Isaiah Chapter 13

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 13

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 9:01 am

  • 13.1 Ὅρασις, ἣν εἶδεν Ἠσαίας υἱὸς Ἀμὼς κατὰ Βαβυλῶνος.
72. Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world (13:2-5)
2 Ἐπʼ ὄρους πεδινοῦ ἄρατε σημεῖον, ὑψώσατε τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῖς, μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖσθε τῇ χειρί Ἀνοίξατε, οἱ ἄρχοντες. 3 ἐγὼ συντάσω, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς· ἡγιασμένοι εἰσίν, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς· γίγαντες ἔρχονται πληρῶσαι τὸν θυμόν μου χαίροντες ἅμα καὶ ὑβρίζοντες. 4 φωνὴ ἐθνῶν πολλῶν, φωνὴ βασιλέων καὶ ἐθνῶν συνηγμένων. Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐντέταλται ἔθνει ὁπλομάχῳ 5 ἔρχεσθαι ἐκ γῆς πόρρωθεν ἀπʼ ἄκρου θεμελίου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Κύριος καὶ οἱ πλομάχοι αὐτοῦ, καταφθεῖραι τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην.

73. The day of Lord is near (13:6-8)
6 ὀλολύζετε, ἐγγὺς γὰρ ἡ ἡμέρα Κυρίου, καὶ συντριβὴ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἥξει. 7 διὰ τοῦτο πᾶσα χεὶρ ἐκλυθήσεται, καὶ πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἀνθρώπου δειλιάσει· 8 καὶ ταραχθήσονται οἱ πρέσβεις, καὶ ὠδῖνες αὐτοὺς ἕξουσιν ὡς γυναικὸς τικτούσης· καὶ συμφοράσουσιν ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἐκστήσονται καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῶν ὡς φλὸξ μεταβαλοῦσιν.

74. The sky will be darkened (13:9-11)

9 ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἡ ἡμέρα Κυρίου ἀνίατος ἔρχεται θυμοῦ καὶ ὀργῆς θεῖναι τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην ἔρημον καὶ τοὺς ἁμαρτωλοὺς ἀπολέσαι ἐξ αὐτῆς. 10 οἱ γὰρ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ Ὠρίον καὶ πᾶς ὁ οἴκος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸ φῶς οὐ δώσουσιν, καὶ σκοτισθήσεται τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατέλλοντος, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φῶς αὐτῆς. 11 καὶ ἐντελοῦμαι τῇ οἰκουμένῃ ὅλῃ κακὰ καὶ τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν· καὶ ἀπολῶ ὕβριν ἀνόμων καὶ ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων ταπεινώσω.
75. Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land (13:12-13)
12 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ἔντιμοι μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ χρυσίον τὸ ἄπυρον, καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος μᾶλλον ἔντιμος ἔσται ἢ λίθος ὁ ἐκ Σουφίρ. 13 ὁ γὰρ οὐρανὸς θυμωθήσεται καὶ ἡ γῆ σεισθήσεται ἐκ τῶν θεμελίων αὐτῆς διὰ θυμὸν ὀργῆς Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ ἐὰν ἐπέλθῃ ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ.
76. Survivors will flee (13:14-16)
14 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ὡς δορκάδιον φεύοντα καὶ ὡς πρόβατον πλανώμενον, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ συνάγων, ὥστε ἄνθρωπον εἰς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ ἀποστραφῆναι καὶ ἄνθρωπος εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦ διώξεται. 15 ὃς γὰρ ἂν ἁλῷ, ἡττηθήσεται, καὶ οἵτινες συνηγμένοι εἰσίν, μαχαίρᾳ πεσοῦνται· 16 καὶ τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν προνομεύσουσιν καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας αὐτῶν ἕξουσιν.

