Isaiah Chapter 5

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 5

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 26th, 2011, 1:44 pm

24. The Song of the Vineyard (5:1-7)
5.1 ᾌσω δὴ τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ᾆσμα τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου. ἀμπελὼν ἐγενήθη τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ἐν κέρατι ἐν τόπῳ πίονι. 2 καὶ φραγμὸν περιέθηκα καὶ ἐχαράκωσα καὶ ἐφύτευσα ἄμπελον σωρήχ καὶ ᾠκοδόμησα πύργον ἐν μέσῳ αὐτοῦ καὶ προλήνιον ὤρυξα ἐν αὐτῷ· καὶ ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀκάνθας. 3 καὶ νῦν, ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ, κρίνατε ἐν ἐμοὶ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ἀμπελῶνός μου.

4 Τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου ἔτι καὶ οὐκ ἐποίησα αὐτῷ; διότι ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀκάνθας. 5 νῦν δὲ ἀναγγελῶ ὑμῖν τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου· ἀφελῶ τὸν φραγμὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσται εἰς διαρπαγήν, καὶ καθελῶ τὸν τοῖχον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσται εἰς καταπάτημα, 6 καὶ ἀνήσω τὸν ἀμπελῶνά μου καὶ οὐ μὴ τμηθῇ οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ σκαφῇ ἔτι.

Καὶ ἀναβήσονται εἰς αὐτὸν ὡς εἰς χέρσον ἄκανθαι· καὶ ταῖς νεφέλαις ἐντελοῦμαι τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι εἰς αὐτὸν ὑετόν.

7 Ὁ γὰρ ἀμπελὼν Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ οἶκος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ἐστίν καὶ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα νεόφυτον ἠγαπημένον· ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι κρίσιν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀνομίαν, καὶ οὐ δικαιοσύνην ἀλλὰ κραυγήν.

25. Greed produces a desert (5:8-10)
8 Οὐαὶ οἱ συνάπτοντες οἰκίαν πρὸς οἰκίαν καὶ ἀγρὸν πρὸς ἀγρὸν ἐγγίζοντες, ἵνα τοῦ πλησίον ἀφέλωνταί τι· μὴ οἰκήσητε μόνοι ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 9 ἠκούσθη γὰρ εἰς τὰ ὦτα Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ταῦτα· ἐὰν γὰρ γένωνται οἰκίαι πολλαί, εἰς ἔρημον ἔσονται μεγάλαι καὶ καλαί, καὶ οὐκ ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐταῖς. 10 οὗ γὰρ ἐργῶνται δέκα ζεύγη βοῶν, ποιήσει κεράμιον ἕν, καὶ ὁ σπείρων ἀρτάβας ἓξ ποιήσει μέτρα τρία.

26. Drinkers ignore God’s deeds (5:11-12)
11 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐγειρόμενοι τὸ πρωῒ καὶ τὸ σίκερα διώκοντες, οἱ μένοντες τὸ ὀψέ· ὁ γὰρ οἶνος αὐτοὺς συγκαύσει. 12 μετὰ γὰρ κιθάρας καὶ ψαλτηρίου καὶ τυμπάνων καὶ χόρων καὶ αὐλῶν τὸν οἶνον πίνουσιν, τὰ δὲ ἔργα τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἐμβλέψουσιν καὶ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ οὐ κατανοησοῦσιν.

27. Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge (5:13-17)
13 Τοίνυν αἰχμάλωτος ὁ λαός μου ἐγενήθη διὰ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι αὐτοὺς τὸν κύριον, καὶ πλῆθος ἐγενήθη νεκρῶν διὰ λιμὸν καὶ δίψαν ὕδατος. 14 καὶ ἐπλάτυνεν ὁ ᾅδης τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ διήνοιξεν τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ τοῦ μὴ διαλιπεῖν, καὶ καταβήσονται οἱ ἔνδοξοι καὶ οἱ μεγάλοι καὶ οἱ πλούσιοι καὶ οἱ λοιμοὶ αὐτῆς. 15 καὶ ταπεινωθήσεται ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ἀτιμασθήσεται ἀνήρ, καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ μετέωροι ταπεινωθήσονται· 16 καὶ ὑψωθήσεται Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐν κρίματι, καὶ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος δοξασθήσεται ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ. 17 καὶ βοσκηθήσονται οἱ διηρπασμένοι ὡς ταῦροι, καὶ τὰς ἐρήμους τῶν ἀπειλημμένων ἄρνες φάγωνται.

28. Woe to disbelievers (5:18-19)
18 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐπισπώμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας ὡς σχοινίῳ μακρῷ καὶ ὡς ζυγοῦ ἱμάντι δαμάλεως τὰς ἀνομίας, 19 οἱ λέγοντες Τὸ τάχος ἐγγισάτω ἃ ποιήσει, ἵνα ἴδωμεν, καὶ ἐλθέτω ἡ βουλὴ τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραήλ, ἵνα γνῶμεν.

