Isaiah Chapter 54

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 54

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 9:36 am

360. The widow will have plenty of children (54:1-3)
54.1 Εὐφράνθητι, στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα, ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον, ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα, ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα, εἶπεν γὰρ Κύριος. 2 πλάτυνον τὸν τόπον τῆς σκηνῆς σου καὶ τῶν αὐλαιῶν σου, πῆξον, μὴ φείσῃ· μάκρυνον τὰ σχοινίσματά σου καὶ τοὺς πασσάλους σου κατίσχυσον. 3 ἔτι εἰς τὰ δεξιὰ καὶ εἰς τὰ ἀριστερὰ ἐκπέτασον, καὶ τὸ σπέρμα σου ἔθνη κληρονομήσει, καὶ πόλεις ἠρημωμένας κατοικιεῖς.
361. You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood (54:4-6)
4 μὴ φοβοῦ ὅτι κατῃσχύνθης, μηδὲ ἐντραπῇς ὅτι ὠνειδίσθης· ὅτι αἰσχύνην αἰώνιον ἐπιλήσῃ καὶ ὄνειδος τῆς χηρείας σου οὐ μνησθήσῃ. 5 ὅτι ἐγὼ
Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν σε, Κύριος Σαβαώθ ὄνομα αὐτῷ· ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε αὐτὸς θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, πάσῃ τῇ γῇ κληθήσεται. 6 οὐχ ὡς γυναῖκα καταλελειμμένην.

Καὶ ὀλιγόψυχον κέκληκέν σε Κύριος οὕτω γυναῖκα ἐκ νεότητος μεμισημένην, εἶπεν ὁ θεός σου·
362. My anger will be replaced by mercy (54:7-11)
7 χρόνον μικρὸν κατέλιπόν σε καὶ μετὰ ἐλέους μεγάλου ἐλεήσω σε, 8 ἐν θυμῷ μικρῷ ἀπέστρεψα τὸ πρόσωπόν μου ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ ἐν ἐλέει αἰωνίῳ ἐλεήσω σε, εἶπεν ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε Κύριος. 9 ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος τοῦ ἐπὶ Νῶε τοῦτό μοί ἐστιν ὄνομα· καθότι ὤμοσα αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ ἐκείνῳ τῇ γῇ μὴ θυμωθήσεσθαι ἐπὶ σοὶ ἔτι μηδὲ ἐν ἀπειλῇ σου 10 τὰ ὄρια μεταστήσασθαι οὐδὲ οἱ βουνοί μετακινηθήσονται, οὕτως οὐδὲ τὸ παρʼ ἐμοῦ σοι ἔλεος ἐκλείψει οὐδὲ ἡ διαθήκη τῆς εἰρήνης σου οὐ μὴ μεταστῇ· εἶπεν γὰρ Κύριος Ἵλεώς σοι. 11 ἡ ταπεινὴ καὶ ἀκατάστατος, ἔσται παρακεκλήμενη,

363. You will be built up in righteousness (54:11-14)
Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἑτοιμάζω ἄνθρακα τὸν λίθον σου καὶ τὰ θεμέλιά σου σάπφειρον 12 καὶ θήσω τὰς ἐπάλξεις σου ἴασπιν καὶ τὰς πύλας σου λίθους κρυστάλλου καὶ τὸν περίβολόν σου λίθους ἐκλεκτοὺς 13 καὶ πάντας τοὺς υἱούς σου διδακτοὺς θεοῦ καὶ ἐν πολλῇ εἰρήνῃ τὰ τέκνα σου. 14 καὶ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ οἰκοδομηθήσῃ·
364. You will overcome your opponents (54:14-17)
ἀπέχου ἀπὸ ἀδίκου καὶ οὐ φοβηθήσῃ, καὶ τρόμος οὐκ ἐγγιεῖ σοι. 15 ἰδοὺ προσήλυτοι προσελεύσονταί σοι διʼ ἐμοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ σὲ καταφεύξονται.

