Isaiah Chapter 6

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 6

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 29th, 2011, 6:59 am

32. Theophany (6:1-5)
6.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, οὗ ἀπέθανεν Οζιας ὁ βασιλεύς, εἶδον τὸν κύριον καθήμενον ἐπὶ θρόνου ὑψηλοῦ καὶ ἐπηρμένου, καὶ πλήρης ὁ οἶκος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 2 καὶ σεραφιν εἱστήκεισαν κύκλῳ αὐτοῦ, ἓξ πτέρυγες τῷ ἑνὶ καὶ ἓξ πτέρυγες τῷ ἑνί, καὶ ταῖς μὲν δυσὶν κατεκάλυπτον τὸ πρόσωπον καὶ ταῖς δυσὶν κατεκάλυπτον τοὺς πόδας καὶ ταῖς δυσὶν ἐπέτοντο. 3 καὶ ἐκέκραγον ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἔλεγον Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος κύριος σαβαωθ, πλήρης πᾶσα ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 4 καὶ ἐπήρθη τὸ ὑπέρθυρον ἀπὸ τῆς φωνῆς, ἧς ἐκέκραγον, καὶ ὁ οἶκος ἐπλήσθη καπνοῦ.

5 Καὶ εἶπα Ὦ τάλας ἐγώ, ὅτι κατανένυμαι, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος ὢν καὶ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχων ἐν μέσῳ λαοῦ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχοντος ἐγὼ οἰκῶ καὶ τὸν βασιλέα κύριον σαβαωθ εἶδον τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς μου.

33. Lips purified (6:6-7)
6 Καὶ ἀπεστάλη πρός με ἓν τῶν σαραφιν, καὶ ἐν τῇ χειρὶ εἶχεν ἄνθρακα, ὃν τῇ λαβίδι ἔλαβεν ἀπὸ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, 7 καὶ ἥψατο τοῦ στόματός μου καὶ εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ ἥψατο τοῦτο τῶν χειλέων μου καὶ ἀφελεῖ τὰς ἀνομίας σου καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου περικαθαριεῖ.

34. Isaiah’s commission (6:8-10)
8 Καὶ ἤκουσα τῆς φωνῆς κυρίου λέγοντος Τίνα ἀποστίς πορεύσεται πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον;

Καὶ εἶπα Ἰδού ἐγώ εἰμι · ἀπόστειλόν με.

9 Καὶ εἶπεν Πορεύου καὶ εἰπὸν τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ Ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψητε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε· 10 ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου, καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν, μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψουσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς.
35. The extent of the desolation (6:11-13)
11 καὶ εἶπα Ἕως πότε, κύριε; καὶ εἶπεν Ἕως ἂν ἐρημωθῶσιν πόλεις παρὰ τὸ μὴ κατοικεῖσθαι καὶ οἶκοι παρὰ τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἀνθρώπους καὶ ἡ γῆ καταλειφθήσεται ἔρημος. 12 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα μακρυνεῖ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, καὶ οἱ καταλειφθέντες πληθυνθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· 13 καὶ ἔτι ἐπ’ αὐτῆς ἔστιν τὸ ἐπιδέκατον, καὶ πάλιν ἔσται εἰς προνομὴν ὡς τερέβινθος καὶ ὡς βάλανος ὅταν ἐκπέσῃ ἀπὸ τῆς θήκης αὐτῆς.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 6:1-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 30th, 2011, 4:48 am

32. Theophany (6:1-5)
6.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, οὗ ἀπέθανεν Ὀζίας ὁ βασιλεύς, εἶδον τὸν κύριον καθήμενον ἐπὶ θρόνου ὑψηλοῦ καὶ ἐπηρμένου, καὶ πλήρης ὁ οἶκος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 2 καὶ σεραφεὶν εἱστήκεισαν κύκλῳ αὐτοῦ, ἓξ πτέρυγες τῷ ἑνὶ καὶ ἓξ πτέρυγες τῷ ἑνί, καὶ ταῖς μὲν δυσὶν κατεκάλυπτον τὸ πρόσωπον καὶ ταῖς δυσὶν κατεκάλυπτον τοὺς πόδας καὶ ταῖς δυσὶν ἐπέτοντο. 3 καὶ ἐκέκραγον ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἔλεγον Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ, πλήρης πᾶσα ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 4 καὶ ἐπήρθη τὸ ὑπέρθυρον ἀπὸ τῆς φωνῆς, ἧς ἐκέκραγον, καὶ ὁ οἶκος ἐπλήσθη καπνοῦ.