29. Woe to perverters of justice (5:20-23)
20 Οὐαὶ οἱ λέγοντες τὸ πονηρὸν καλὸν καὶ τὸ καλὸν πονηρόν, οἱ τιθέντες τὸ φῶς σκότος καὶ τὸ σκότος φῶς, οἱ τιθέντες τὸ πικρὸν γλυκὺ καὶ τὸ γλυκὺ πικρόν.

21 Οὐαὶ οἱ συνετοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐνώπιον ἑαυτῶν ἐπιστήμονες.

22 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες ὑμῶν οἱ τὸν οἶνον πίνοντες καὶ οἱ δυνάσται οἱ κεραννύντες τὸ σίκερα, 23 οἱ δικαιοῦντες τὸν ἀσεβῆ ἕνεκεν δώρων καὶ τὸ δίκαιον τοῦ δικαίου αἴροντες.

30. Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath (5:24-25)
24 Διὰ τοῦτο ὃν τρόπον καυθήσεται καλάμη ὑπὸ ἄνθρακος πυρὸς καὶ συγκαυθήσεται ὑπὸ φλογὸς ἀνειμένης, ἡ ῥίζα αὐτῶν ὡς χνοῦς ἔσται, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος αὐτῶν ὡς κονιορτὸς ἀναβήσεται· οὐ γὰρ ἠθέλησαν τὸν νόμον Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ἀλλὰ τὸ λόγιον τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραὴλ παρώξυναν. 25 καὶ ὀργίσθη θυμῷ Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐπὶ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ,

Καὶ ἐπέβαλεν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπάταξεν αὐτούς,

Καὶ παροξύνθῃ τὰ ὄρη, καὶ ἐγενήθη τὰ θνησιμαῖα αὐτῶν ὡς κοπρία ἐν μέσῳ ὁδοῦ. καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή.

31. An army from the nations (5:26-30)
26 Τοιγαροῦν ἀρεῖ σύσσημον ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ συριεῖ αὐτοῖς ἀπ’ ἄκρου τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἰδοὺ ταχὺ κούφως ἔρχονται· 27 οὐ πεινάσουσιν οὐδὲ κοπιάσουσιν οὐδὲ νυστάξουσιν οὐδὲ κοιμηθήσονται οὐδὲ λύσουσιν τὰς ζώνας αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτῶν, οὐδὲ μὴ παραγῶσιν οἱ ἱμάντες τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτῶν· 28 ὧν τὰ βέλη ὀξεῖά ἐστιν καὶ τὰ τόξα αὐτῶν ἐντεταμένα, οἱ πόδες τῶν ἵππων αὐτῶν ὡς στερεὰ πέτρα ἐλογίσθησαν, οἱ τροχοὶ τῶν ἁρμάτων αὐτῶν ὡς καταιγίς· 29 ὁρμῶσιν ὡσεὶ λέοντες καὶ παρέστηκαν ὡσεὶ σκύμνος λέοντος· καὶ ἐπιλήμψεται καὶ βοήσει ὡς θηρίον καὶ ἐκβαλεῖ, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ῥυόμενος αὐτούς. 30 καὶ βοήσει δι’ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ὡς φωνὴ θαλάσσης κυμαινούσης· καὶ ἐμβλέψονται εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω, καὶ εἰς τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἰδοὺ σκότος σκληρὸν ἐν τῇ ἀπορίᾳ αὐτῶν.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 5:1-7

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 3:38 pm

24. The Song of the Vineyard (5:1-7)
5.1 ᾌσω δὴ τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ᾆσμα τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου. ἀμπελὼν ἐγενήθη τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ἐν κέρατι ἐν τόπῳ πίονι. 2 καὶ φραγμὸν περιέθηκα καὶ ἐχαράκωσα καὶ ἐφύτευσα ἄμπελον σωρήχ καὶ ᾠκοδόμησα πύργον ἐν μέσῳ αὐτοῦ καὶ προλήνιον ὤρυξα ἐν αὐτῷ· καὶ ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀκάνθας. 3 καὶ νῦν, ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ, κρίνατε ἐν ἐμοὶ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ἀμπελῶνός μου.

4 Τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου ἔτι καὶ οὐκ ἐποίησα αὐτῷ; διότι ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀκάνθας. 5 νῦν δὲ ἀναγγελῶ ὑμῖν τί ποιήσω τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου· ἀφελῶ τὸν φραγμὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσται εἰς διαρπαγήν, καὶ καθελῶ τὸν τοῖχον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσται εἰς καταπάτημα, 6 καὶ ἀνήσω τὸν ἀμπελῶνά μου καὶ οὐ μὴ τμηθῇ οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ σκαφῇ ἔτι.

Καὶ ἀναβήσονται εἰς αὐτὸν ὡς εἰς χέρσον ἄκανθαι· καὶ ταῖς νεφέλαις ἐντελοῦμαι τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι εἰς αὐτὸν ὑετόν.

