Isaiah Chapter 7

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 7

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 7:31 am

36. Aram attacks Jerusalem (7:1-2)
7.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἀχὰζ τοῦ Ἰωαθὰμ τοῦ υἱοῦ Ὀζείου βασιλέως Ἰούδα ἀνέβη Ραασσων βασιλεὺς Ἀρὰμ καὶ Φάκεε υἱὸς Ῥομελιὰ βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλὴμ πολεμῆσαι αὐτὴν καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν πολιορκῆσαι αὐτήν. 2 καὶ ἀνηγγέλη εἰς τὸν οἶκον Δαυεὶδ λέγων Συνεφώνησεν Ἀρὰμ πρὸς τὸν Ἐφράιμ · καὶ ἐξέστη ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὃν τρόπον ἐν δρυμῷ ξύλον ὑπὸ πνεύματος σαλευθῇ.

37. Esaias encourages Achaz (7:3-6)
3 Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος πρὸς Ἠσαίαν Ἔξελθε εἰς συνάντησιν Ἀχὰζ σὺ καὶ ὁ καταλειφθεὶς Ἰασοὺβ ὁ υἱός σου πρὸς τὴν κολυμβήθραν τῆς ἄνω ὁδοῦ ἀγροῦ τοῦ γναφέως 4 καὶ ἐρεῖς αὐτῷ Φύλαξαι τοῦ ἡσυχάσαι καὶ μὴ φοβοῦ, μηδὲ ἡ ψυχή σου ἀσθενείτω ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ξύλων τῶν δαλῶν τῶν καπνιζομένων τούτων· ὅταν γὰρ ὀργὴ τοῦ θυμοῦ μου γένηται, πάλιν ἰάσομαι. 5 καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀρὰμ καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ῥομελίου, ὅτι ἐβουλεύσαντο περὶ σοῦ βουλὴν πονηρὰν λέγοντες 6 Ἀναβησόμεθα εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καὶ συλλαλήσαντες αὐτοῖς ἀποστρέψομεν αὐτοὺς πρὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ βασιλεύσομεν αὐτῆς τὸν υἱὸν Ταβεήλ,

38. Aram’s plot will fail (7:7-9)
7 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Οὐ μὴ ἐμμείνῃ αὕτη ἡ βουλὴ οὐδὲ ἔσται· 8 ἀλλ’ ἡ κεφαλὴ Ἀρὰμ Δαμασκός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἑξήκοντα καὶ πέντε ἐτῶν ἐκλείψει ἡ βασιλεία Εφραιμ ἀπὸ λαοῦ, 9 καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Εφραιμ Σομορων, καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Σομορων ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ρομελιου· καὶ ἐὰν μὴ πιστεύσητε, οὐδὲ μὴ συνῆτε.

39. A sign for Achaz (7:10-17)
10 Καὶ προσέθετο κύριος λαλῆσαι τῷ Αχαζ λέγων 11 Αἴτησαι σεαυτῷ σημεῖον παρὰ κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ σου εἰς βάθος ἢ εἰς ὕψος.

12 καὶ εἶπεν Αχαζ Οὐ μὴ αἰτήσω οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ πειράσω κύριον.

13 καὶ εἶπεν Ἀκούσατε δή, οἶκος Δαυιδ· μὴ μικρὸν ὑμῖν ἀγῶνα παρέχειν ἀνθρώποις; καὶ πῶς κυρίῳ παρέχετε ἀγῶνα; 14 διὰ τοῦτο δώσει κύριος αὐτὸς

ὑμῖν σημεῖον·

ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει καὶ τέξεται υἱόν, καὶ καλέσει τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Εμμανουηλ· 15 βούτυρον καὶ μέλι φάγεται· πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι αὐτὸν ἢ προελέσθαι πονηρὰ ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν· 16 διότι πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι τὸ παιδίον ἀγαθὸν ἢ κακὸν, καὶ καταλειφθήσεται ἡ γῆ, ἣν σὺ φοβῇ ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν δύο βασιλέων.
17 ἀλλὰ ἐπάξει ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν σου καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός ἡμέρας, αἳ οὔπω ἥκασιν ἀφ’ ἧς ἡμέρας ἀφεῖλεν Εφραιμ ἀπὸ Ιουδα, τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἀσσυρίων.

