Isaiah Chapter 11

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 11

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 17th, 2011, 7:47 am

66. The rod from the root of Iesai (11:1-5)
11.1 Καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ῥάβδος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης Ιεσαι, καὶ ἄνθος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἀναβήσεται. 2 καὶ ἐπαναπαύσεται ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ, πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως, πνεῦμα βουλῆς καὶ ἰσχύος, πνεῦμα γνώσεως καὶ εὐσεβείας· 3 καὶ ἐμπλήσει αὐτὸν πνεῦμα φόβου θεοῦ. οὐ κατὰ τὴν δόξαν κρινεῖ οὐδὲ κατὰ τὴν λαλιὰν ἐλέγξει, 4 ἀλλὰ κρινεῖ ταπεινῷ κρίσιν καὶ ἐλέγξει τοὺς ἐνδόξους τῆς γῆς· καὶ πατάξει γῆν τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι διὰ χειλέων ἀνελεῖ ἀσεβῆ· 5 καὶ ἔσται δικαιοσύνῃ ἐζωσμένος τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ εἰλημμένος τὰς πλευράς.

67. Peace among creatures (11:6-9)

6 καὶ συμβοσκηθήσεται λύκος μετὰ ἀρνός, καὶ πάρδαλις συναναπαύσεται ἐρίφῳ, καὶ μοσχάριον καὶ ταῦρος καὶ λέων ἅμα βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ παιδίον μικρὸν ἄξει αὐτούς· 7 καὶ βοῦς καὶ ἄρκος ἅμα βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ ἅμα τὰ παιδία αὐτῶν ἔσονται, καὶ λέων καὶ βοῦς φάγονται ἄχυρα. 8 καὶ παιδίον νήπιον ἐπὶ τρώγλην ἀσπίδων καὶ ἐπὶ κοίτην ἐκγόνων ἀσπίδων τὴν χεῖρα ἐπιβαλεῖ. 9 καὶ οὐ μὴ κακοποιήσουσιν οὐδὲ μὴ δύνωνται ἀπολέσαι οὐδένα ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου.

ὅτι ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ σύμπασα τοῦ γνῶναι τὸν κύριον ὡς ὕδωρ πολὺ κατακαλύψαι θαλάσσας.

68. Victory of the root of Iessai (11:10-14)

10 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ιεσσαι καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν, ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν, καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἀνάπαυσις αὐτοῦ τιμή. 11 καὶ ἔσται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ προσθήσει κύριος τοῦ δεῖξαι τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ τοῦ ζηλῶσαι τὸ καταλειφθὲν ὑπόλοιπον τοῦ λαοῦ.
ὃ ἂν καταλειφθῇ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ἀπὸ Αἰγύπτου καὶ ἀπὸ Βαβυλωνίας καὶ ἀπὸ Αἰθιοπίας καὶ ἀπὸ Αιλαμιτῶν καὶ ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ ἐξ Ἀραβίας. 12 καὶ ἀρεῖ σημεῖον εἰς τὰ ἔθνη καὶ συνάξει τοὺς ἀπολομένους Ισραηλ καὶ τοὺς διεσπαρμένους τοῦ Ιουδα συνάξει ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων πτερύγων τῆς γῆς. 13 καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ὁ ζῆλος Εφραιμ, καὶ οἱ ἐχθροὶ Ιουδα ἀπολοῦνται· Εφραιμ οὐ ζηλώσει Ιουδαν, καὶ Ιουδας οὐ θλίψει Εφραιμ. 14 καὶ πετασθήσονται ἐν πλοίοις ἀλλοφύλων θάλασσαν, ἅμα προνομεύουσιν καὶ τοὺς ἀφ’ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ Ιδουμαίαν· καὶ ἐπὶ Μωαβ πρῶτον ἐπιβαλοῦσιν τὰς χεῖρας, οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ Αμμων πρῶτοι ὑπακούσονται.