7 Ὁ γὰρ ἀμπελὼν Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ οἶκος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ἐστίν καὶ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα νεόφυτον ἠγαπημένον· ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι κρίσιν, ἐποίησεν δὲ ἀνομίαν, καὶ οὐ δικαιοσύνην ἀλλὰ κραυγήν.
1
ᾌσω] S spells it ΑΣΩ, and Swete omits the iota adscript as well: Ἀσω.
ἀγαπητοῦ] B (Swete) adds μου. Note the difference from the earlier ἠγαπημένῳ.
ἐγενήθη τῷ] According to BDAG, γίνομαι with the dative in the sense of belonging is attested around the time of G, in the Petrie Papyri (II, 40b, 7) and the Egyptian ostraca (UWilcken, ed., Griechische Ostraka aus Ägypten u. Nubien II, 1530, 2f).
κέρατι] even sounds like the Hebrew קרן; here the Hebrew means a hill or peak, as in Arabic, but G translates it as the usual “horn.”
πίονι] again, G translates the Hebrew שׁמן literally: “fat,” but omits בן.
2
φραγμὸν] “fence” lacking in Hebrew, which simply says “he dug it.”
ἐχαράκωσα] χαρακόω means “fence in.”
φυτεύω]
σωρήχ] B (Swete) has σωρήκ. Transliteration of שׂרק, which also appears in Jer 2:21 as a kind of vine. The same word appears as a place name in Judges 16:4, where it is similarly transliterated into Greek, perhaps prompting the similar response here, although a similar Hebrew noun is rendered in Isa 16:8 as ἄμπελος. A Hebrew noun from the same root appears in Gen 49:11 (ἕλιξ), and another in Zech 1:8 (ψαρός).
ἐποίησεν δὲ] B (Swete) has καὶ ἐποίησεν.
προλήνιον] LSJ list only this instance, but it is related to ληνος “wine-vat” (as the Suda lists them together).
ὤρυξα] aorist of ὀρύσσω “dig a trench.”
σταφυλήν] a bunch of grapes, as in Matt 7:16; Luke 6:44; Rev 14:18.
ἄκανθας] compare the plural here with the variants in verse 6.
3
ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ] B (Swete) has οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Ἰούδα. The singular ἄνθρωπος matches the Hebrew; the plural οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες does not.
ἐν ἐμοὶ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ἀμπελῶνός] This use of ἀνὰ μέσον is odd; normally in the OG, either ἀνὰ μέσον appears before each of the nouns, (never in Isaiah, but e.g., Mal 3:19 ἀνὰ μέσον δικαίου καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον ἀνόμου) or before the first, with a καί before the second (Isa 59:2 ἀνὰ μέσον ὑμῶν καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ).
4
ἔτι] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) put the ἔτι after ποιήσω, rather than after μου.
καί] awkward Greek; the καί is a literal translation of the Hebrew conjunction. Ὅ is expected.
ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι] the agent of τοῦ ποιῆσαι is of course not the subject of ἔμεινα, but the vineyard.
5
ἀφελῶ] future of ἀφαιρέω
διαρπαγήν] is plundering.
καταπάτημα] is an object of trampling.
6
ἀνήσω] future of ανίημι. The same verb is used in 1:14 (forgive) and 2:9 (abandon), 3:9 (desert), and will be again used in 5:24 (uncontrolled).
τμηθῇ] aorist passive of τέμνω
σκαφῇ] aorist passive of σκάπτω
χέρσον] is dry, barren (land)
οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ] awkward, with so many negations. A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have οὐδὲ μὴ. The Hebrew has just one negator per verb, with the normal conjunction ו where G has οὐδέ.
ἔτι] deleted by cb2 (with A, B, Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler); reintroduced by d. The paragraph ends here in S.
Καὶ ἀναβήσονται] with B (Swete); plural changed from the singular ἀναβήσεται by ca, but reverted to the singular by cb3. Begins a new paragraph in S.
ἄκανθαι] with B (Swete; Ziegler), changed by cb2 (d) to the singular ἄκανθα, with A (Rahlfs). The word is as common in the singular as the plural. So it appears the order of the singular and plural of these two words is: scribe B: ἀναβήσεται ἄκανθαι; ca: ἀναβήσονται ἄκανθαι; cb2 ἀναβήσονται ἄκανθα; cb3 (and d): ἀναβήσεται ἄκανθα. My transcription ἀναβήσονται ἄκανθαι is the earliest intelligible form of the text in S.
7
ἄνθρωπος] the article is expected, to distinguish the subject from the predicate, but it is also absent in the Hebrew.
ἐστίν] lacking in B (Swete).
ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι κρίσιν] on its own, this expression would be understood to have the same agent for ἔμεινα and ποιῆσαι, “I waited to do justice,” but in the context of the earlier ἔμεινα τοῦ ποιῆσαι σταφυλήν (5:2) and the following third-person ἐποίησεν, it is clear that Lord expected Israel to do justice.
κρίσιν … ἀνομίαν, δικαιοσύνην … κραυγήν] G makes no attempt to recreate the Hebrew paranomasia mishpat-mispach, tsedaqa-tse`aqa.
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Notes on Isaiah 5:8-10