40. Lord whistles for flies (7:18-19)
18 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ συριεῖ κύριος μυίαις, ὃ κυριεύει μέρος ποταμοῦ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ τῇ μελίσσῃ, ἥ ἐστιν ἐν χώρᾳ Ἀσσυρίων, 19 καὶ ἐξελεύσονται πάντες καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐν ταῖς φάραγξι τῆς χώρας σου καὶ ἐν ταῖς τρώγλαις τῶν πετρῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ σπήλαια καὶ εἰς πᾶσαν ῥαγάδα καὶ ἐν παντὶ ξύλῳ.

41. Lord’s razor (7:20-22)
20 Ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ξυρήσει κύριος τῷ ξυρῷ τῷ μεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳ, πέραν τοῦ ποταμοῦ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων, τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῶν ποδῶν καὶ τὸν πώγωνα ἀφελεῖ.
21 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ θρέψει ἄνθρωπος δάμαλιν βοῶν καὶ δύο πρόβατα, 22 καὶ ἔσται ἀπὸ τοῦ πλεῖστον ποιεῖν γάλα βούτυρον καὶ μέλι φάγεται πᾶς ὁ καταλειφθεὶς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.

42. From barren to fertile land (7:23-25)
23 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ πᾶς τόπος, οὗ ἐὰν ὦσιν χίλιαι ἄμπελοι χιλίων σίκλων, εἰς χέρσον ἔσονται καὶ εἰς ἄκανθας· 24 μετὰ βέλους καὶ τοξεύματος εἰσελεύσονται ἐκεῖ, ὅτι χέρσος καὶ ἄκανθαι ἔσται πᾶσα ἡ γῆ. 25 καὶ πᾶν ὄρος ἀροτριώμενον ἀροτριαθήσεται, οὐ μὴ ἐπέλθῃ ἐκεῖ φόβος· ἔσται γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς χέρσου καὶ ἀκάνθης εἰς βόσκημα προβάτου καὶ καταπάτημα βοός.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 7:1-2

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 4:19 pm

36. Aram attacks Jerusalem (7:1-2)
7.1 Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἀχὰζ τοῦ Ἰωαθὰμ τοῦ υἱοῦ Ὀζείου βασιλέως Ἰούδα ἀνέβη Ραασσων βασιλεὺς Ἀρὰμ καὶ Φάκεε υἱὸς Ῥομελιὰ βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλὴμ πολεμῆσαι αὐτὴν καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν πολιορκῆσαι αὐτήν. 2 καὶ ἀνηγγέλη εἰς τὸν οἶκον Δαυεὶδ λέγων Συνεφώνησεν Ἀρὰμ πρὸς τὸν Ἐφράιμ · καὶ ἐξέστη ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὃν τρόπον ἐν δρυμῷ ξύλον ὑπὸ πνεύματος σαλευθῇ.
1
τοῦ Ἰωαθὰμ] there is no υἱοῦ here, as there is with Ὀζείου.
ἀνέβη] singular, though both Raasson and Phakee went up. But see ἠδυνήθησαν later in this verse.
Ραασσων] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has Ῥασεὶν.
Ῥομελιὰ] with B; Corrected to Ρομελιου by cb1, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler).
ἠδυνήθησαν] here the verb is plural.
2
ἀνηγγέλη] passive; the agent is not specified.
εἰς] an unexpected preposition with ἀναγγέλλω.
οἶκος Δαυείδ] used again in 7:13 in addressing Achaz.
λέγων] with B (Swete); A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has λέγοντες. The Hebrew rule is that direct speech should be introduced by a form of אמר.
ἐξέστη] singular, despite the two subjects (ψυχὴ).
αὐτοῦ] the most recent antecedent would be οἶκος Δαυεὶδ.
ὃν τρόπον] see the comment on the earlier instance in 5:24.
ἐν δρυμῷ] with B (Swete); A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) precede by ὅταν
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Notes on Isaiah 7:3-6