16 Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ κτίζω σε, οὐχ ὡς χαλκοῦς φυσῶν ἄνθρακας καὶ ἐκφέρων σκεῦος εἰς ἔργον· ἐγὼ δὲ ἔκτικά σε οὐκ εἰς ἀπώλειαν φθεῖραι. 17 πᾶν σκεῦος τὸν ἐπὶ σὲ οὐκ εὐοδώσω, καὶ πᾶσα φωνὴ ἀναστήσεται ἐπὶ σὲ εἰς κρίσιν· καὶ πάντας αὐτοὺς ἡττήσετε, οἱ δὲ ἔνοχοί σου ἔσονται ἐν αὐτῇ. ἔστιν κληρονομία τοῖς θεραπεύουσιν Κύριον, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μου ἅγιοι, λέγει Κύριος.
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Notes on Isaiah 54:1-3

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 10:18 am

360. The widow will have plenty of children (54:1-3)
1
στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα] vocative feminine
ῥῆξον] aorist imperative of ῥήγνυμι, "break out"
ὠδίνουσα] feminine participle of ὠδίνω, "have birth-pangs"
Gal 4:27 quotes from this verse verbatim: Εὐφράνθητι, στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα, ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον, ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα• ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα.
ἐρήμου] feminine: abandoned woman
2
The vocabulary here is reminiscent of Exod 38:21.
πλάτυνον] aorist imperative of πλατύνω, "broaden"
αὐλαιῶν] αὐλαία is a curtain, but in the plural is used for screens; in Judith the singular is used for the place Bagoas knocked so as not to interrupt Holofernes inside the tent.
πῆξον] aorist imperative of πήγνυμι, "fix in place"
φείσῃ] the preceding μὴ indicates this is not future indicative but aorist subjunctive of φείδομαι "refrain"
σχοινίσματά] allotments of land
πασσάλους] πάσσαλος is a peg, in the LXX used for the tabernacle, but LSJ also cites IG14.352i38 where it is used to mark boundaries.
3
ἔτι] with A, B (Rahlfs); Ziegler has ὅτι, supported only by 538 and MT כי. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
εἰς τὰ ἀριστερὰ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has only τὰ ἀριστερὰ
ἐκπέτασον] from ἐκπετάννυμι, "spread out"
πόλεις] plural, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); changed by cb3 from the singular homophone πόλις, which is evidently just a spelling variation, since the matching participle is plural; the Hebrew is plural ערים.
κατοικιεῖς] future of κατοικίζω, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has κατοικήσεις, from κατοικέω.
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Notes on Isaiah 54:4-6

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 10:55 am

361. You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood (54:4-6)
4 μὴ φοβοῦ ὅτι κατῃσχύνθης, μηδὲ ἐντραπῇς ὅτι ὠνειδίσθης· ὅτι αἰσχύνην αἰώνιον ἐπιλήσῃ καὶ ὄνειδος τῆς χηρείας σου οὐ μνησθήσῃ. 5 ὅτι ἐγὼ Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν σε, Κύριος Σαβαώθ ὄνομα αὐτῷ· ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε αὐτὸς θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, πάσῃ τῇ γῇ κληθήσεται. 6 οὐχ ὡς γυναῖκα καταλελειμμένην.