5 Καὶ εἶπα Ὦ τάλας ἐγώ, ὅτι κατανένυμαι, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος ὢν καὶ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχων ἐν μέσῳ λαοῦ ἀκάθαρτα χείλη ἔχοντος ἐγὼ οἰκῶ καὶ τὸν βασιλέα Κύριον Σαβαὼθ εἶδον τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς μου.
1
Καὶ ἐγένετο] This phrase lacks a Hebrew counterpart. It appears seven times in Isaiah, but only here is ויהי not behind it.
Ὀζίας] with A and Bb (Ziegler, Rahlfs); Swete has Ὀζείας.
2
σεραφεὶν] with A; Ziegler and Rahlfs have σεραφιν; B (Swete) has σεραφεὶμ.
τῷ ἑνὶ] G has this phrase twice, where the Hebrew idiom has ל‍אחד only the second time.
πρόσωπον καὶ ταῖς] with A (Ziegler; Rahlfs); B (Swete) has πρόσωπον, ταῖς δὲ.
κατεκάλυπτον] imperfects are rare extremely rare in G. Besides the forms of εἰμί, there are only four imperfects in G, three of which are in this paragraph (the other is ἔφερον in 30:6). By contrast, Ezekiel has dozens of imperfects. The Hebrew form is yiqtol.
ἐπέτοντο] imperfect of πέτομαι; A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the aorist ἐπέταντο. Again, the Hebrew form is yiqtol.
3
ἐκέκραγον] with A; B (Swete) has the singular ἐκέκραγεν. The tense has shifted back to aorist; the Hebrew form is qatal.
ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον] The phrasing mimics the Hebrew expression זה אל זה, but is not entirely a literal rendering, which would be οὗτος πρὸς τοῦτον. The forms here imply the seraphs are masculine. In 6:6 they are neuter.
4
ἐπήρθη] Aorist passive of ἐπαίρω.
ὑπέρθυρον] “over door” is the lintel.
ἐπλήσθη] From πίμπλημι with A; B (Swete) has ἐνεπλήσθη from ἐμπίμπλημι, with no difference of meaning.
5
εἶπα] with A; B (Swete) has εἶπον.
τάλας] translates אוי only here. In fact, only here is it a translation of Hebrew; the other three instances in the Greek Bible are in Wisdom and 4 Maccabees.
κατανένυμαι] corrected by d to κατανένυγμαι, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler). Κατανύω means bring to an end; κατανύσσω means pierce, usually not physically. The Hebrew דמה could mean “silenced” or “destroyed.”
ὢν … ἔχων] The participles could have a concessive sense: although I am … and have …. Silva leaves it as “for being a man and having unclean lips, I live among a people having unclean lips.” Similarly, Ottley has “for being (but) a man, and with impure lips, I dwell in the midst of a people with impure lips.”
τὸν βασιλέα Κύριον] notice the article on the word for king, but none on the word for lord, indicating Κύριος is more of a name than a title.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 6:6-7

