Isaiah Chapter 56

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 56

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 20th, 2012, 1:03 pm

370. Preserve justice (56:1-2)
56.1 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Φυλάσσεσθε κρίσιν, ποιήσατε δικαιοσύνην· ἤγγικεν γὰρ τὸ σωτήριόν μου παραγίνεσθαι καὶ τὸ ἔλεός μου ἀποκαλυφθῆναι. 2 μακάριος ἀνὴρ ὁ ποιῶν ταῦτα καὶ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀντεχόμενος αὐτῶν καὶ φυλάσσων τὰ σάββα μὴ βεβηλοῦν καὶ διατηρῶν τὰς αὐτοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν ἀδίκημα.

371. Eunuchs will have an eternal legacy (56:3-5)
3 Μὴ λεγέτω ὁ ἀλλογενὴς ὁ προσκείμενος Κυρίῳ Ἀφοριεῖ με ἄρα Κύριος ἀπὸ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ· καὶ μὴ λεγέτω ὁ εὐνοῦχος ὅτι Ἐγώ εἰμι ξύλον ξηρόν. 4 τάδε λέγει Κύριος Τοῖς εὐνούχοις, ὅσοι ἐὰν‌ φυλάξωνται τὰ προστάγματα μου καὶ ἐκλέξωνται ἃ ἐγὼ θέλω καὶ ἀντέχωνται τῆς διαθήκης μου, 5 καὶ δώσω αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου καὶ ἐν τῷ τείχει μου τόπον ὀνομαστὸν κρείσσων υἱῶν καὶ θυγατέρων, ὄνομα αἰώνιον δώσω αὐτοῖς καὶ οὐκ ἐκλείψει.
372. A house of prayer even for foreigners (56:6-8)
6 καὶ τοῖς ἀλλογενέσι τοῖς προσκειμένοις Κυρίῳ δουλεύειν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀγαπᾶν τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου τοῦ εἶναι αὐτῷ εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας καὶ πάντας τοὺς φυλασσομένους τὰ σάββατά μου μὴ βεβηλοῦν

Καὶ ἀντεχομένοις τῆς διαθήκης μου, 7 εἰσάξω αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου καὶ εὐφρανῶ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τῆς προσευχῆς μου· τὰ ὁλοκαυτώματα αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν ἔσονται δεκταὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου μου· ὁ γὰρ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, 8 εἶπεν Κύριος
373. People have become like beasts (56:8-11)
ὁ συνάγων τοὺς διεσπαρμένους Ἰσραήλ, ὅτι συνάξω ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς συναγωγήν. 9 Πάντα τὰ θηρία τὰ ἄγρια, δεῦτε φάγετε, πάντα τὰ θηρία τοῦ δρυμοῦ. 10 ἴδετε ὅτι πάντες ἐκτετύφλωνται, οὐκ ἔγνωσαν φρονῆσαι, πάντες κύνες ἐνεοί, οἱ οὐ δυνήσονται ὑλακτεῖν, ἐνυπνιαζόμενοι κοίτην, φιλοῦντες νυστάξαι. 11 καὶ οἱ κύνες ἀναιδεῖς τῇ ψυχῇ, οὐκ εἰδότες πλησμονήν· καί εἰσιν πονηροὶ οὐκ εἰδότες σύνεσιν, πάντες ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν ἐξηκολούθησαν, ἕκαστος κατὰ τὸ αὐτό.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 56:1-2

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 20th, 2012, 3:03 pm

370. Preserve justice (56:1-2)
56.1 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Φυλάσσεσθε κρίσιν, ποιήσατε δικαιοσύνην· ἤγγικεν γὰρ τὸ σωτήριόν μου παραγίνεσθαι καὶ τὸ ἔλεός μου ἀποκαλυφθῆναι. 2 μακάριος ἀνὴρ ὁ ποιῶν ταῦτα καὶ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀντεχόμενος αὐτῶν καὶ φυλάσσων τὰ σάββα μὴ βεβηλοῦν καὶ διατηρῶν τὰς αὐτοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν ἀδίκημα.
1
Φυλάσσεσθε] present, although the parallel ποιήσατε is aorist. The Hebrew imperative does not distinguish aspects.
ἤγγικεν] perfect, with B; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has the aorist ἤγγισεν.
παραγίνεσθαι] the infinitive matches the Hebrew לבוא
ἀποκαλυφθῆναι] a literal rendering of the Hebrew infinitive להגלות
2
μακάριος ἀνὴρ] both anarthous, in contrast to ὁ ποιῶν. The parallel noun ἄνθρωπος is likewise without the article. The Hebrew words are אנושׁ and אדם, respectively.
φυλάσσων] recalls Φυλάσσεσθε in 56:1.
σάββα] changed by ca to σάββατα μου; A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have σάββατα
τὰς ] changed by ca to τὰς χεῖρας, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). In the absence of a noun, the feminine article by itself would imply women.
ἀδίκημα] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἄδικα
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 56:3-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 20th, 2012, 3:04 pm