77. The Medes will crush your children (13:17-18)
17 ἰδοὺ ἐπεγείρω ὑμῖν τοὺς Μήδους, οἳ οὐ λογίζονται ἀργύριον οὐδὲ χρυσίου χρείαν ἔχουσιν. 18 τοξεύματα νεανίσκων συντρίψουσιν καὶ τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν οὐ μὴ ἐλεήσωσιν, οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς τέκνοις σου φείσονται οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν.
78. Babylon will be deserted (13:19-22)
19 καὶ ἔσται Βαβυλών, ἣ καλεῖται ἔνδοξος ὑπὸ βασιλέως Χαλδαίων, ὃν τρόπον κατέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς Σόδομα καὶ Γόμορρα· 20 οὐ κατοικηθήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς αὐτὴν διὰ πολλῶν γενεῶν, οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς αὐτὴν Ἄραβες, οὐδὲ ποιμένες οὐ μὴ ἀναπαύσονται ἐν αὐτῇ· 21 καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐκεῖ θηρία, καὶ ἐμπλησθήσονται αἱ οἰκίαι ἤχου, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐκεῖ σειρῆνες, καὶ δαιμόνια ἐκεῖ ὀρχήσονται, 22 καὶ ὀνοκένταυροι ἐκεῖ κατοικήσουσιν, καὶ νοσσοποιήσουσιν ἐχῖνοι ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις αὐτῶν· ταχὺ ἔρχεται καὶ οὐ χρονιεῖ.
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Notes on Isaiah 13:2-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 11:15 am

72. Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world (13:2-5)
2 Ἐπʼ ὄρους πεδινοῦ ἄρατε σημεῖον, ὑψώσατε τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῖς, μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖσθε τῇ χειρί Ἀνοίξατε, οἱ ἄρχοντες. 3 ἐγὼ συντάσσω, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς· ἡγιασμένοι εἰσίν, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς· γίγαντες ἔρχονται πληρῶσαι τὸν θυμόν μου χαίροντες ἅμα καὶ ὑβρίζοντες. 4 φωνὴ ἐθνῶν πολλῶν φωνὴ βασιλέων καὶ ἐθνῶν συνηγμένων. Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐντέταλται ἔθνει ὁπλομάχῳ 5 ἔρχεσθαι ἐκ γῆς πόρρωθεν ἀπʼ ἄκρου θεμελίου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Κύριος καὶ οἱ ὁπλομάχοι αὐτοῦ, καταφθεῖραι τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην.
2
ὄρους πεδινοῦ] both neuter genitives; this could mean a flat mountain, or a mountain found on a plain.
ἄρατε] the addressees are not yet known.
αὐτοῖς] these hearers are not yet known.
μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖσθε] with A, changed by cb3 to μὴ φοβεῖσθε, παρακαλεῖτε with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has only παρακαλεῖτε. It is not immediately clear whether this command is addressed to the same people as ἄρατε and ὑψώσατε, or to αὐτοῖς.
χειρί] with B (Ottley, Rahlfs, Ziegler); A has ψυχη. Note the difference between A and Ottley. Presumably, a comforting hand gesture is intended.
οἱ ἄρχοντες] an addressee is finally specified, but again it is not clear whether they are the addressees of ἄρατε and ὑψώσατε, or those referred to by αὐτοῖς. I avoid “leaders” as a translation of ἄρχοντες because in the next verse I use “lead” for a different Greek word, ἄγω.
3
ἐγὼ ἄγω αὐτούς• ἡγιασμένοι εἰσίν, καὶ ἐγὼ ἄγω] with Rahlfs; B has only ἐγώ; A has ἐγὼ ἄγω; Ziegler has ἁγιάζω αὐτούς• [ἡγιασμένοι εἰσί] καὶ ἐγὼ καλῶ. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. Ziegler’s ἁγιάζω and καλῶ are conjecture; the latter has support only in Tyconius (voco). At this point, the referent of αὐτούς would seem to be the ἄρχοντες. The speaker has not yet been identified.
πληρῶσαι τὸν θυμόν μου] The wrath mentioned so far in G has been Lord’s, so the speaker is implicitly identified. Since the giants are fulfilling Lord’s wrath, they appear to be the ones Lord claims to appoint and lead. The identification between the referents of αὐτούς in this verse and οἱ ἄρχοντες of 13:2 is thereby weakened in the reader’s mind.
ὑβρίζοντες] In G this verb denotes a wicked attitude, so reader becomes reluctant to believe the giants are Lord’s servants. The reader might imagine two groups: the sanctified rulers (appointed and led by the speaker), and the giants, fulfilling the speaker’s wrath.
4
The verbless clause has two nominatives, so would normally be understood predicatively, but little sense results. Alternatively, this clause could be understood as an exclamation, with the two nominatives in apposition.
ἐθνῶν πολλῶν] scribe B himself added ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων; ca further added ὁμοία ἐθνῶν πολλῶν, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἐντέταλται ἔθνει ὁπλομάχῳ] although different verbs are used here, the impression is that this heavily-armed nation is the “giants”.
5
ὁπλομάχοι] with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), changed by ca from πλομάχοι
ἄκρου θεμελίου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ] meaning the points where the dome of the sky rests on the earth.
καταφθεῖραι] changed by ca to τοῦ καταφθεῖραι, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has καταφθεῖραι πᾶσαν
ὅλην] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B
By this point, since the victims of the nation of armed giants are the whole world (not some sanctified rulers), this nation is identified with the rulers; their “sanctification” must therefore be a commissioning, setting them apart for this task.
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Notes on Isaiah 13:6-8