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 30th, 2011, 4:49 am

33. Lips purified (6:6-7)
6 Καὶ ἀπεστάλη πρός με ἓν τῶν σαραφείν, καὶ ἐν τῇ χειρὶ εἶχεν ἄνθρακα, ὃν τῇ λαβίδι ἔλαβεν ἀπὸ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, 7 καὶ ἥψατο τοῦ στόματός μου καὶ εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ ἥψατο τοῦτο τῶν χειλέων μου καὶ ἀφελεῖ τὰς ἀνομίας σου καὶ τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου περικαθαριεῖ.
6
ἀπεστάλη] Aorist passive of ἀποστέλλω.
ἓν] Here, in contrast to 6:3, the seraphs are neuter.
σαραφείν] changed by ca to σεραφείν, with B (Swete); Rahlfs and Ziegler have σεραφιν.
λαβίδι ἔλαβεν] These two words both derived from the root *λαβ, just as the Hebrew words behind them both derive from לקח.
7
ἥψατο] In its first instance, the subject appears to be the seraph (which is the subject of the preceding and following verbs). In the second instance, the subject is clearly the coal.
στόματός] Following the Hebrew closely, the coal is said to touch not the lips but the mouth.
μου] changed by ca (cb3) to σου, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler). The original reading of S would be that purity was conveyed from the seraph’s mouth to the prophet’s.
ἀφελεῖ] future of ἀφαιρέω
περικαθαριεῖ] future of περικαθαρίζω.
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 6:8-10

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 30th, 2011, 9:21 am

34. Isaiah’s commission (6:8-10)
8 Καὶ ἤκουσα τῆς φωνῆς Κυρίου λέγοντος Τίνα ἀποστείλω, καὶ τίς πορεύσεται πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον;

Καὶ εἶπα Ἰδού ἐγώ εἰμι · ἀπόστειλόν με.

9 Καὶ εἶπεν Πορεύου καὶ εἶπον τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ Ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε καὶ οὐ μὴ συνῆτε καὶ βλέποντες βλέψητε καὶ οὐ μὴ εἴδητε· 10 ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου, καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν, μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψουσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς.
8
ἀποστείλω, καὶ τίς] with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler), changed by cb2 from ἀποστίς.
ἐγώ εἰμι] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have εἰμι ἐγώ.
9
εἶπον] The context expects an imperative. The accentuation agrees with Ziegler; Swete and Rahlfs have εἰπὸν. On the accent, LSJ refers to Herodianus 1.460.
Πορεύου] present tense; A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the aorist Πορεύθητι.
Ἀκοῇ ἀκούσετε] Here the Hebrew infinitive absolute construction is rendered by a noun in the dative, and a future verb.
συνῆτε] from συνίημι.
βλέποντες] Here the Hebrew infinitive absolute construction is rendered by a participle, which is the most common way of translating the infinitive absolute.
βλέψητε] The verb is subjunctive. A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have βλέψετε. Swete missed this variant in his apparatus.
εἴδητε] here spelled as if from οἶδα. A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἴδητε instead, from εἶδον. However, the two are indistinguishable because of itacism, so not much significance can be drawn from the difference.
10
ἐπαχύνθη] from παχύνω is literal rendering of השׁמן “fatten,” but the MT has it active rather than passive.
ὠσὶν βαρέως] changed to ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως by cb2, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) “heavily,” as if with great inertia, so “with difficulty.”
ἴδωσιν] here spelled as from εἶδον, in contrast to the preceding verse.
ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) lacks αὐτῶν.
ἐκάμμυσαν] καμμύω and καταμύω mean close the eyes.
συνῶσιν] subjunctive of συνίημι, the same verb as in 6:9.
ἐπιστρέψουσιν] S has the future tense, making a clear disjunction from the subjunctives introduced by μήποτε. In S at least, the turning belongs to the real future, along with the healing. A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the subjunctive ἐπιστρέψωσιν.
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 6:11-13