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 3:39 pm

25. Greed produces a desert (5:8-10)
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8 Οὐαὶ οἱ συνάπτοντες οἰκίαν πρὸς οἰκίαν καὶ ἀγρὸν πρὸς ἀγρὸν ἐγγίζοντες, ἵνα τοῦ πλησίον ἀφέλωνταί τι· μὴ οἰκήσητε μόνοι ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 9 ἠκούσθη γὰρ εἰς τὰ ὦτα Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ταῦτα· ἐὰν γὰρ γένωνται οἰκίαι πολλαί, εἰς ἔρημον ἔσονται μεγάλαι καὶ καλαί, καὶ οὐκ ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐταῖς. 10 οὗ γὰρ ἐργῶνται δέκα ζεύγη βοῶν, ποιήσει κεράμιον ἕν, καὶ ὁ σπείρων ἀρτάβας ἓξ ποιήσει μέτρα τρία.
8
Οὐαὶ] Of the 22 instances in Isaiah, most are followed by a nominative/vocative; only seven by the dative.
συνάπτοντες] joining together
ἐγγίζοντες] The transitive use of ἐγγίζω is unusual (derived from a literal translation of the hifil of קרב), but LSJ points to some precedents, including this same construction in Gen 48:10, when they “brought” Israel’s sons to him. Here the object of ἐγγίζω cannot be moved, so the meaning must be inferred from the parallel συνάπτοντες and context.
ἵνα τοῦ πλησίον ἀφέλωνταί τι· μὴ οἰκήσητε] Notice the shift to the third person. The Hebrew reads literally “until the end of a place, and you live” i.e., until there is no land left, and the consequence is that you are left by yourself. G adds a motive (to steal from one’s neighbour) and takes the solitude not as an unpleasant natural consequence, but as a prohibition.
οἰκήσητε] aorist subjunctive; A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the future indicative οἰκήσετε.
9
εἰς τὰ ὦτα Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ] Quoted in James 5:4 without a citation formula.
γένωνται] aorist subjunctive of γίνομαι
εἰς ἔρημον ἔσονται μεγάλαι καὶ καλαί] the adjectives modify the implicit subject.
ἔσονται οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες] G adds the verb ἔσονται and the article οἱ, so the most natural way to take the syntax is that the inhabitants will not be in the houses, which makes little sense. The Hebrew is not that difficult here; it lacks the article and the word for “inhabitant” is in the singular: they will be large and good, without inhabitant.
ἐν αὐταῖς] with B (Swete, Rahlfs), deleted by cb2, with A (Ziegler) and the MT, reintroduced by cb3. Note Rahlfs and Ziegler do not agree.
10
κεράμιον] a jar, sometimes used as a measure, but of unspecified volume. In any case, the land worked by ten yoke of oxen (100,000 square cubits, according to Marvin Powell, “Weights and Measures,” ABD) would be expected to produce far more.
ἀρτάβας] The ἀρτάβη is a Persian measure of about 50 litres, according to A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (ed. Smith, Wayte, Marindin, 1890) but 29-40 litres, according to Powell, so G intends about 200-300 litres. Here the Hebrew has a homer, which is 100-200 litres or 75,000 square cubits.
μέτρα τρία] translates one ephah, which is one tenth of a homer, so 10-20 litres (Powell). The presence of the number indicates that G had a specific volume in mind, but it is not known to us.
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Notes on Isaiah 5:11-12

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 3:41 pm

26. Drunkards ignore God’s deeds (5:11-12)
11 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐγειρόμενοι τὸ πρωῒ καὶ τὸ σίκερα διώκοντες, οἱ μένοντες τὸ ὀψέ· ὁ γὰρ οἶνος αὐτοὺς συγκαύσει. 12 μετὰ γὰρ κιθάρας καὶ ψαλτηρίου καὶ τυμπάνων καὶ χόρων καὶ αὐλῶν τὸν οἶνον πίνουσιν, τὰ δὲ ἔργα τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἐμβλέψουσιν καὶ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ οὐ κατανοησοῦσιν.
χόρων καὶ] dances, lacking in A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler), where only musical instruments are in the list.
τοῦ θεοῦ] Θ̅Υ̅ changed by cb2 to Κ̅Υ̅ (retaining τοῦ); B and A (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have κυρίου.
ἐμβλέψουσιν] future, changed to present ἐμβλέπουσιν by ca (and cb3), with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler), matching the present πίνουσιν. The Hebrew יביטו is the yiqtol form, which normally becomes future in Greek. This verb is recalled at the end of the chapter, in 5:30.
κατανοησοῦσιν] again, future, changed to present κατανοοῦσιν by ca (cb2 and d), with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler). Here, the Hebrew ראו is the qatal form, which normally becomes aorist in Greek.
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Notes on Isaiah 5:13-17