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 11:50 am

73. The day of Lord is near (13:6-8)
6 ὀλολύζετε, ἐγγὺς γὰρ ἡ ἡμέρα Κυρίου, καὶ συντριβὴ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἥξει. 7 διὰ τοῦτο πᾶσα χεὶρ ἐκλυθήσεται, καὶ πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἀνθρώπου δειλιάσει· 8 καὶ ταραχθήσονται οἱ πρέσβεις, καὶ ὠδῖνες αὐτοὺς ἕξουσιν ὡς γυναικὸς τικτούσης· καὶ συμφοράσουσιν ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἐκστήσονται καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῶν ὡς φλὸξ μεταβαλοῦσιν.
6
ὀλολύζετε] see note on 10:10, where we had an aorist of the same imperative.
ἡ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B. The article implies there will be only one, decisive, day of Lord.
συντριβὴ] the crushing from God is in parallel to the day of Lord, which makes it clear that this day is not of peace, but of violence.
7
ἐκλυθήσεται] ἐκλύω normally means “set free” (LSJ), but in early Christian literature (BDAG), the passive has the sense of “become weary, give out,” which fits this context better.
δειλιάσει] future of δειλιάω, be afraid.
8
καὶ ταραχθήσονται] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has only ταραχθήσονται, future passive of ταράσσω.
πρέσβεις] “old men”
ὠδῖνες αὐτοὺς ἕξουσιν] the subject is the pangs; the old men are the object.
συμφοράσουσιν] συμφοράζω is a rare word, meaning bewail (LSJ; Muraoka).
ἕτερος πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον] translates אישׁ אל רע‍הו “man to his companion”
ἐκστήσονται] future of ἐξίστημι, literally “change,” often in the sense of being out of one’s mind with amazement, which is the sense of the Hebrew יתמהו. But here, in parallel with μεταβαλοῦσιν (which has no basis in the Hebrew), simple “change” may have been understood by the reader.
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Notes on Isaiah 13:9-11