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 30th, 2011, 10:02 am

35. The extent of the desolation (6:11-13)
11 καὶ εἶπα Ἕως πότε, Κύριε; καὶ εἶπεν Ἕως ἂν ἐρημωθῶσιν πόλεις παρὰ τὸ μὴ κατοικεῖσθαι καὶ οἶκοι παρὰ τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἀνθρώπους καὶ ἡ γῆ καταλειφθήσεται ἔρημος. 12 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα μακρυνεῖ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, καὶ οἱ καταλειφθέντες πληθυνθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· 13 καὶ ἔτι ἐπ’ αὐτῆς ἐστιν τὸ ἐπιδέκατον, καὶ πάλιν ἔσται εἰς προνομὴν ὡς τερέβινθος καὶ ὡς βάλανος ὅταν ἐκπέσῃ ἀπὸ τῆς θήκης αὐτῆς.
11
παρὰ τὸ μὴ] παρά with the infinitive is not uncommon in Greek, to give the reason for something “because” or “for” (see Josephus AJ 7.195; BJ 2.182; 1 Clement 39.5).
καταλειφθήσεται] future of καταλείπω, translating a yiqtol form, but apparently reading תשׁאר for תשׁאה, the verb behind ἐρημωθῶσιν in this verse. That earlier subjunctive translated a qatal שׁאו.
12
μετὰ ταῦτα] not represented in the Hebrew.
μακρυνεῖ] The citations in LSJ’s entry on μακρύνω are almost all from the Greek Bible, but the sense is clear from the etymology and GELS that distance between two things is increased.
καταλειφθέντες] same verb as in 6:11, but here translating עזב.
13
ἐστιν] accented with B (Swete; Ziegler has ἐστι); Rahlfs has ἔστιν. According to Carson (Greek Accents, 50), the accent should only be on the penult when it stands at the beginning of a sentence or clause; when signifying existence or possibility; when it is preceded by οὐκ, μή, ὡς, εἰ, καί, ἀλλά (or ἀλλ’), τοῦτο (when elided as τοῦτ’); when it is strongly emphatic. The Hebrew clause has no verb, so that is probably why the Greek present tense was used.
ἐπιδέκατον] a financial term for 10%.
ἔσται εἰς] Forms of היה ל meaning “become” are often translated literally as forms of εἰμί εἰς.
ἀπὸ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ἐκ.
θήκης] The word θήκη is used for containers, especially graves and swords. Muraoka suggests, “the ground in which the roots of a tree lie (?) or a husk of acorns.” In 3:26 we saw the cosmetic cases, αἱ θῆκαι τοῦ κόσμου of the women.
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 6 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » July 30th, 2011, 10:41 am

32. Theophany (6:1-5)
6.1 And it happened in the year when Ozias the king died, I saw Lord, seated on a high and raised throne, and the building was full of his glory. 2 And seraphein stood around him; there were six wings to the one and six wings to the other one and with two they were covering the face, and with two they were covering the feet and with two they were flying. 3 And they were shouting, one to the other, and they were saying, "Holy, holy, holy, is Lord Sabaoth; the whole land is full of his glory. 4 And the lintel was lifted from the sound that they were shouting, and the building was filled with smoke.

5 And I said, "Oh, I am wretched, because I have come to an end; for while I am a person and I have impure lips, I live in the middle of a people having impure lips, and I have seen the king, Lord Sabaoth, with my eyes.

33. Lips purified (6:6-7)
6 And one of the saraphein was sent to me, and in its hand it was holding a coal which it took with a holder from the altar. 7 And it touched my mouth and said, "Look, this touched my lips and will take away your transgressions and will purge away your sins.

34. Isaiah’s commission (6:8-10)
8 And I heard the voice of Lord saying, Whom shall I send; who will go to this people?

And I said, Look, I am here; send me.

9 And he said, Go and say to this people, You will hear by hearing and not understand, and although you are looking, may you look and not know. 10 For the heart of this people has been thickened and they heard with the ears with difficulty and they closed their eyes lest they see with the eyes and hear with the ears and understand with the heart, and they will turn and I will heal them.
35. The extent of the desolation (6:11-13)
11 And I said, Until when, Lord? And he said, Until cities are desolated because they are not inhabited and houses because there are no people, and the land will be left deserted. 12 And after these things God will distance the people, and those left behind will increase on the land. 13 And still the tenth part is on it, and again it will become plunder like a terebinth tree and like an acorn when it falls from its case.
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St. Francis Xavier University

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