69. A second exodus from Egypt (11:15-12:1)
15 καὶ ἐρημώσει κύριος τὴν θάλασσαν Αἰγύπτου καὶ ἐπιβαλεῖ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν πνεύματι βιαίῳ καὶ πατάξει ἑπτὰ φάραγγας ὥστε διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν ἐν ὑποδήμασιν· 16 καὶ ἔσται δίοδος τῷ καταλειφθέντι μου λαῷ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, καὶ ἔσται τῷ Ισραηλ ὡς ἡ ἡμέρα ὅτε ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου.
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 11:1-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 17th, 2011, 11:32 am

66. The rod from the root of Iesai (11:1-5)
11.1 Καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ῥάβδος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης Ἰεσαί, καὶ ἄνθος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἀναβήσεται. 2 καὶ ἐπαναπαύσεται ἐπʼ αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ, πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως, πνεῦμα βουλῆς καὶ ἰσχύος, πνεῦμα γνώσεως καὶ εὐσεβείας· 3 καὶ ἐμπλήσει αὐτὸν πνεῦμα φόβου θεοῦ. οὐ κατὰ τὴν δόξαν κρινεῖ οὐδὲ κατὰ τὴν λαλιὰν ἐλέγξει, 4 ἀλλὰ κρινεῖ ταπεινῷ κρίσιν καὶ ἐλέγξει τοὺς ἐνδόξους τῆς γῆς· καὶ πατάξει γῆν τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι διὰ χειλέων ἀνελεῖ ἀσεβῆ· 5 καὶ ἔσται δικαιοσύνῃ ἐζωσμένος τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ εἰλημμένος τὰς πλευράς.
1
Ἰεσαί] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have Ἰεσσαί, as it is spelled in 11:10.
2
ἐπαναπαύσεται] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἀναπαύσεται. With the preposition, ἐπαναπαύομαι has more of a sense of stopping movement, rather than ἀναπαύω’s sense of stopping activity.
3
καὶ] lacking in A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἐμπλήσει] future of ἐμπίπλημι
δόξαν] judging according to δόξαν would take the person’s appearance or reputation (the way they appear to others) into account.
λαλιὰν] in a judicial context, judging according to “speech” would take their ability to speak well into account.
4
κρίσιν] judging with κρίσις is a positive thing here, discernment.
ἐνδόξους] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ταπεινοὺς
τῷ πνεύματι] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have πνεύματι. Recalls the πνεῦμα from 11:2-3, but here the mention of mouth and lips brings breath to mind.
ἀνελεῖ] future of ἀναιρέω; with wind perhaps “carry away” would fit.
ἀσεβῆ] the earlier objects of destruction were masculine (people); here they are neuter (things).
5
ἐζωσμένος] perfect passive participle of ζώννυμι
τὴν ὀσφὺν] accusative; the waist is not the subject or object, but still limits the verb “girded”.
αὐτοῦ] with B (Rahlfs) and the MT; lacking in Ziegler, who cites in support only Q*-26 301 407 410 538 544 965. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
εἰλημμένος] with A, the perfect passive participle of λαμβάνω; B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has εἱλημένος from εἰλέω or εἴλω, “wrap,” which fits the parallelism and context better.

Reception
1 Pet 4:14 quotes words similar to 11:2’s ἐπαναπαύσεται ἐπʼ αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ as follows: τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πνεῦμα ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς ἀναπαύεται.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 11:6-9

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 17th, 2011, 11:35 am

67. Peace among creatures (11:6-9)
6 Καὶ συμβοσκηθήσεται λύκος μετὰ ἀρνός, καὶ πάρδαλις συναναπαύσεται ἐρίφῳ, καὶ μοσχάριον καὶ ταῦρος καὶ λέων ἅμα βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ παιδίον μικρὸν ἄξει αὐτούς· 7 καὶ βοῦς καὶ ἄρκος ἅμα βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ ἅμα τὰ παιδία αὐτῶν ἔσονται, καὶ λέων καὶ βοῦς φάγονται ἄχυρα. 8 καὶ παιδίον νήπιον ἐπὶ τρώγλην ἀσπίδων καὶ ἐπὶ κοίτην ἐκγόνων ἀσπίδων τὴν χεῖρα ἐπιβαλεῖ. 9 καὶ οὐ μὴ κακοποιήσουσιν οὐδὲ μὴ δύνωνται ἀπολέσαι οὐδένα ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ ἅγιόν μου.

