Isaiah Chapter 1

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Re: Notes on 1:1

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 9:40 am

Jonathan Robie wrote:
Ken M. Penner wrote:κατά] Although κατά can be used to indicate the topic without value judgment “concerning,” as can the Hebrew על, it more often carries stronger hostility than the Hebrew על. ...
I'm chewing on this.
Silva translates κατά as "against":
If κατά can mean simply "concerning", without value judgement, what reason is there to read "against" here?
Κατά is more often used in a hostile sense than in a neutral sense (see BDAG A.②ⓑ) so I agree with Silva's translation "against."
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Re: Notes on 1:1

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 9:51 am

Jonathan Robie wrote:Could it be understood in the same way as Τὰ κατ’ ἐμὲ πάντα in Colossians?
In Isa 1:1 κατά is followed by a genitive, but in κατ’ ἐμὲ by an accusative, so the two are not comparable.
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Chapter 1

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 10:06 am

1. Title (1:1)
1 A vision, which Esaias son of Amos saw, which he saw against Ioudaia and against Jerusalem during the reign of Ozias and Ioatham and Achaz and Ezekias.

They ruled Ioudaia.

2. Sub-human knowledge (1:2–3)
2 Ηear, heaven, and hearken, earth, because Lord has spoken.
I begat and raised sons but they have rejected me. 3 An ox knows the one who possesses it and a donkey the feeding-trough of its master, but Israel has known me and the people has not understood me.
3. Lawlessness provokes injury (1:4–6)
4 Woe to you, sinful nation, people full of sin!

Evil seed, lawless son! You have forsaken Lord and you provoked holy Israel to anger.

5 Why should you be smitten still, continuing in lawless acts? Every head is in distress and every heart in sorrow, 6 from feet to head there is neither a wound nor a bruise nor a purulent blow, to put on emollient or oil or bandages.
4. Desolation, past, present and future (1:7–9)
7 Your land deserted, your cities burned; your territory--foreigners devour it before you and it has been made desolate, overthrown by a foreign people. 8 The daughter of Zion will be left behind like a tent in vineyards, and like a garden-watcher's hut in a fig patch, like a besieged city

9 And if Lord Sabaoth had not left us seed, we might have become like Sodoma and we might have been made like Gomora.

5. Ritual Abomination (1:10–15)
10 Hear the word of Lord, rulers of Sodoma! Pay attention to the law of God, to the people of Gomora! 11 "What is the multitude of your sacrifices to me?" says Lord. I am full of burnt-offerings of rams and I do not desire the fat of lambs and the blood of bulls and he-goats.

12 Not even if you come to appear before me, for who sought these things from your hands, to trample my court? 13 You will not continue if you carry fine flour, pointless incense. It is an abomination to me. Your new moon festivals and Sabbaths and great day I do not tolerate. Fasting and rest 14 and your festivals my soul hates. You have become my excess; I will no longer forgive your sins. 15 When you stretch out your hands towards me, I will turn my eyes from you, and if you increase your petition I will not listen to you.

For your hands are full of blood.
6. Repent and be clean (1:16–20)
16 Wash yourselves; become clean! Remove the vices from your selves before my eyes!

Desist from your vices! 17 Learn to do good; seek out fair judgment; rescue one who has been wronged; give a fair judgment to an orphan and vindicate a widow. 18 And come and let us dispute, says Lord, and if your sins be like red, I will whiten them like snow, and if they be like scarlet, of which I will whiten wool.

19 And if you are willing and you listen to me, you will eat the good things of the land. 20 But if you are not willing, nor listen to me, a sword will devour you, for the mouth of Lord has spoken these things.
7. Sion’s rulers are rebels (1:21–23)
21 How did Sion, faithful city, full of justice and truth, in whom justice slept, become a harlot?

But now murderers. 22 Your money is not genuine; your innkeepers mix the wine with water. 23 Your rulers rebel, companions of thieves, lovers of gifts pursuers of rewards, not givers of fair judgement for orphans and not regarders of a widow's case.

8. Israel’s leaders will be replaced (1:24-27)
24 On account of this, thus says the master, Lord Sabaoth: Woe to you who have power over Israel, for my anger will not cease among those opposed, and I will execute fair judgment from my enemies. 25 And I will bring my hand upon you and I will burn you into something clean; and I will destroy those who refuse to obey and I will take away all lawbreakers from you and all insolent people. 26 And I will establish your judges as in earlier times.