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 1:38 pm

74. The sky will be darkened (13:9-11)
9 ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἡ ἡμέρα Κυρίου ἀνίατος ἔρχεται θυμοῦ καὶ ὀργῆς θεῖναι τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην ἔρημον καὶ τοὺς ἁμαρτωλοὺς ἀπολέσαι ἐξ αὐτῆς. 10 οἱ γὰρ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ Ὠρίον καὶ πᾶς ὁ οἴκος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸ φῶς οὐ δώσουσιν, καὶ σκοτισθήσεται τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατέλλοντος, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φῶς αὐτῆς. 11 καὶ ἐντελοῦμαι τῇ οἰκουμένῃ ὅλῃ κακὰ καὶ τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν· καὶ ἀπολῶ ὕβριν ἀνόμων καὶ ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων ταπεινώσω.
9
ἡ] with A; lacking in B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); see 13:6.
ἀνίατος ἔρχεται] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἔρχεται ἀνίατος. ἀνίατος is from ἰάομαι: incurable.
θεῖναι] aorist infinitive of τίθημι, literally translating לשׂום
ὅλην] confirmed by ca, with Rahlfs, Ziegler; lacking in A, B. See the same phrase in 13:5.
ἐξ αὐτῆς] that is, from the inhabited world.
10
Ὠρίον] changed by ca to ὁ Ὠρίων, with A (Ottley, Rahlfs, Ziegler); Swete has ὁ Ὠρείων
οἴκος] changed by ca to κόσμος, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἀνατέλλοντος] without the article, this is not an attributive use of the genitive participle, but a circumstantial use of the genitive absolute: when the sun rises, the light will be dark.
11
ἐντελοῦμαι] if the future of ἐντέλλω (as in Matt 4:6; Luke 4:10), recalls 13:4, where Lord had appointed or commanded (ἐντέταλται) an army. Here, though, the accusative objects are bad things and sins, and the dative objects are the world and the impious. Usually when ἐντέλλω has both an accusative and a dative, the action commanded is in the accusative, and the person commanded to do that action is in the dative. If we have such a construction here, the people would be commanded to do bad things and sins.
The alternative possibility, the present of ἐντελέω, “complete”, which is a rare word, would probably not occur immediately to a reader.
The difficulty stems from G’s choice of ἐντέλλω to render פקד in the Hebrew phrase ופקדתי על תבל רעה ועל רשׁעים עונ‍ם. This is a reasonable equivalent, if the sense is “appoint”.
ἀπολῶ] future of ἀπόλλυμι
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Notes on Isaiah 13:12-13

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 2:07 pm

75. Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land (13:12-13)
12 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ἔντιμοι μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ χρυσίον τὸ ἄπυρον, καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος μᾶλλον ἔντιμος ἔσται ἢ λίθος ὁ ἐκ Σουφείρ. 13 ὁ γὰρ οὐρανὸς θυμωθήσεται καὶ ἡ γῆ σεισθήσεται ἐκ τῶν θεμελίων αὐτῆς διὰ θυμὸν ὀργῆς Κυρίου Σαβαώθ, τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ ἐὰν ἐπέλθῃ ὁ θυμὸς αὐτοῦ.
12
καταλελειμμένοι] S (with Swete) spells it καταλελιμμένοι
ἔντιμοι] with reference to people, “honoured” fits, but when comparing to precious metals and stones, “valued” is preferable as an English translation.
ἄπυρον] literally “unfired”, so gold nuggets.
λίθος] changed by ca to ὁ λίθος, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). The noun λίθος can also be feminine (see LSJ λίθος II.), so the scribe may have initially taken the conjunction ἢ as the article ἡ.
ἐκ Σουφείρ] with Ottley; Rahlfs has ἐκ Σουφίρ; Ziegler has ἐν Σουφιρ; Swete has ἐν Σουφείρ. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. The Hebrew place name is אופיר, Ophir, which is spelled with the Σ also in 3 Kgdms 9:28; 10:11; 1Ch 29:4; 2 Ch 8:18; 9:10. Ottley points out that the added S is not unprecedented in Greek transliterations of proper names, since B reads Num 34:20 Σεμιούδ and 34:23 Σουφί for עַמִּיהוּד and אֵפֹד respectively.
13
θυμωθήσεται] future passive of θυμόω, to make angry.
ἐὰν] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἂν, which makes better sense here, since there is no question that the day will come; the question is only when.
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Notes on Isaiah 13:14-16