371. Eunuchs will have an eternal legacy (56:3-5)
3 Μὴ λεγέτω ὁ ἀλλογενὴς ὁ προσκείμενος Κυρίῳ Ἀφοριεῖ με ἄρα Κύριος ἀπὸ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ· καὶ μὴ λεγέτω ὁ εὐνοῦχος ὅτι Ἐγώ εἰμι ξύλον ξηρόν. 4 τάδε λέγει Κύριος τοῖς εὐνούχοις, Ὅσοι ἐὰν‌ φυλάξωνται τὰ προστάγματα μου καὶ ἐκλέξωνται ἃ ἐγὼ θέλω καὶ ἀντέχωνται τῆς διαθήκης μου, 5 καὶ δώσω αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου καὶ ἐν τῷ τείχει μου τόπον ὀνομαστὸν κρείσσων υἱῶν καὶ θυγατέρων, ὄνομα αἰώνιον δώσω αὐτοῖς καὶ οὐκ ἐκλείψει,
3
προσκείμενος] πρόσκειμαι with the dative is used for close attachment and devotion, specifically to God in JosAs 15.6 and Sib. Or. 3.574. It appears in G only here and in 56:6.
Κυρίῳ] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have πρὸς Κύριον. The dative is the regular form, with πρόσκειμαι. The preposition πρὸς matches the Hebrew אל.
Ἀφοριεῖ] future of ἀφορίζω, “separate”
4
τοῖς εὐνούχοις] this could indicate the addressees, or it could be part of Lord’s speech, in which case αὐτοῖς would have the same referent.
ἐὰν] with B; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has ἂν
φυλάξωνται] recalls 56:1-2.
προστάγματα] changed by cb1 to σάββατά, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἀντέχωνται] ἀντέχω with the genitive means holding a strong attachment.
5
καὶ δώσω] changed by cb2 to δώσω, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ὀνομαστὸν] ὀνομαστός well-known, famous. The Hebrew behind τόπον ὀνομαστὸν is יד ושׁם. The sense is that although eunuchs do not have posterity to preserve their name, Lord will provide other ways for them to be remembered.
κρείσσων] with A (Ziegler); B (Rahlfs) has κρείττω
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 56:6-8

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 20th, 2012, 3:15 pm

372. A house of prayer even for foreigners (56:6-8)
6 καὶ τοῖς ἀλλογενέσι τοῖς προσκειμένοις Κυρίῳ δουλεύειν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀγαπᾶν τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου τοῦ εἶναι αὐτῷ εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας καὶ πάντας τοὺς φυλασσομένους τὰ σάββατά μου μὴ βεβηλοῦν

Καὶ ἀντεχομένοις τῆς διαθήκης μου, 7 εἰσάξω αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου καὶ εὐφρανῶ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τῆς προσευχῆς μου· τὰ ὁλοκαυτώματα αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν ἔσονται δεκταὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου μου· ὁ γὰρ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, 8 εἶπεν Κύριος
6
ἀλλογενέσι ] Ottley spells it ἀλλογενέσιν. Since there is no new finite verb in this verse, the dative here continues the αὐτοῖς of 56:5.
Κυρίῳ] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has πρὸς Κύριον
δουλεύειν] with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); changed by scribe B himself, from δουλεύεις
ἀγαπᾶν] Swete spells it ἀγαπᾷν
τοῦ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has τῷ
φυλασσομένους] recalls 56:1, 2, 4
ἀντεχομένοις] changed by ca to ἀντεχομένους, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). Recalls 56:4.
7
τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has τὸ θυσιαστήριόν
εὐφρανῶ] future of εὐφραίνω, with the accusative of the person cheered.
τὰ ὁλοκαυτώματα] nominative, im parallel with αἱ θυσίαι
Mark 11:17 has the full quote Ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν; Matt 21:13 shortens it to Ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται; Luke 19:46 (S*) has the even shorter ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς. The point made in the context of Isaiah, namely that the house of prayer is πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, is lost in Matthew and Luke.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 56:8-11

Post by Ken M. Penner » April 20th, 2012, 5:03 pm

373. People have become like beasts (56:8-11)
ὁ συνάγων τοὺς διεσπαρμένους Ἰσραήλ, ὅτι συνάξω ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς συναγωγήν. 9 πάντα τὰ θηρία τὰ ἄγρια, δεῦτε φάγετε, πάντα τὰ θηρία τοῦ δρυμοῦ. 10 ἴδετε ὅτι πάντες ἐκτετύφλωνται, οὐκ ἔγνωσαν φρονῆσαι, πάντες κύνες ἐνεοί, οἱ οὐ δυνήσονται ὑλακτεῖν, ἐνυπνιαζόμενοι κοίτην, φιλοῦντες νυστάξαι. 11 καὶ οἱ κύνες ἀναιδεῖς τῇ ψυχῇ, οὐκ εἰδότες πλησμονήν· καί εἰσιν πονηροὶ οὐκ εἰδότες σύνεσιν, πάντες ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν ἐξηκολούθησαν, ἕκαστος κατὰ τὸ αὐτό.
8
συνάγων … συνάξω … συναγωγήν] these cognates match the Hebrew words, all from the root קבץ.
ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς] changed by cb2 to ἐπʼ αὐτὸν, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). The preposition is the regular translation of על‍, which here clearly has a singular pronoun.
9
τὰ θηρία] probably vocative, but they could be read as accusative.
10
πάντες ἐκτετύφλωνται] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἐκτετύφλωνται πάντες
φρονῆσαι, πάντες] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); absent in B
ἐνεοί] ἐνεός is used for those inable to speak
ὑλακτεῖν] infinitive of ὑλακτέω, the sound that dogs make, whether barking, snarling, or howling.
οἱ οὐ] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have only οὐ
ἐνυπνιαζόμενοι] ἐνυπνιάζομαι is to dream
κοίτην] the accusative here indicates the place in which the dreaming is taking place.
νυστάξαι] νυστάζω connotes idleness and inaction
11
ἀναιδεῖς] ἀναιδής usually refers to lack of shame, but Brenton and Ottley both translated it as insatiability, perhaps because ἀναιδής connotes lack of restraint and because of the parallel lack of πλησμονήν.
πλησμονήν] satiety
ταῖς] with B; changed by cb2 to ἐν ταῖς, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἐξηκολούθησαν] ἐξᾰκολουθέω means to follow, especially by imitating behavior
κατὰ τὸ αὐτό] “together,” as in Acts 14:1; 1Kgdm 11.11.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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