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 3:43 pm

27. Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge (5:13-17)
13 Τοίνυν αἰχμάλωτος ὁ λαός μου ἐγενήθη διὰ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι αὐτοὺς τὸν κύριον, καὶ πλῆθος ἐγενήθη νεκρῶν διὰ λιμὸν καὶ δίψαν ὕδατος. 14 καὶ ἐπλάτυνεν ὁ ᾅδης τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ διήνοιξεν τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ τοῦ μὴ διαλιπεῖν, καὶ καταβήσονται οἱ ἔνδοξοι καὶ οἱ μεγάλοι καὶ οἱ πλούσιοι καὶ οἱ λοιμοὶ αὐτῆς. 15 καὶ ταπεινωθήσεται ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ἀτιμασθήσεται ἀνήρ, καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ μετέωροι ταπεινωθήσονται· 16 καὶ ὑψωθήσεται Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐν κρίματι, καὶ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος δοξασθήσεται ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ. 17 καὶ βοσκηθήσονται οἱ διηρπασμένοι ὡς ταῦροι, καὶ τὰς ἐρήμους τῶν ἀπειλημμένων ἄρνες φάγωνται.
13
δίψαν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has δίψος. The two words mean the same; LSJ suggests δίψος is Attic, and δίψα Ionic, but both forms are used in the OG. The other instances in Isaiah are 41:17; 44:3; 50:2.
14
ἐπλάτυνεν] opened wide. It is attested with ψυχή as object (see LSJ).
ᾅδης] standard rendering of שׁאול. Because of the variety of beliefs about the afterlife at the time of the Greek translation, it is unclear whether ᾅδης was thought to be the home of all the dead, or only the wicked. Josephus indicates there were differences of opinion among the various Jewish sects (AJ 18.14; BJ 2.163; 3.375). Similarly, the New Testament attests to various views (even within a single chapter, Luke 16).
τοῦ μὴ διαλιπεῖν]
15
ἄνθρωπος … ἀνήρ] No speculation regarding the identity of this “man” is evident among early Christian writers.
μετέωροι] usually carries the sense of floating, hence either superficial or suspended in mid-air.
17
βοσκηθήσονται] passive: graze.
διηρπασμένοι] διαρπάζω generally means to tear away (LSJ); with people as the object, it means to abduct (BDAG).
ἀπειλημμένων] The genitive may be modifying either the ἐρήμους (as those producing the deserted areas) or the ἄρνες (as a partitive genitive). The word order favours the former, but the context favours the latter.
ἄρνες] If ἀπειλημμένων modifies ἐρήμους, the subjects of these two clauses appear to be incongruous. In the previous clause, those grazing are the people taken captive, but now in this clause, the lambs grazing would be doing so on the land abandoned by the people taken captive (“may lambs feed on the places deserted by those taken away”). The context favours understanding ἀπειλημμένων as a partitive genitive, so that those of the lambs that were taken away feed on the deserted places. Alternatively, the ἄρνες may be understood as the same kind of appositive nominative νεφέλη that appeared in 4:5, which would be translated “as”: “may they, as lambs, feed on the deserted places.”
φάγωνται] subjunctive; changed to the future φάγονται by d, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
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Notes on Isaiah 5:18-19

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 3:45 pm

28. Woe to disbelievers (5:18-19)
18 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἐπισπώμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας ὡς σχοινίῳ μακρῷ καὶ ὡς ζυγοῦ ἱμάντι δαμάλεως τὰς ἀνομίας, 19 οἱ λέγοντες Τὸ τάχος ἐγγισάτω ἃ ποιήσει, ἵνα ἴδωμεν, καὶ ἐλθέτω ἡ βουλὴ τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραήλ, ἵνα γνῶμεν.
18
Second person pronouns are used in the English translation, since the nominative forms are likely vocatives. See the note on Οὐαὶ in 5:8. This is confirmed by the second person pronoun in 5:22.
ἐπισπώμενοι] ἐπισπάω means to forcibly pull something over; it is used to describe removal of circumcision, in 1Cor 7:18.
ἱμάντι] the strap appears again in 5:27.
δαμάλεως] δάμαλις is a young cow.
19
Τὸ τάχος] adverbial neuter: quickly.
ἴδωμεν] from εἶδον. B (Swete) has εἰδῶμεν (from οἶδα), which by itacism might be spelled the same way. εἰδῶμεν produces a more exact parallel with γνῶμεν. Justin Martyr only includes one of these verbs: Τὸ τάχος αὐτοῦ ἐγγισάτω, καὶ ἐλθέτω ἡ βουλὴ τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραὴλ, ἵνα γνῶμεν.
ἐλθέτω] with A (Ziegler) and Justin Martyr; B (Swete, Rahlfs) spells it ἐλθάτω. Chrysostom appears to have read “see”
βουλὴ] a decided plan, often used for the divine will.
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Notes on Isaiah 5:20-23

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 3:46 pm

29. Woe to perverters of justice (5:20-23)
20 Οὐαὶ οἱ λέγοντες τὸ πονηρὸν καλὸν καὶ τὸ καλὸν πονηρόν, οἱ τιθέντες τὸ φῶς σκότος καὶ τὸ σκότος φῶς, οἱ τιθέντες τὸ πικρὸν γλυκὺ καὶ τὸ γλυκὺ πικρόν.