Καὶ ὀλιγόψυχον κέκληκέν σε Κύριος οὕτω γυναῖκα ἐκ νεότητος μεμισημένην, εἶπεν ὁ θεός σου·
4
κατῃσχύνθης] aorist passive of καταισχύνω "disgrace"
ἐντραπῇς] ἐντρέπω "defer"
ὠνειδίσθης] aorist passive of ὀνειδίζω
ἐπιλήσῃ] future middle of ἐπιλανθάνομαι, "forget"
χηρείας ] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has χηρίας
οὐ] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have οὐ μὴ
μνησθήσῃ] if the negator were οὐ μὴ, a subjunctive might be expected, but here we have the future indicative, of μιμνῄσκομαι
5
ἐγὼ] deleted by cb2, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); reinstated by cb3. But it solves the problem of the shift from first-person to third-person in the rest of the verse.
ὁ ῥυσάμενός] changed by cb2 to καὶ ὁ ῥυσάμενός, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
αὐτὸς] with A, B (Rahlfs); Ziegler conjectures ἅγιος with the sole support of the MT. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
κληθήσεται] the subject of this verb is unclear in most manuscripts; Ottley takes the earlier part of this verse as two verbless clauses, Brenton and Silva as three. The other option is to take Κύριος the subject. Eusebius takes this section as "The Lord has not called you as a forsaken and faint-hearted woman" (Armstrong), evidently not reading a paragraph break in the middle of verse 6.
6
καταλελειμμένην] spelled καταλελιμμένην, with Swete. Note the accusative, corresponding to σε.
Κύριος οὕτω] changed by ca to Κύριος, οὐδʼ ὡς, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ὁ κύριος, οὐδʼ ὡς
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Notes on Isaiah 54:7-11

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 12:53 pm

362. My anger will be replaced by mercy (54:7-11)
7 χρόνον μικρὸν κατέλιπόν σε καὶ μετὰ ἐλέους μεγάλου ἐλεήσω σε, 8 ἐν θυμῷ μικρῷ ἀπέστρεψα τὸ πρόσωπόν μου ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ ἐν ἐλέει αἰωνίῳ ἐλεήσω σε, εἶπεν ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε Κύριος. 9 ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος τοῦ ἐπὶ Νῶε τοῦτό μοί ἐστιν ὄνομα· καθότι ὤμοσα αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ ἐκείνῳ τῇ γῇ μὴ θυμωθήσεσθαι ἐπὶ σοὶ ἔτι μηδὲ ἐν ἀπειλῇ σου 10 τὰ ὄρια μεταστήσασθαι οὐδὲ οἱ βουνοί μετακινηθήσονται, οὕτως οὐδὲ τὸ παρʼ ἐμοῦ σοι ἔλεος ἐκλείψει οὐδὲ ἡ διαθήκη τῆς εἰρήνης σου οὐ μὴ μεταστῇ· εἶπεν γὰρ Κύριος Ἵλεώς σοι. 11 ἡ ταπεινὴ καὶ ἀκατάστατος ἔσται παρακεκλήμενη.
The past time of disfavour was short compared to the coming time of favour.
7
χρόνον μικρὸν] adverbial accusative
κατέλιπόν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἐνκατέλιπόν
μετὰ ] Swete spells it μετʼ
8
ἐλεήσω] with B (Rahlfs); changed by cb2 to ἐλέησά; A (Ziegler) has ἠλέησά. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
9
ὄνομα] deleted by cb2, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
τῇ γῇ] the dative could attach to either ὤμοσα or θυμωθήσεσθαι
θυμωθήσεσθαι] Future passive infinitive of θυμόω; the passive is commonly used for becoming angry, with the object of the anger in the dative.
ἐπὶ σοὶ] Ottley and Silva take this phrase as the cause of the anger, Brenton takes it as the object of the anger.
ἀπειλῇ] ἀπειλή is a threat. The phrase ἐν ἀπειλῇ σου is understood by Ottley and Silva as the purpose for moving the mountains (which in S are boundaries).
10
ὄρια ] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ὄρη
μεταστήσασθαι] with A (Ziegler), changed by cb3 from μεταστήσασθε; B (Rahlfs) has μεταστήσεσθαι
οὐδὲ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); Swete has οὐδʼ
μεταστῇ] aorist subjunctive of μεθίστημι, "remove."
Κύριος Ἵλεώς σοι] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has Ἵλεώς σοι, Κύριε. The adjective ἵλεως is masculine nominative, but indefinite, so it could modify Κύριος predicatively (not attributively). Ottley has "for he said, The Lord is gracious to thee." Silva has "the Lord said he would be merciful to you."
11
ἡ] absent in A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). The third person ἔσται indicates this is nominative, not vocative.
ἔσται παρακεκλήμενη] deleted by ca; changed by cb2 to οὐ παρεκλήθης, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) and MT; reverted by cb3 to ἔσται παρακεκλήμενη
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Notes on Isaiah 54:11-14