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 8:28 pm

37. Esaias encourages Achaz (7:3-6)
3 Καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος πρὸς Ἠσαίαν Ἔξελθε εἰς συνάντησιν Ἀχὰζ σὺ καὶ ὁ καταλειφθεὶς Ἰασσοὺβ ὁ υἱός σου πρὸς τὴν κολυμβήθραν τῆς ἄνω ὁδοῦ ἀγροῦ τοῦ γναφέως 4 καὶ ἐρεῖς αὐτῷ Φύλαξαι τοῦ ἡσυχάσαι καὶ μὴ φοβοῦ, μηδὲ ἡ ψυχή σου ἀσθενείτω ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ξύλων τῶν δαλῶν τῶν καπνιζομένων τούτων· ὅταν γὰρ ὀργὴ τοῦ θυμοῦ μου γένηται, πάλιν ἰάσομαι. 5 καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀρὰμ καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ῥομελίου, ὅτι ἐβουλεύσαντο περὶ σοῦ βουλὴν πονηρὰν λέγοντες 6 Ἀναβησόμεθα εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καὶ συλλαλήσαντες αὐτοῖς ἀποστρέψομεν αὐτοὺς πρὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ βασιλεύσομεν αὐτῆς τὸν υἱὸν Ταβεήλ,
3
ὁ καταλειφθεὶς Ἰασοὺβ ὁ υἱός σου] The first part of the Hebrew name שׁאר ישׁוב is translated; the second is transliterated.
Ἰασσοὺβ] A and B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have Ιασουβ.
4
ἀγροῦ] with B (Swete; Rahlfs), A (Ziegler) has τοῦ ἀγροῦ.
τῶν δύο ξύλων τῶν δαλῶν τῶν καπνιζομένων τούτων] ξύλων and δαλῶν are both nouns. The main noun is indicated by the δύο, so the other genitive δαλῶν is specifying what kind of timbers.
ξύλων] The same noun ξύλον was used in 7:2.
5
περὶ σοῦ βουλὴν πονηρὰν λέγοντες] A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has βουλὴν πονηρὰν περὶ σοῦ λέγοντες; B (Swete) has βουλὴν πονηράν, without περὶ σοῦ λέγοντες.
ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀρὰμ καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ῥομελίου] This nominative does not have a verb for which it can act as a subject. The sentence lacks a main verb, since ἐβουλεύσαντο is in the ὅτι clause.
6
συλλαλήσαντες] with A, Bb (Rahlfs, Ziegler); Swete spells it συνλαλήσαντες. The participle could indicate the sequence or the means by which the action of ἀποστρέψομεν happens.
ἀποστρέψομεν] future, with B (Swete, Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has the subjunctive ἀποστρέψωμεν. The future tense here matches the preceding Ἀναβησόμεθα and the following βασιλεύσομεν better.
τὸν υἱὸν Ταβεήλ] accusative. The basic function of the accusative is to limit or modify verbs, so this phrase expresses how they will rule.
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Notes on Isaiah 7:7-9

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 8:29 pm

38. Aram’s plot will fail (7:7-9)
7 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Οὐ μὴ ἐμμείνῃ αὕτη ἡ βουλὴ οὐδὲ ἔσται· 8 ἀλλ’ ἡ κεφαλὴ Ἀρὰμ Δαμασκός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἑξήκοντα καὶ πέντε ἐτῶν ἐκλείψει ἡ βασιλεία Ἐφράιμ ἀπὸ λαοῦ, 9 καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Ἐφράιμ Σομορών, καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Σομορὼν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Ῥομελίου· καὶ ἐὰν μὴ πιστεύσητε, οὐδὲ μὴ συνῆτε.
7
ἐμμείνῃ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has μείνῃ.
αὕτη ἡ βουλὴ] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἡ βουλὴ αὕτη
ἔσται] literal translation of תהיה, although γενήσεται would be better Greek.
ἀπὸ λαοῦ] a literal translation of מ‍עם, which means “without a people.”
8
Δαμασκός] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; changed to Δαμασκός, καὶ ἡ κεφαλὴ Δαμασκοῦ Ῥασείμ, with A, B (Swete).
9
ὁ υἱὸς] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have υἱὸς.
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Notes on Isaiah 7:10-17

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 8:31 pm

39. A sign for Achaz (7:10-17)
10 Καὶ προσέθετο Κύριος λαλῆσαι τῷ Ἀχὰζ λέγων 11 Αἴτησαι σεαυτῷ σημεῖον παρὰ Κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ σου εἰς βάθος ἢ εἰς ὕψος.

12 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἀχὰζ Οὐ μὴ αἰτήσω οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ πειράσω Κύριον.