21 Οὐαὶ οἱ συνετοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐνώπιον ἑαυτῶν ἐπιστήμονες.

22 Οὐαὶ οἱ ἰσχύοντες ὑμῶν οἱ τὸν οἶνον πίνοντες καὶ οἱ δυνάσται οἱ κεραννύντες τὸ σίκερα, 23 οἱ δικαιοῦντες τὸν ἀσεβῆ ἕνεκεν δώρων καὶ τὸ δίκαιον τοῦ δικαίου αἴροντες.
20
λέγοντες] with double accusatives, as section 4 of the entry in BDAG.
τὸ φῶς σκότος] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have τὸ σκότος φῶς.
τὸ σκότος φῶς] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have τὸ φῶς σκότος.
21
συνετοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς] “wise to yourselves,” quoted as συνετοὶ ἑαυτοῖς (without ἐν) by Barnabas 4.11.
ἑαυτῶν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has αὑτῶν.
ἐπιστήμονες] ἐπιστήμων, an adjective carrying connotations of expertise.
22
ἰσχύοντες] in Isaiah, ἰσχύω appears most often as a participle, especially in the early chapters, translating a great variety of (twelve) Hebrew words, not all of which can be related to the meaning of strength or power. This observation leads to the supposition that ἰσχύοντες is a favourite word of G, used when he is uncertain what the Hebrew means. The participle functions as an a stative adjective “strong”, rather than active participle “able”.
τὸν οἶνον πίνοντες] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has πίνοντες τὸν οἶνον, following the Hebrew.
κεραννύντες] corrected by cb3 from κεραννόντες (with B*); A has κεραυνυντες; the editions have κεραννύντες. Means mixing, usually wine with water.
23
δώρων] often meaning “bribe”
αἴροντες] αἴρω can often have the meaning “kill,” but here there is an impersonal object.
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Notes on Isaiah 5:24-25

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 9:09 pm

30. Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath (5:24-25)
24 Διὰ τοῦτο ὃν τρόπον καυθήσεται καλάμη ὑπὸ ἄνθρακος πυρὸς καὶ συγκαυθήσεται ὑπὸ φλογὸς ἀνειμένης, ἡ ῥίζα αὐτῶν ὡς χνοῦς ἔσται, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος αὐτῶν ὡς κονιορτὸς ἀναβήσεται· οὐ γὰρ ἠθέλησαν τὸν νόμον Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, ἀλλὰ τὸ λόγιον τοῦ ἁγίου Ἰσραὴλ παρώξυναν. 25 καὶ ὀργίσθη θυμῷ Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐπὶ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ,

Καὶ ἐπέβαλεν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπάταξεν αὐτούς,

Καὶ παροξύνθῃ τὰ ὄρη, καὶ ἐγενήθη τὰ θνησιμαῖα αὐτῶν ὡς κοπρία ἐν μέσῳ ὁδοῦ. καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή.
24
ὃν τρόπον] this expression, common in the OG to translate כ, is attested in Xenophon, Plato, Josephus, etc. In the OG, it appears in no book more than Isaiah (25 times, 20 of which are in proto-Isaiah), but Joshua, Ezekiel, and Deuteronomy are also fond of it.
καυθήσεται] future for timeless action, even though the Hebrew uses the qatal form here.
συγκαυθήσεται] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; corrected by cb3 to συνκαυθήσεται, with B (Swete), from συνκαυθήσετε.
ἀνειμένης] from ἀνίημι, meaning here unrestrained, as we might say, “with abandon.” LEH has a separate definition for this occurrence: “violent flame.”
χνοῦς … κονιορτὸς] both may be translated dust, but χνοῦς tends to be organic (chaff), and κονιορτὸς road dust.
ἠθέλησαν] usually the object of θέλω is an infinitive verb (LSJ say “not used c. acc. only, exc. when an inf. is easily supplied”); here the object is a noun.
παρώξυναν] παροξύνω “arouse” translates נאץ “disdain,” as usual.
25
ὀργίσθη θυμῷ] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἐθυμώθη ὀργῇ. Both verbs appear in the OG and G in comparable numbers, translating חרה, and both nouns in comparable numbers, translating אף, but Isaiah prefers the noun θυμός and the verb ὀργίζω.
χεῖρα αὐτοῦ] with the MT; B (Swete) has χεῖρα without the pronoun, as later in this verse.
ἐπί] with B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has εις. ἐπί is a better rendering of על in hostile sense, as in 1:1.
παροξύνθῃ] aorist passive subjunctive, which is incongruous with the aorist indicative in next clause; A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the indicative παρωξύνθη. The same word appears at the end of 5:24. If indicative (due to the similar pronunciation of ο and ω), the sense would be, “And the mountains were provoked, and their carcasses became like filth in the middle of the path,” which still is puzzling, but less awkward syntactically. Silva has “the mountains were provoked, and their carcasses became like dung in the middle of the road.” Ottley has “and the mountains were provoked (to anger), and their carcases became as
dung in the midst of the way.”
θνησιμαῖα] θνησιμαῖος “dead” is first attested in the LXX, in Leviticus 5:2; 7:14; 17:15.
κοπρία] means a manure-pile (compare κόπρος “manure” in Ex 29:14).
καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις] with B (Swete, Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) lacks καὶ.
θυμός] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has θυμὸς αὐτοῦ. Means “passion.” See note at beginning of this verse.
ὁ θυμός … ἡ χεὶρ] the possessive pronoun “his” is present in Hebrew, but absent in G.
ἀλλʼ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ἀλλὰ.
Comment
The section ends with a lectionary note: τελος.
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Notes on Isaiah 5:26-30

