instances are Romans 2:19, "If you are persuaded (πέποιθάς) that you are a guide to the blind", and Philippians 1:25, "Having been persuaded (πεποιθὼς) of this".

Looking at every perfect active in the NT, they seem to all be instances where NASB translates "I am convinced", "I am confident" or "I trust", even though the literal sense still seems to be "I am persuaded".

It looks like I need to always translate the perfect active of Πείθω, "I am confident" or "I trust", and not "I have persuaded" or "I have been persuaded", because it never seems to mean that.

Thoughts?
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Barry Hofstetter
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Re: Πείθω in the perfect - Active form, passive sense?

Post by Barry Hofstetter » March 31st, 2019, 7:01 am

This kind of question is usually answered by the lexicons:

② The 2 pf. (w. plpf.) has pres. mng. (B-D-F §341; Rob. 881), to be so convinced that one puts confidence in someth.
ⓐ depend on, trust in w. dat. of pers. or thing (Hom. et al.; 4 Km 18:20; Pr 14:16; 28:26; Sir 32:24; Wsd 14:29; Is 28:17) τίνι θεῷ (in) which God Dg 1 (here πέπ. w. dat. almost = believe in, a sense which πέπ. also approximates in the LXX; cp. Jos., Ant. 7, 122). τοῖς δεσμοῖς μου Phil 1:14. τῇ ὑπακοῆ σου Phlm 21. ἐπί τινι (in) someone or someth. (PSI 646, 3 ἐπὶ σοὶ πεποιθώς; LXX; SibOr 3, 545; Syntipas p. 52, 5; Just., D. 8, 2) Mt 27:43 v.l.; Mk 10:24 v.l.; Lk 11:22; 2 Cor 1:9; Hb 2:13 (Is 8:17); B 9:4; ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι 1 Cl 57:7; w. ὅτι foll. (Syntipas p. 32, 6; 35, 7) Lk 18:9. ἐπί τινα (Ps 117:8; Acta Christophori [ed. HUsener 1886] 68, 10) Mt 27:43; 1 Cl 60:1, cp. 58:1; Hm 9:6; Hs 9, 18, 5; w. ὅτι foll. 2 Cor 2:3; 2 Th 3:4. ἔν τινι (Jdth 2:5) (in) someone or someth. Phil 3:3f; w. ὅτι foll. 2:24. εἴς τινα (Wsd 16:24 v.l.) w. ὅτι foll. Gal 5:10.
ⓑ be convinced, be sure, certain foll. by acc. and inf. Ro 2:19. W. ὅτι foll. Hb 13:18 v.l. πεποιθὼς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ὅτι being sure of this very thing, that Phil 1:6. τοῦτο πεποιθὼς οἶδα ὅτι convinced of this, I know that 1:25. εἴ τις πέποιθεν ἑαυτῷ Χριστοῦ εἶναι if anyone is convinced within of belonging to Christ 2 Cor 10:7 (cp. BGU 1141, 17 [14 B.C.] πέποιθα γὰρ ἐμαυτῷ).
③ pass. and mid., except for the pf.: to be won over as the result of persuasion.
ⓐ be persuaded, believe abs. (Pr 26:25) Lk 16:31; Ac 17:4; Hb 11:13 v.l. μὴ πειθομένου αὐτοῦ since he would not be persuaded Ac 21:14. πεισθεὶς ὑπὸ τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ Νάβαλ AcPl Ha 6, 23. W. dat. of the thing by which one is persuaded (opp. ἀπιστεῖν; τοῖς γραώδεσι μύθοις Iren. 1, 16, 3 [Harv. I 162, 8]) τοῖς λεγομένοις (Hdt. 2, 146, 1; Jos., Bell. 7, 415) Ac 28:24. πείθομαι I believe w. ὅτι foll. Hb 13:18; Hs 8, 11, 2. Ac 26:28 v.l. (s. 1b above), construed w. inf. ἐν ὀλίγῳ με πείθῃ Χριστιανὸν ποιῆσαι in too short a time you believe you are making a Christian of me (so Bachmann, Blass). οὐ πείθομαι w. acc. and inf. I cannot believe Ac 26:26.
ⓑ obey, follow w. dat. of pers. or thing (Hom. et al.; Diod S 4, 31, 5 τῷ χρησμῷ=the oracle; Maximus Tyr. 23, 2d τῷ θεῷ; 36, 6g τ. νόμῳ τοῦ Διός; Appian, Iber. 19 §73 θεῶ; pap; 4 Macc 10:13; 15:10; 18:1; Just., D. 9, 1; Mel., P. 93, 705; π. θεῷ Did., Gen. 225, 17; τῇ ἀδικίᾳ Theoph. Ant. 1, 14 [p. 92, 5]) Ro 2:8 (opp. ἀπειθεῖν, as Himerius, Or. 69 [=Or. 22], 7); Gal 3:1 v.l.; 5:7; Hb 13:17; Js 3:3; 2 Cl 17:5; Dg 5:10; IRo 7:2ab; Hm 12, 3, 3.
ⓒ Some passages stand betw. a and b and permit either transl., w. dat. be persuaded by someone, take someone’s advice or obey, follow someone Ac 5:36f, 39; 23:21; 27:11 (objection of a passenger, to which the crew paid no attention and suffered harm as a result: Chion, Ep. 4, 1 οἳ δʼ οὐκ ἐπείθοντο. Of relation between heretical leaders and their adherents Iren. 3, 12, 5 [Harv. II 58, 10]).
④ perf. pass. πέπεισμαι to attain certainty in ref. to something, be convinced, certain (Pla.+; pap, LXX) πεπεισμένος τοῦτο convinced of this B 1:4. πέπεισμαί τι περί τινος be convinced of someth. concerning someone Hb 6:9. περί τινος be sure of a thing IPol 2:3. Foll. by acc. and inf. (Diod S 12, 20, 2 πεπεῖσθαι θεοὺς εἶναι; PPetr II, 11, 4 [III B.C.]; EpArist 5; Just., D. 58, 2; Mel., HE 4, 26, 11; Ath. 36, 1f) Lk 20:6. W. περί τινος and acc. w. inf.: περὶ ὧν πέπεισμαι ὑμᾶς οὕτως ἔχειν concerning this I am certain that it is so with you ITr 3:2. W. ὅτι foll. (X., Oec. 15, 8; Just., D. 65, 2; Tat., 20, 2) Ro 8:38; 14:14 (w. οἶδα); 2 Ti 1:5, 12 (cp. w. ὡ foll. Did., Gen. 131, 8); Pol 9:2. πέπεισμαι περὶ ὑμῶν ὅτι Ro 15:14.—B. 1206; 1339. DELG s.v. πείθομαι. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq.



Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 792). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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N.E. Barry Hofstetter
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MAubrey
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Re: Πείθω in the perfect - Active form, passive sense?

Post by MAubrey » March 31st, 2019, 4:06 pm

theophilus490 wrote:
March 30th, 2019, 1:12 pm
I have noticed that in the NT, the instances of Πείθω in the perfect (24x out of 53) are some times passive in meaning ("having been persuaded"), but active in form.

Some instances are Romans 2:19, "If you are persuaded (πέποιθάς) that you are a guide to the blind", and Philippians 1:25, "Having been persuaded (πεποιθὼς) of this".

Looking at every perfect active in the NT, they seem to all be instances where NASB translates "I am convinced", "I am confident" or "I trust", even though the literal sense still seems to be "I am persuaded".

It looks like I need to always translate the perfect active of Πείθω, "I am confident" or "I trust", and not "I have persuaded" or "I have been persuaded", because it never seems to mean that.
This is the case for all perfects of πείθω.

But passive is the wrong word.

There is a small class of archaic perfects where a causative present/aorist ("cause to trust, convince, persuade") that alternates with a non-causative perfect form: "am confident, am convinced, am persuaded".

The most common of these is ἵστημι ("cause to stand") ~ ἕστηκα ("am standing").
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Mike Aubrey, Linguist
Koine-Greek.com

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