Ὅτι ἐνεπλήσθη ἡ σύμπασα τοῦ γνῶναι τὸν κύριον ὡς ὕδωρ πολὺ κατακαλύψαι θαλάσσας.
6
συμβοσκηθήσεται] with Bb (Rahlfs, Ziegler); spelled as συνβοσκηθήσεται, with A, B (Ottley, Swete).
πάρδαλις] Felis pardus
ἐρίφῳ] he-goat
μοσχάριον] diminutive of μόσχος, young bull
7
ἄρκος] alternate spelling of ἄρκτος, bear.
ἔσονται] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has βοσκηθήσονται
καὶ βοῦς φάγονται] B has ὡς βοῦς φάγονται; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has καὶ βοῦς ἅμα φάγονται
ἄχυρα] what is left over from threshing: straw, chaff.
8
νήπιον] an adjective modifying a diminuitive
τρώγλην] singular accusative, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has the unexpected plural genitive τρωγλῶν.
ἐπιβαλεῖ] future
9
κακοποιήσουσιν] future indicative, with B; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has the aorist subjunctive κακοποιήσωσιν, which fits better with οὐ μὴ and the parallel δύνωνται.
ἐνεπλήσθη] recalls ἐμπλήσει from 11:3, where the rod of Jesse would be filled (future, translating a weqatal) with the spirit of the fear of God. Here we have an aorist (translating a qatal). The Hebrew roots differ.
κατακαλύψαι] spelled κατακαλυψε. An infinitive here is unexpected but not unprecedented in the OG (Ezek 22:32; Num 23:19). Silva has “like much water to cover seas.” Ottley takes it as an optative in a comparative clause: “as much water covereth seas,” citing in support the clear optative in Isa 21:1. Manuscript V has a future here, as does Hab 2:14. The parallel between γνῶναι and κατακαλύψαι is somewhat weakened by the absence of τοῦ before κατακαλύψαι.
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes in Isaiah 11:10-14

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 17th, 2011, 3:36 pm

68. Victory of the root of Iessai (11:10-14)
10 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν, ἐπʼ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν, καὶ ἔσται ἡ ἀνάπαυσις αὐτοῦ τιμή. 11 καὶ ἔσται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ προσθήσει Κύριος τοῦ δεῖξαι τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ τοῦ ζηλῶσαι τὸ καταλειφθὲν ὑπόλοιπον τοῦ λαοῦ.
ὃ ἂν καταλειφθῇ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ἀπὸ Αἰγύπτου καὶ ἀπὸ Βαβυλωνίας καὶ ἀπὸ Αἰθιοπίας καὶ ἀπὸ Ἐλαμιτῶν καὶ ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ ἐξ Ἀραβίας. 12 καὶ ἀρεῖ σημεῖον εἰς τὰ ἔθνη καὶ συνάξει τοὺς ἀπολομένους Ἰσραήλ καὶ τοὺς διεσπαρμένους τοῦ Ἰούδα συνάξει ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων πτερύγων τῆς γῆς. 13 καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ὁ ζῆλος Ἐφράιμ, καὶ οἱ ἐχθροὶ Ἰούδα ἀπολοῦνται· Ἐφράιμ οὐ ζηλώσει Ἰούδαν, καὶ Ἰούδας οὐ θλίψει Ἐφράιμ. 14 καὶ πετασθήσονται ἐν πλοίοις ἀλλοφύλων, θάλασσαν ἅμα προνομεύουσιν καὶ τοὺς ἀφʼ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ Ἰδουμαίαν· καὶ ἐπὶ Μωὰβ πρῶτον ἐπιβαλοῦσιν τὰς χεῖρας, οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ Ἀμμὼν πρῶτοι ὑπακούσονται.
10
ἀνιστάμενος] it is unclear at first glance whether this person “rising up to rule nations” is the same or a different person as the root of Iessai, but the following clause, ἐπʼ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν indicates they are the same.
ἀνάπαυσις] recalls the ἐπαναπαύσεται of 10:2, where the spirit of God would rest on the rod from the root of Iessai.
11
τῇ ἡμέρᾳ] with B (Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
Κύριος] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ὁ Κύριος
ὃ] taking it not as the masculine article, but the neuter relative pronoun, referring back to τὸ καταλειφθὲν. S begins a new paragraph here, so the relative clause is part of the sentence that continues into the following verse.
τῶν Ἀσσυρίων] changed to ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων by scribe B himself, with B; changed to ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων by cb3, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler), which is consistent with the other prepositions in this list of places, in S.
ἀπὸ Βαβυλωνίας] with B; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has Βαβυλωνίας
ἀπὸ Αἰθιοπίας] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have Αἰθιοπίας
Ἐλαμιτῶν] A spells it Αἰλαμιτῶν; B spells it Αἰλαμειτῶν
12
ἀπολομένους] perfect participle of ἀπόλλυμι
διεσπαρμένους] perfect participle of διασπείρω
τοῦ Ἰούδα] with Rahlfs; A, B (Ziegler) have Ἰούδα. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
πτερύγων] πτέρυξ “wing” is a literal translation of כנף.
13
ὁ ζῆλος Ἐφράιμ] literal translation of the Hebrew קנאת אפרים
ἀπολοῦνται] Future of ἀπόλλυμι.
ζηλώσει] recalls the ζῆλος Ἐφράιμ earlier in this verse. Here, in parallel with θλίψει, it seems to be hostile.
14
πετασθήσονται] future passive of πέτομαι; its form is from πετάζω, which is listed under πεταννύω in LSJ.
ἀλλοφύλων] here translates פלשׁתים, as usual; in 9:12 פלשׁתים became Ἕλληνας.
θάλασσαν] the accusative does not fit with the intransitive verb πετασθήσονται, so it belongs with the upcoming verb προνομεύουσιν.
προνομεύουσιν] present; changed by ca to the future προνομεύσουσιν, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), matching the surrounding future verbs.
ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν] the East
ἐπιβαλοῦσιν τὰς χεῖρας] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιβαλοῦσιν

Reception
Paul quotes 11:10 verbatim in Rom 15:12: καὶ πάλιν Ἠσαΐας λέγει• Ἔσται ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν• ἐπʼ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν.
Justin Martyr 1 Apol 32 mixes 11:1 and 10 with Numbers: Ἀνατελεῖ ἄστρον ἐξ Ἰακώβ, καὶ ἄνθος ἀναβήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς ῥίζης Ἰεσσαί• καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν βραχίονα αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν
Cyprian quotes 11:10 in Ad Quirinium 1.21: “And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall rise to rule in all the nations; in Him shall the Gentiles hope: and His rest shall be honour.”
Novatian Trinity 9 quotes 11:10 to show Jesus would rise from the dead: “And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, and one who shall rise to reign over the nations; on Him shall the nations hope, and His rest shall be honour.”
Lactantius Divine Institutes 4.13 quotes 11:10 to show Christ would be born according to the flesh, from the house of David.
Constitutions of the Holy Apostles 5.20 quotes 11:10.
Irenaeus alludes to 11:12 in Against Heresies 4.33.1: “He gathered from the ends of the earth into His Father’s fold the children who were scattered abroad.” The allusion is not precise, but because he quotes 11:4 in the same sentence, it is probable.
Hippolytus, On Daniel 2.40 quotes 10:14 as “And they shall fly (extend themselves) in the ships of strangers, and they shall also plunder the sea; and those from the east, and from the west, and the north, shall give them honour: and the children of Ammon shall first obey them,” to show that Moab and Ammon are sons of Esau. Again in his Treatise on Christ and Antichrist 51, he quotes: “And they shall fly in the boats of strangers, plundering the sea together, and (they shall spoil) them of the east: and they shall lay hands upon Moab first; and the children of Ammon shall first obey them.”
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Notes on Isaiah 11:15-16

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 17th, 2011, 3:37 pm

69. A second exodus from Egypt (11:15-12:1)
15 Καὶ ἐρημώσει Κύριος τὴν θάλασσαν Αἰγύπτου καὶ ἐπιβαλεῖ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν πνεύματι βιαίῳ καὶ πατάξει ἑπτὰ φάραγγας ὥστε διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν ἐν ὑποδήμασιν· 16 καὶ ἔσται δίοδος τῷ καταλειφθέντι μου λαῷ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, καὶ ἔσται τῷ Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἡμέρα ὅτε ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου.
12.1 Καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Εὐλογῶ σε, Κύριε, διότι ὠργίσθης μοι εἰς σωτηρίαν καὶ ἀπέστρεψας τὸν θυμόν σου καὶ ἠλέησάς με.
15
ἐπιβαλεῖ τὴν χεῖρα] recalls ἐπιβαλοῦσιν τὰς χεῖρας in 11:14, as well as 11:8
πνεύματι] recalls 11:2-4
πατάξει] recalls πατάξει γῆν from 11:4
ὑποδήμασιν] used as a symbol of force in 5:27
16
δίοδος] a way through
12.1
Εὐλογῶ] present, with B; changed by cb2 to the future Εὐλογήσω (translating a yiqtol verb), with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
εἰς σωτηρίαν] deleted by ca, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
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