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 1:12 pm

363. You will be built up in righteousness (54:11-14)
Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἑτοιμάζω ἄνθρακα τὸν λίθον σου καὶ τὰ θεμέλιά σου σάπφειρον 12 καὶ θήσω τὰς ἐπάλξεις σου ἴασπιν καὶ τὰς πύλας σου λίθους κρυστάλλου καὶ τὸν περίβολόν σου λίθους ἐκλεκτοὺς 13 καὶ πάντας τοὺς υἱούς σου διδακτοὺς θεοῦ καὶ ἐν πολλῇ εἰρήνῃ τὰ τέκνα σου. 14 καὶ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ οἰκοδομηθήσῃ·
ἑτοιμάζω ] changed by ca to ἑτοιμάζω σοι, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἄνθρακα] ἄνθραξ is used for both charcoal and red precious stones such as rubies and carbuncles. Eusebius understood the former sense, connecting it with the coal used to purify the prophet's lips in 6:6.
σάπφειρον] spelled σάπφιρον, with Ziegler. σαπφείρος is lapis lazuli (see Exodus 24:10).
12
ἴασπιν] ἴασπις is jasper or any opaque precious stone (BDAG)
κρυστάλλου] κρύσταλλος is ice or rock-crystal. Eusebius associates it with "radiance and purity."
13
πάντας τοὺς υἱούς σου διδακτοὺς θεοῦ] John 6:45 has Καὶ ἔσονται πάντες διδακτοὶ θεοῦ. These are still accusative, as objects of θήσω.
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Notes on Isaiah 54:14-17

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 1:48 pm

364. You will overcome your opponents (54:14-17)
ἀπέχου ἀπὸ ἀδίκου καὶ οὐ φοβηθήσῃ, καὶ τρόμος οὐκ ἐγγιεῖ σοι. 15 ἰδοὺ προσήλυτοι προσελεύσονταί σοι διʼ ἐμοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ σὲ καταφεύξονται.

