Posted: January 3rd, 2012, 9:07 pm
I doubt "παρειμι" can be used as an equative verb like "ειμι", but I think it is simply a normal intransitive verb meaning "be present". Instead, "πρωτος" is a special kind of word that modifies the meaning of the complete clause, though it is declined like an adjective agreeing with the subject. I would say it means "the boy/servant is first to be present", which would generally be said in English as "the boy/servant is present first". I do not think it answers the question of "when he is present" but rather the question of "who was the first to be present". In contrast "πρωτον" (neuter accusative) would be used to specify the time he is present.Jason Hare wrote:The sentence in question is:
πρῶτος οὖν πάρεστιν ὁ παῖς, καὶ ἰδού, ὁ μὲν Ἄργος μένει πρὸς τῇ ὁδῷ καὶ ἀγρίως ὑλακτεῖ, καταβαίνει δὲ ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους πρὸς τὸ αὔλιον λύκος μέγας.
I didn't notice this before, but the text introduces πρῶτον as an adverb in 4α and then πρῶτος, -η, -ον as an adjective in 5β.
I would guess that since ἐστίν is the equative verb, we should think of πρῶτος as adjectival, even though παρα- has been added to the verb. I mean, ὁ παῖς is obviously the subject of the sentence, so maybe: "Thus the lad is present first...." Do we normally use adverbs with "is"? We probably shouldn't think of the prefix as an adjective, as we do "present" in English (as opposed to "absent"). So, πρῶτος is modifying the being.
Maybe someone else would have a better explanation. I didn't really think too deeply about this when I first went through Ἀθήναζε.
Several adjectives of time, place, order of succession, etc., are used as predicates where English employs an adverb or a preposition with its case: ἀφικνοῦνται τριταῖοι they arrive on the third day X. A. 5.3.2, κατέβαινον σκοταῖοι they descended in the dark 4. 1. 10. In such cases the adjective is regarded as a quality of the subject; whereas an adverb would regard the manner of the action. ...
In Attic and Koine, the contracted forms are the standard forms.Mark Trzasko wrote:Hello. For contract verbs, Athenaze shows the uncontracted as well as the contracted form. Which, if any, is the standard form?
If you are reading texts, you will find the contracted forms (as Stephen noted). But if you are looking for the meaning of a word, most dictionaries will have the headwords in uncontracted form (first person singular.present indicative).Mark Trzasko wrote:For contract verbs, Athenaze shows the uncontracted as well as the contracted form. Which, if any, is the standard form? Thanks, Mark Trzasko