And your counsellors will be as from the beginning. And after these things it will be called City of Righteousness, Faithful Metropolis Zion. 27 For her captivity will escape with justice, and her return with mercy.
9. Destruction of the lawbreakers (1:28-2:1)
28 And the lawbreakers and the sinful will be shattered together, and those forsaking Lord will be brought to an end, 29 since they will be ashamed over their idols, which they preferred; and they were ashamed over gardens, which they themselves desired. 30 For they will be like a terebinth tree that has cast off its leaves, and like a park that does not have water. 31 And their strength will be like a stalk of flax, and their workings, O sparks of fire, and the lawbreakers and the sinful will be burned up together, and there will be no-one who quenches.
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Re: Notes on 1:1

Post by Stephen Carlson » July 14th, 2011, 10:44 am

Jonathan Robie wrote:If κατά can mean simply "concerning", without value judgement, what reason is there to read "against" here? Could it be understood in the same way as Τὰ κατ’ ἐμὲ πάντα in Colossians?
κατά with the genitive means "against" and κατά with the accusative means "according to" ("concerning"?). Though Jerusalem is indeclinable, there is a tendency for indeclinable names to take the article in the dative and accusative cases and omit it in nominative and genitive cases. (Look at Matt 1 for this tendency in action.)

Applied to this case, the lack of the article before Jerusalem suggests a genitive case, and therefore a meaning of "against" is appropriate.

Stephen
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Re: Notes on 1:1

Post by Jonathan Robie » July 14th, 2011, 10:58 am

sccarlson wrote:
Jonathan Robie wrote:If κατά can mean simply "concerning", without value judgement, what reason is there to read "against" here? Could it be understood in the same way as Τὰ κατ’ ἐμὲ πάντα in Colossians?
κατά with the genitive means "against" and κατά with the accusative means "according to" ("concerning"?). Though Jerusalem is indeclinable, there is a tendency for indeclinable names to take the article in the dative and accusative cases and omit it in nominative and genitive cases. (Look at Matt 1 for this tendency in action.)

Applied to this case, the lack of the article before Jerusalem suggests a genitive case, and therefore a meaning of "against" is appropriate.
Thanks, I get it now. And κατὰ Ιερουσαλημ is parallel to κατὰ τῆς Ιουδαίας, which confirms this.
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

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Re: Notes on 1:1

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 11:56 am

sccarlson wrote:there is a tendency for indeclinable names to take the article in the dative and accusative cases and omit it in nominative and genitive cases.
I wonder how this tendency compares to that for declinable names. I'm thinking particularly of the question whether κύριος functions as a personal name.
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Re: Notes on 1:1

Post by Stephen Carlson » July 14th, 2011, 12:07 pm

Ken M. Penner wrote:
sccarlson wrote:there is a tendency for indeclinable names to take the article in the dative and accusative cases and omit it in nominative and genitive cases.
I wonder how this tendency compares to that for declinable names. I'm thinking particularly of the question whether κύριος functions as a personal name.
My understanding is that the article with declinable names is largely governed by pragmatic concerns, on the other hand.

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Articles on personal names

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 12:33 pm

sccarlson wrote:
Ken M. Penner wrote:
sccarlson wrote:there is a tendency for indeclinable names to take the article in the dative and accusative cases and omit it in nominative and genitive cases.
I wonder how this tendency compares to that for declinable names. I'm thinking particularly of the question whether κύριος functions as a personal name.
My understanding is that the article with declinable names is largely governed by pragmatic concerns, on the other hand.
Here's the issue as presented by Graeme Auld, in his SCS Joshua volume. I'd be interested in any responses.
Most of these editorial decisions are uncontroversial; and yet it is not always clear which nouns are proper names. One recurring case is of particular interest: how to transcribe ΚΥΡΙΟΣ. I have taken this almost every time to be the proper name for Israel's god; and so to be set with capital Κ (Κύριος) and to be rendered by Lord (not the Lord). The issue here is not (as often stated) whether or in how many cases ΚΥΡΙΟΣ is accompanied by the article: hence Κύριος (Lord) when without the article, but (say) τὸν κύριον (the lord) when the article is present. The issue is rather how the usage of Κύριος with or without the article maps on the usage of other commonly used declined names in this book with or without the article, such as Ιησοῦς and Μωυσῆς.
There are 172 instances of Jesus in the book bearing his name: 120 are in the nominative (Ιησοῦς) and only one case (6:16) is accompanied by ό, and even it is attested there in Β only; 29 are in the accusative (Ιησοῦν) and τον is found only in 4:14; 7 have the genitive ending (Ιησοῦ) of which those in 10:17 and 17:14 are marked as dative (preceded by τῷ), but none is accompanied by τοῦ; and 16 have the dative ending (Ιησοῖ) - here only that in 19:49 does not have τῷ, yet it is clearly marked as dative by the following phrase in apposition. The smaller but corresponding figures for Moses (54) break down as follows: 30 nominative (Μωυσῆς), 4 accusative (Μωυσῆν), and 13 genitive (Μωυσῇ), all of these without the article, and 7 dative (Μωυσῇ) of which only one does not have τῷ, but is marked as dative by the following apposition (9:24). The genit. and dat. forms of Moses are the same (ΜΩΥΣΗ): genit. was the default case; datival usage had to marked by use of the definite article or by context. In the case of Jesus, all instances of ΙΗΣΟΙ but one were also accompanied by the article; however, ΙΗΣΟΥ was also acceptable as a dative if appropriately marked.
There are two more instances of ΚΥΡΙΟΣ in the book (228) than of Jesus and Moses put together (226). No instance of nom. (ΚΥΡΙΟΣ 111x) or acc. (KYPION 13x) is preceded by the article. That already suggests that 'Lord' may (almost) always have been intended as a proper name. Of the 85 instances of genit. ΚΥΡΙΟΥ, 4 take του (4:24; 6:8; 22:16, 22); and of the 19 datives ΚΥΡΙΩ, 3 are preceded by τῷ (6:19; 7:19; 24:29). Each of these seven cases with the article is formally ambiguous, and could mean 'of/to/for the lord'; and all are discussed within the commentary below. However, when compared with the data relating to Jesus and Moses, a small number of genitives and datives with the article is entirely to be expected of a proper name as frequently used as 'Lord'. In two cases of the genitive without the article (3:9, 11), κυρίου is in the middle of a chain of genitives, and so 'lord' is appropriate.
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Notes on 1:21-23