13 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἀκούσατε δή, οἶκος Δαυείδ· μὴ μικρὸν ὑμῖν ἀγῶνα παρέχειν ἀνθρώποις; καὶ πῶς Κυρίῳ παρέχετε ἀγῶνα; 14 διὰ τοῦτο δώσει Κύριος αὐτὸς

Ὑμῖν σημεῖον·

Ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει καὶ τέξεται υἱόν, καὶ καλέσει τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουήλ· 15 βούτυρον καὶ μέλι φάγεται πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι αὐτὸν ἢ προελέσθαι πονηρά, ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν· 16 διότι πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι τὸ παιδίον ἀγαθὸν ἢ κακόν, καὶ καταλειφθήσεται ἡ γῆ, ἣν σὺ φοβῇ ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν δύο βασιλέων.
17 ἀλλὰ ἐπάξει ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν σου καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός ἡμέρας, αἳ οὔπω ἥκασιν ἀφ’ ἧς ἡμέρας ἀφεῖλεν Ἐφράιμ ἀπὸ Ἰούδα τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἀσσυρίων.
10
Καὶ προσέθετο] standard translation of ו‍יוסף.
11
τοῦ θεοῦ] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have θεοῦ.
εἰς] reflects nothing in the Hebrew behind εἰς βάθος, but the ל‍ of the Hebrew הגבה ל‍מעל‍ה behind εἰς ὕψος.
12
οὐδʼ οὐ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); Swete has οὐδὲ, eliminating the double negative.
αἰτήσω … πειράσω] these could be futures or subjunctives.
13
οἶκος Δαυείδ] Here the addressee appears to be Achaz himself, since no others are mentioned in attendance besides Achaz, Esaias, and Iassoub (7:3).
μὴ] the question introduced by μὴ expects a negative answer. “It isn’t a small thing, is it?”
14
Ὑμῖν σημεῖον·] S has these two words in their own paragraph. They could serve as a title for what follows, but this leaves the preceding sentence without an object.
ἕξει] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); Swete has λήμψεται. The former, a durative verb, appears to refer to pregnancy, and the latter to conception.
καλέσει] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have καλέσεις. In S the maiden will name the child; in A and B, Achaz will do so. When quoted by Luke, the form of the verb is second person, as in A and B, but the subject is the maiden, as in S.
Ἐμμανουήλ] since it is given as a name, Ἐμμανουήλ is transliterated rather than translated.
15
ἐκλέξασθαι] with B (Swete); changed to ἐκλέξεται by ca, cb2, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler), to provide a finite verb for this clause. As an infinitive, it apparently expresses purpose: he will eat in order to choose good.
16
ἢ κακόν] corrector cb2 added ἀπειθεῖ πονηρίᾳ τοῦ ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler). B (Swete) lacks τοῦ, so it has ἢ κακὸν ἀπειθεῖ πονηρίᾳ ἐκλέξασθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν.
καὶ] since the preceding clause was subordinated by διότι, the καὶ does not coordinate two clauses. It must therefore be understood adverbially.
17
ἐπάξει] future of ἐπάγω
πατρός] changed to πατρός σου by ca, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) and MT, resolving some awkwardness.
τὸν βασιλέα] apparently the object of ἀφεῖλεν, the more recent verb than ἐπάξει, which already has ἡμέρας as its object. This makes Ἐφράιμ the subject of ἀφεῖλεν.
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Notes on Isaiah 7:18-19

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 8:33 pm

40. Lord whistles for flies (7:18-19)
18 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ συριεῖ Κύριος μυίαις, ὃ κυριεύει μέρος ποταμοῦ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ τῇ μελίσσῃ, ἥ ἐστιν ἐν χώρᾳ Ἀσσυρίων, 19 καὶ ἐξελεύσονται πάντες καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐν ταῖς φάραγξι τῆς χώρας σου καὶ ἐν ταῖς τρώγλαις τῶν πετρῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ σπήλαια καὶ εἰς πᾶσαν ῥαγάδα καὶ ἐν παντὶ ξύλῳ.
18
ὃ] the referent for this neuter singular relative pronoun is unclear. Nothing explicit matches its gender and number: day is feminine, flies are plural, Lord is masculine. Only the action itself could be neuter singular, but this makes little sense. Silva disregards the singular form, rendering it “the flies that rule”; Ottley has “the flies, that which ruleth over….”
κυριεύει] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has κυριεύσει. The future is out of place here, in parallel with the present ἐστιν.
μέρος] with B (Swete), changed to μέρους by cb1, with A. In S, either of the two neuters (the pronoun ὃ or the noun μέρος) could be the subject or object of κυριεύει, which normally takes its object in the genitive.
19
ἐξελεύσονται] changed to ἐλεύσονται by ca, cb2, cb3, with A, B.
πάντες] the masculine form indicates it is people rather than flies or bees (both feminine) that will go out.
καὶ ἀναπαύσονται] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B (Swete)
χώρας σου] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have only χώρας.
καὶ ἐν παντὶ ξύλῳ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B (Swete).
ξύλῳ] repeated vocabulary from earlier in this chapter.
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Notes on Isaiah 7:20-22