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 10:06 pm

31. An army from the nations (5:26-30)
26 Τοιγαροῦν ἀρεῖ σύσσημον ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ συριεῖ αὐτοῖς ἀπ’ ἄκρου τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἰδοὺ ταχὺ κούφως ἔρχονται· 27 οὐ πεινάσουσιν οὐδὲ κοπιάσουσιν οὐδὲ νυστάξουσιν οὐδὲ κοιμηθήσονται οὐδὲ λύσουσιν τὰς ζώνας αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτῶν, οὐδὲ μὴ παραγῶσιν οἱ ἱμάντες τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτῶν· 28 ὧν τὰ βέλη ὀξεῖά ἐστιν καὶ τὰ τόξα αὐτῶν ἐντεταμένα, οἱ πόδες τῶν ἵππων αὐτῶν ὡς στερεὰ πέτρα ἐλογίσθησαν, οἱ τροχοὶ τῶν ἁρμάτων αὐτῶν ὡς καταιγίς· 29 ὁρμῶσιν ὡσεὶ λέοντες καὶ παρέστηκαν ὡσεὶ σκύμνος λέοντος· καὶ ἐπιλήμψεται καὶ βοήσει ὡς θηρίον καὶ ἐκβαλεῖ, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ ῥυόμενος αὐτούς. 30 καὶ βοήσει δι’ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ὡς φωνὴ θαλάσσης κυμαινούσης· καὶ ἐμβλέψονται εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω, καὶ εἰς τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἰδοὺ σκότος σκληρὸν ἐν τῇ ἀπορίᾳ αὐτῶν.
26
Τοιγαροῦν] a compound particle again, very rare in translation Greek, appearing twice in Job and twice in Proverbs. Here (as in Prov 1:31 and Job 24:22) it translates the simple ו.
σύσσημον] “sign”
μακρὰν] this adverb was originally a feminine accusative adjective (modifying an implicit ὁδόν).
αὐτοῖς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has αὐτοὺς.
κούφως] adverb of κοῦφος meaning light, nimble, quick, or easy, a good translation for קל.
27
πεινάσουσιν] future of πεινάω “be hungry.”
κοπιάσουσιν] future of κοπιάω, meaning tired due to exertion.
νυστάξουσιν] future of νυστάζω “become drowsy.”
παραγῶσιν] changed to ῥαγῶσιν by ca (cb), with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler). Ziegler missed this variant in his apparatus. ῥήγνυμι refers to a violent breaking, burst. παράγω means to pass by. Breaking certainly fits the context better than passing by, since the preceding clauses describe the endurance of the summoned army. Here we have a subjunctive after a series of futures, because of the emphatic negative construction οὐ μὴ + subjunctive.
ἱμάντες] the same word is used earlier in this chapter at 5:18, to refer to the straps of the heifer.
28
ἐντεταμένα] perfect participle of ἐντείνω “stretched”
ἐλογίσθησαν] a literal translation of נחשׁבו “reckoned.”
τροχοὶ τῶν ἁρμάτων αὐτῶν] The MT has only ו‍גלגליו “and their wheels,” with nothing but context to prompt the addition of τῶν ἁρμάτων.
καταιγίς] “squall” translates סוּפָה “storm-wind.”
29
ὁρμῶσιν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ὀργιῶσιν, which could be the present of ὀργιάω “celebrate” or the future of ὀργίζω “make angry.” The verb we have in S, however, is ὁρμάω, which means impulsively rush.
ὡσεὶ (both times)] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ὡς.
καὶ παρέστηκαν] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; changed to καὶ παρέστηκασιν by ca, with A; B (Swete) lacks καὶ.
σκύμνος] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler), referring to the young of a lion; B (Swete) has σκύμνοι, probably to match the plural παρέστηκαν.
ἐπιλήμψεται] The subject of this singular verb probably is the same as that of the singular verbs in 5:26.
βοήσει] with B (Swete, Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has βοήσεται (also in 5:30). Note Rahlfs and Ziegler do not agree. The future is attested in both middle and active forms, but the active is considered later, beginning in the 3rd C. BCE (LSJ).
αὐτούς] with B (Swete); lacking in A (Ziegler) and Hebrew.
30
βοήσει] again (as in 5:29), with B (Swete, Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has βοήσεται.
ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has τῇ ἡμέρᾳ.
ἐμβλέψονται] the same verb appeared earlier in the chapter, where the drunkards were not considering the works of God (5:12).
εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνω, καὶ] lacking in A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
γῆν] It is not always clear in G whether the local “land” is in view or the “earth” in contrast to the sky, but here it is the earth.
ἀπορίᾳ] refers to a undesirable condition from which no escape seems possible.
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 5 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 27th, 2011, 10:09 pm