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 1:22 pm

7. Sion’s rulers are rebels (1:21–23)
21 Πῶς ἐγένετο πόρνη πόλις πιστὴ Σιων, πλήρης κρίσεως καὶ ἀληθείας, ἐν ᾗ δικαιοσύνη ἐκοιμήθη ἐν αὐτῇ,

Νῦν δὲ φονευταί. 22 τὸ ἀργύριον ὑμῶν ἀδόκιμον· οἱ κάπηλοί σου μίσγουσι τὸν οἶνον ὕδατι· 23 οἱ ἄρχοντές σου ἀπειθοῦσιν, κοινωνοὶ κλεπτῶν, ἀγαπῶντες δῶρα, διώκοντες ἀνταπόδομα, ὀρφανοῖς οὐ κρίνοντες καὶ κρίσιν χηρᾶς οὐ προσέχοντες.
Σιων] not in Hebrew
καὶ ἀληθείας] removed by ca, cb2, and d, agreeing with Rahlfs.
ἐν ᾗ] added for better Greek
χηρας] Rahlfs has χηρῶν
νῦν δὲ φονευταί] The line break in S is awkward.
κάπηλοι] carries a connotation of cheating.
22] A repeats a clause here from 1:7.
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Notes on 1:24-27

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 14th, 2011, 1:23 pm

8. Israel’s leaders will be replaced (1:24-27)
24 Διὰ τοῦτο τάδε λέγει ὁ δεσπότης κύριος σαβαωθ Οὐαὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες Ισραηλ· οὐ παύσεται γάρ μου ὁ θυμὸς ἐν τοῖς ὑπεναντίοις, καὶ κρίσιν ἐκ τῶν ἐχθρῶν μου ποιήσω. 25 καὶ ἐπάξω τὴν χεῖρά μου ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ πυρώσω σε εἰς καθαρόν, τοὺς δὲ ἀπειθοῦντας ἀπολέσω καὶ ἀφελῶ πάντας ἀνόμους ἀπὸ σοῦ καὶ πάντας ὑπερηφάνους. 26 καὶ ἐπιστήσω τοὺς κριτάς σου ὡς τὸ πρότερον.

Καὶ τοὺς συμβούλους σου ὡς τὸ ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς· καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα κληθήσῃ Πόλις δικαιοσύνης, μητρόπολις πιστὴ Σιων. 27 μετὰ γὰρ κρίματος σωθήσεται ἡ αἰχμαλωσία αὐτῆς, καὶ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτῆς μετὰ ἐλεημοσύνης·
ὁ δεσπότης] (omitted in V) renders ה‍אדון when not suffixed (otherwise κύριος), as here and in 3:1; 10:33.
Οὐαί] standard transliteration of הוי. Οὐαί also appears with the dative following.
οἱ ἰσχύοντες] Hebrew is singular. Here the text has been rearranged so that it is the strong ones of Israel (in the nominative) who are to dread. The Hebrew has God as the strong one of Israel, with no specific adressees.
Ισραηλ] A mistakenly has Ιλ̅η̅μ̅, Jerusalem.
καθαρόν] neuter adjective serving as abstract noun
ἀφελῶ] future of ἀφαιρέω
ἀνόμους] G apparently did not know what בדיל might mean in this context (although it appears in Nu 31:22 as κασσίτερος, “tin”) and being at loss, used this favorite stand-in.
1:25] Theodotion has γιγαρτώδης
25 ὑπερηφάνους] ταπεινώσω added in the margin by cb1 and cb3, agreeing with Rahlfs.
ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτῆς] marked to be omitted by ca, cb1, and cb2; it appears also in 301, but not in other uncials.
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