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 9:22 pm

41. Lord’s razor (7:20-22)
20 Ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ξυρήσει Κύριος τῷ ξυρῷ τῷ μεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳ, πέραν τοῦ ποταμοῦ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων, τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῶν ποδῶν καὶ τὸν πώγωνα ἀφελεῖ.
21 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ θρέψει ἄνθρωπος δάμαλιν βοῶν καὶ δύο πρόβατα, 22 καὶ ἔσται ἀπὸ τοῦ πλεῖστον ποιεῖν γάλα βούτυρον καὶ μέλι φάγεται πᾶς ὁ καταλειφθεὶς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.
20
ξυρήσει] future of ξυράω, shave.
τῷ ξυρῷ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ἐν τῷ ξυρῷ, razor.
μεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳ] changed to μεγάλῳ καὶ μεμεθυσμένῳ, ὅ ἐστιν by cb2, with A (Rahlfs and Ziegler); B (Swete) has only μεμισθωμένῳ, which corresponds to the MT. The verb μεθύω means to get drunk, corresponding to the root שׁכר; μισθόω means to hire, corresponding to the root שׂכר.
πέραν τοῦ ποταμοῦ] It is difficult to fit this prepositional phrase into the sentence. It appears to express where the razor comes from. Silva and Ottley translate a different text, which includes the words ὅ ἐστιν before this phrase.
βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων] Brenton thought this genitive modified ξυρῷ. Again, Silva and Ottley translate a different text, which does not have this difficulty.
καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῶν ποδῶν] it is difficult to discern whether this accusative belongs with the preceding τὴν κεφαλὴν or the following τὸν πώγωνα. Brenton and Silva take it with the former, as object of ξυρήσει; Ottley preserves the ambiguity with “shave … the head, and the hair of the feet, and the beard shall he take away.”
21
δάμαλιν] appeared previously in 5:18, translating the same Hebrew word.
It is not clear whether raising a heifer and two sheep is an indication of abundance or scarcity. The preceding verse implies captivity; the following verse, abundance.
22
βούτυρον καὶ μέλι] appeared in 7:15, translating the same Hebrew words. There these appeared as the food the child would eat before he was of the age of understanding. The implication seems to be that “that day” would come within several years. Here the abundance of milk production is stated explicitly, which seems unexpected given the clear threat of verse 20 and the ambiguity of verse 21.
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Notes on Isaiah 7:23-25

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 9:53 pm

42. From barren to fertile land (7:23-25)
23 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ πᾶς τόπος, οὗ ἐὰν ὦσιν χίλιαι ἄμπελοι χιλίων σίκλων, εἰς χέρσον ἔσονται καὶ εἰς ἄκανθας· 24 μετὰ βέλους καὶ τοξεύματος εἰσελεύσονται ἐκεῖ, ὅτι χέρσος καὶ ἄκανθαι ἔσται πᾶσα ἡ γῆ. 25 καὶ πᾶν ὄρος ἀροτριώμενον ἀροτριαθήσεται, οὐ μὴ ἐπέλθῃ ἐκεῖ φόβος· ἔσται γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς χέρσου καὶ ἀκάνθης εἰς βόσκημα προβάτου καὶ καταπάτημα βοός.
23
σίκλων] the σίκλος was a weight or coin named for the Hebrew שׁקל, but here translating כסף.
χέρσον] dry land
ἄκανθας] plural changed to singular ἄκανθαν by ca, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
24
βέλους καὶ τοξεύματος] “dart and arrow” imply hunters travelling to uninhabited areas.
ἄκανθαι] plural changed to singular ἄκανθα by ca, cb3, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
25
ἀροτριώμενον] literal translation of a Pual (passive) participle מעדר, indicating the arability.
ἀροτριαθήσεται] The verb cognate to the preceding participle is used.
καταπάτημα] changed by cb2 to εἰς καταπάτημα
οὐ μὴ] with B (Swete); A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has καὶ οὐ μὴ.
ἀπὸ … εἰς] At first glance the sense of ἀπὸ here seems to be to indicate the cause of the clause: because of the dry land and thorn, it will be... . But the presence of εἰς makes the ἀπὸ phrase refer to the previous (barren) state from which the new (fertile) state emerges.
ἀκάνθης] Here we have the singular form, in contrast to previous instances in this paragraph.
προβάτου … βοός] Compare the δάμαλιν βοῶν καὶ δύο πρόβατα from 7:21.
καταπάτημα] This noun appeared earlier in 5:5, there the result of destroying the vineyard. It will appear again in paragraphs 84, 125, and 164, always as the object of εἰς.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 7 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 3rd, 2011, 10:37 pm