16 Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ κτίζω σε, οὐχ ὡς χαλκοῦς φυσῶν ἄνθρακας καὶ ἐκφέρων σκεῦος εἰς ἔργον· ἐγὼ δὲ ἔκτικά σε οὐκ εἰς ἀπώλειαν. φθεῖραι 17 πᾶν σκεῦος τὸν ἐπὶ σὲ οὐκ εὐοδώσω, καὶ πᾶσα φωνὴ ἀναστήσεται ἐπὶ σὲ εἰς κρίσιν· καὶ πάντας αὐτοὺς ἡττήσετε, οἱ δὲ ἔνοχοί σου ἔσονται ἐν αὐτῇ. ἔστιν κληρονομία τοῖς θεραπεύουσιν Κύριον, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μου ἅγιοι, λέγει Κύριος.
ἀπέχου] imperative of ἀπέχω; the contextual sense here is "be distant."
τρόμος] tremor (often in parallel with φόβος)
ἐγγιεῖ] future of ἐγγίζω
15
προσήλυτοι] translating גר
προσελεύσονταί] translating יגור. Philo Spec. Leg. 1, 51 also uses this etymology: τούτους δὲ καλεῖ προσηλύτους ἀπὸ τοῦ προσεληλυθέναι καινῇ καὶ φιλοθέῳ πολιτείᾳ
ἐμοῦ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἐμοῦ, καὶ παροικήσουσίν σοι
καταφεύξονται] ἐπὶ with καταφεύγω refers to that in which one takes refuge
16
κτίζω] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἔκτισά. MT has בראתי, so one would expect the aorist here.
χαλκοῦς] changed by cb3 to χαλκεὺς, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
φυσῶν] φυσάω is used for blowing air
εἰς ἔργον] the vessel has a purpose, a job to do.
ἔκτικά] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἔκτισά
φθεῖραι] Eusebius takes this word with what follows rather than with what precedes.
17
τὸν] changed by cb2 to φθαρτόν, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has σκευαστὸν
σὲ] with δὲ σὲ
εὐοδώσω] "succeed" with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has εὐδοκήσω "be well pleased."
ἀναστήσεται] with B (Rahlfs); changed by cb1 to ἣ ἀναστήσεται, with A (Ziegler)
καὶ πάντας] changed by cb2 to πάντας, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). The conjunction is needed here if there is no relative pronoun with ἀναστήσεται.
ἡττήσετε] plural. A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the singular ἡττήσεις.
ἔνοχοί] ἔνοχος with the genitive is used for those subject to someone.
αὐτῇ] with A, B (Rahlfs); Ziegler has λύπῃ, supported by only a few 10th-12th century manuscripts, the Syrohexaplaric marginalia, and Theodoretus. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. The referent is unclear: φωνή, κρίσις? Eusebius notes that this phrase is not in the Hebrew or other Greek translations. Brenton has "thereby," implying the process of vanquishing. Ottley has "they that are subject to thee shall be therein."
ἔστιν] the subject could be the referent of αὐτῇ
Κύριον] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has Κυρίῳ
μου] changed by ca to μοι, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἅγιοι] changed by cb1 to δίκαιοι, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
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Isaiah Chapter 54 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 13th, 2012, 1:50 pm

360. The widow will have plenty of children (54:1-3)
54.1 Rejoice, barren one who does not bear children, burst out and call out, you who are not in labour, because the children of the desolate woman will be more numerous than those the woman who has a man, for Lord has said. 2 Widen the place of your tent and of your curtains, set it up, do not hold back. Lengthen your allotment and reinforce your stakes. 3 Spread out farther to the right and to the left and your seed will inherit nations, and you will inhabit wasted cities.
361. You will not remember the reproach of your widowhood (54:4-6)
4 Do not be afraid because you were put to shame, nor feel shame because you were reproached, because you will forget eternal shame, and you will not remember the reproach of your widowhood. 5 For I am. Lord who made you (Lord Sabaoth is his name), God of Israel himself who rescues you will be called in all the land, 6 not like an abandoned woman.

And the Lord has called you disheartened in this way; a woman hated from her youth, your God said.

362. My anger will be replaced by mercy (54:7-11)
7 I abandoned you for a little time, and I will show mercy to you with great mercy. 8 I turned my face away from you with a little anger, but I will show mercy to you with eternal mercy, said Lord who rescued you. 9 This is my name since the water at the time of Noe. Just as I swore to him at that time not to be angry at the land any longer because of you, nor 10 as a threat to you to shift the boundaries, nor will the hills be moved, so neither will the compassion from me to you nor the covenant of your peace cease, for the Lord has said, Gracious to you. 11 The lowly and unstable one will be comforted.

363. You will be built up in righteousness (54:11-14)
Look, I am preparing a coal as your stone and a sapphire as your foundations. 12 And I will make your bulwarks jasper and your gates stones of ice, and your wall choice stones. 13 And all your sons will be instructed by God and your children will be in great peace. 14 And you will be built up in righteousness.
364. You will overcome your opponents (54:14-17)
Stay away from an unjust person and you will not be afraid, and trembling will not approach you. 15 Look, proselytes will come to you through me, and they will take refuge in you.

16 Look, I am creating you, not like a coppersmith blowing on coals and bringing out a vessel for work, but I bore you not for destruction. 17 I will not prosper any vessel that is against you to ruin, and every voice will rise up against you in judgment, and you will overcome them all, but they will be your subjects by it. There is an inheritance for those who serve Lord, and you will be my holy ones, says Lord.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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