24. The Song of the Vineyard (5:1-7)
5.1 I will sing now to the loved one a song of the beloved; to my vineyard. A vineyard belonged to the loved one, at a corner in a fertile place. 2 And I placed around it a fence and I fenced it in and I planted a vine of Sorech and I built a tower in the middle of it, and I dug a vat in it; and I waited for it to produce grapes, but it produced thorns. 3 And now, person of Ioudaia, and those inhabiting Jerusalem, judge between me and my vineyard.

4 What shall I do for my vineyard further and I did not do for it? Because I waited for it to produce grapes, but it produced thorns. 5 But now, I announce to you what I will do to my vineyard. I will take away its fence and it will become spoil and I will take down its wall and it will become a trampling ground. 6 And I will release my vineyard and it will certainly not be trimmed and certainly not dug.

And thorns will rise up in it as in a dry place and I will command the clouds that the rain not wet it. 7 For the vineyard of Lord Sabaoth is Israel’s house and the person of Judah, the beloved new plant. I waited for it to produce fair judgement, but it produced lawlessness, and not righteousness, but screaming.

25. Greed produces a desert (5:8-10)
8 Woe to you who join house to house and bring field to field, so that they might take something of their neighbour. You must not live alone on the land. 9 For these things were heard in the ears of Lord Sabaoth; for if houses become many, they, great and lovely, will become a desert, and there will not be people inhabiting them. 10 For where ten yoke of oxen work, it will produce one jar, and the one who sows six artabes will produce three measures.

26. Drunkards ignore God’s deeds (5:11-12)
11 Woe to you who wake up early and pursue the sikera, who stay late, for the wine will burn them up. 12 For with a lyre and a harp and drums and dances and flutes they drink the wine, but the deeds of God they will not consider, and they will not apprehend the deeds of his hands.

27. Lord’s people captive for lack of knowledge (5:13-17)
13 Therefore my people became captive, because they did not know Lord, and it became a multitude of corpses because of hunger and thirst for water. 14 And Hades has opened wide its soul, and has opened its mouth in order to not relent and her glorious and great and rich and violent will go down. 15 And a person will be brought low, and a man will be dishonoured, and the lofty eyes will be brought low. 16 And Lord Sabaoth will be exalted in judgment and the holy God will be honoured in righteousness. 17 And those taken captive will graze like bulls, and may lambs of those taken away feed on the deserted places .

28. Woe to disbelievers (5:18-19)
18 Woe to you, who draw in the sins as with a long rope, and transgressions as with a strap of a heifer’s yoke, 19 who say, With swiftness let him bring the things which he will do, so that we might see; and let the plan of the holy one of Israel come so that we might know it.

29. Woe to perverters of justice (5:20-23)
20 Woe to you who call evil good and good evil, who establish light as darkness and darkness as light, who establish bitter as sweet and sweet as bitter.

21 Woe to you intelligent in yourselves, and experts in the presence of yourselves. 22 Woe, your strong men who drink the wine, and rulers who mix the sikera, 23 who justify the ungodly person for the sake of a gift, and who take away the right of the righteous person.

30. Injustice provokes Lord’s wrath (5:24-25)
24 Because of this, in the way which a stalk will be burned by a coal of fire and will be burned up by an uncontrolled flame, their root will be like chaff and their shoot will rise up like a cloud of dust, for they did not desire the law of Lord Sabaoth, but they provoked the oracle of the holy one of Israel 25 And Lord Sabaoth was passionate with wrath over his people.

And he put his hand on them and he struck them.

And may the mountains be provoked, and their carcasses became like filth in the middle of the path. And in all these things the anger was not averted but still the hand was raised.

31. An army from the nations (5:26-30)
26 Therefore, he will raise a signal among the nations afar, and he will whistle to them from the edge of the land, and look, they are coming swiftly, quickly! 27 They will not be hungry nor will they be tired nor will they be sleepy nor will they sleep nor will they unfasten their belts from their waist nor would the straps of their sandals pass by, 28 whose arrows are sharp and their bows taut; the feet of their horses were reckoned as solid rock, the wheels of their chariots, as a storm. 29 They rush like a lion and approach like a lion’s cub and he will seize and roar like a wild animal; and he will cast out and there be no one who rescues them. 30 And he will roar because of them in that day, like a sound of a sea rising, and they will look at the sky above, and at the earth, and look, there will be severe darkness in their distress.
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St. Francis Xavier University

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