36. Aram attacks Jerusalem (7:1-2)
7.1 And it happened in the days of Achaz of Ioatham the son of Ozeias king of Iouda, Rhaasson king of Aram went up with Phakee son of Rhomelias king of Israel to Jerusalem to fight it, and they were not able to besiege it. 2 And it was reported to the house of David, saying, Aram has come together against Ephraim! And his soul was confounded, along with the soul of his people, in the way which a tree in a copse might be shaken by wind.

37. Esaias encourages Achaz (7:3-6)
3 And Lord said to Esaias, Go out for a meeting with Achaz, you and your remaining son Iassoub, to the reservoir of the high way of the fuller’s field. 4 And you will say to him, Be careful to be still and do not be frightened nor let your soul be weak because of these two smoking fire-brand timbers, for when the wrath of my anger comes, I will heal again. 5 And as for the son of Aram and the son of Rhomelias, because they plotted an evil plot about you, saying, 6 We shall go up into Judea and after talking with them, we shall turn them to us, and we shall rule it by the son of Tabeel.

38. Aram’s plot will fail (7:7-9)
7 Thus says Lord Sabaoth, This plot should certainly not stand nor will it be. 8 But the head of Aram (is) Damascus, but sixty and five years further, the kingdom of Ephraim will leave off from being a people. 9 And the head of Ephraim is Somoron, and the head of Somoron is the son of Rhomelias and if you do not trust, neither will you understand.

39. A sign for Achaz (7:10-17)
10 And Lord continued to speak to Achaz, saying, 11 Ask for yourself a sign from Lord your God up to a depth or up to a height.

12 And Achaz said, I will not ask nor will I test Lord.

13 And he said, Hear now, house of David, is it a small thing for you to produce a struggle for people? And how do you produce a struggle for Lord? 14 Because of this, Lord himself will give.

A sign for you:

Look, the maiden will have in womb and will bear a son, and she will call his name Emmanouel. 15 He will eat butter and honey before he knows or selects bad things, to choose the good. 16 Because before the child knows good or bad, the land which you fear because of the face of the two kings will also be forsaken. 17 But God will bring upon you and upon your people and upon the house of the father days which have not yet come since the day when Ephraim took away the king of the Assyrians from Iouda.

40. Lord whistles for flies (7:18-19)
18 And it will be that in that day, Lord will whistle for flies, that which a part of the river of Egypt dominates, and for the bee which is in the region of the Assyrians. 19 And all people will come out and stop in the ravines of your region and in the caves of the cliffs and in the caverns and in every fissure and in every tree.

41. Lord’s razor (7:20-22)
20 In that day Lord will shave with the great and drunken razor, across the river of the king of the Assyrians, the head, and the hair of the feet, and he will remove the beard. 21 And it will be that in that day a person will raise a heifer of cattle and two sheep. 22 And it will be that because of the most abundant production of milk, every one remaining on the land will eat butter and honey.

42. From barren to fertile land (7:23-25)
23 And it will be that in that day, every place whereever there might be a thousand vines worth a thousand shekels, they will become a dry place and thistles. 24 They will enter there with dart and arrow because the whole land will be a barren place and thistles. 25 And every tillable hill will be tilled; fear will certainly not come upon that place, for it will change from a barren place and thistle into a sheep pasture and an ox’s trampling ground.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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