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 2:47 pm

76. Survivors will flee (13:14-16)
14 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ καταλελειμμένοι ὡς δορκάδιον φεῦγον καὶ ὡς πρόβατον πλανώμενον, καὶ οὐκ ἔσται ὁ συνάγων, ὥστε ἄνθρωπον εἰς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ ἀποστραφῆναι καὶ ἄνθρωπος εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτοῦ διώξεται. 15 ὃς γὰρ ἂν ἁλῷ, ἡττηθήσεται, καὶ οἵτινες συνηγμένοι εἰσίν, μαχαίρᾳ πεσοῦνται· 16 καὶ τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν προνομεύσουσιν καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας αὐτῶν ἕξουσιν.
14
καταλελειμμένοι] S (with Swete, Ottley) spells it καταλελιμμένοι
φεῦγον] with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), changed by ca from φεύοντα
ἀποστραφῆναι] aorist passive infinitive of ἀποστρέφω. The passive form can be used in a middle sense, as in Acts 7:39 “they turned back to Egypt”.
ἄνθρωπος] with B; changed by ca to ἄνθρωπον with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler), matching the change from διώξεται to διῶξαι at the end of the verse, making the two parallel statements parallel in verb form as well.
αὐτοῦ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἑαυτοῦ.
διώξεται] future middle indicative with B; changed by ca to the aorist infinitive διῶξαι with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler).
15
ἂν] with B (Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has ἐὰν. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. Compare 13:13.
ἁλῷ] Third person singular aorist subjunctive of ἁλίσκομαι “be captured, conquered, convicted.”
ἡττηθήσεται] future passive of ἡττάομαι “be inferior” in the sense of defeated.
συνηγμένοι] perfect participle of συνάγω
16
αὐτῶν] due to parablepsis; changed by ca to αὐτῶν ῥάξουσιν καὶ τὰς οἰκίας αὐτῶν, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
προνομεύσουσιν] προνομεύω appeared in 10:13 and 11:14. According to the original text of scribe B, the children would be plundered. As corrected by ca, the children would be dashed to the ground, and the houses plundered, which makes more sense.
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Notes on Isaiah 13:17-18

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 3:04 pm

77. The Medes will crush your children (13:17-18)
17 ἰδοὺ ἐπεγείρω ὑμῖν τοὺς Μήδους, οἳ οὐ λογίζονται ἀργύριον, οὐδὲ χρυσίου χρείαν ἔχουσιν. 18 τοξεύματα νεανίσκων συντρίψουσιν, καὶ τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν οὐ μὴ ἐλεήσωσιν, οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς τέκνοις σου φείσονται οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν.
17
ἐπεγείρω] usually ἐπεγείρω takes the person or thing being stirred up in the accusative case, and the person against which it is stirred up is in a prepositional phrase, with ἐπί or κατά or εἰς. Here we have the accusative, but with a dative case as well, serving the same function as the prepositional phrase.
18
τοξεύματα] arrows
συντρίψουσιν] future of συντρίβω, “shatter”
ἐλεήσωσιν] with B (Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has ἐλεήσουσιν. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
σου] with A, B; Rahlfs conjectured οὐ, and Ziegler followed, supported by Tyconius (non). The singular σου is certainly out of place in the context of the two preceding plural second person pronouns, but such switches of number are not uncommon in G.
φείσονται] future of φείδομαι, which generally means by inaction stopping something (usually bad).
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Notes on Isaiah 13:19-22

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 4:10 pm

78. Babylon will be deserted (13:19-22)
19 καὶ ἔσται Βαβυλών, ἣ καλεῖται ἔνδοξος ὑπὸ βασιλέως Χαλδαίων, ὃν τρόπον κατέστρεψεν ὁ θεὸς Σόδομα καὶ Γόμορρα· 20 οὐ κατοικηθήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς αὐτὴν διὰ πολλῶν γενεῶν, οὐδ’ οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς αὐτὴν Ἄραβες, οὐδὲ ποιμένες οὐ μὴ ἀναπαύσονται ἐν αὐτῇ· 21 καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐκεῖ θηρία, καὶ ἐμπλησθήσονται αἱ οἰκίαι ἤχου, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐκεῖ σειρῆνες, καὶ δαιμόνια ἐκεῖ ὀρχήσονται, 22 καὶ ὀνοκένταυροι ἐκεῖ κατοικήσουσιν, καὶ νοσσοποιήσουσιν ἐχῖνοι ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις αὐτῶν· ταχὺ ἔρχεται καὶ οὐ χρονιεῖ.
This passage has many vocabulary commonalities with Isa 34:14.
19
ἔσται Βαβυλών … ὃν τρόπον] the syntax is awkward, but the sense is clear enough: Babylon will experience the same fate as Sodom and Gomorra: catastrophe.
ὑπὸ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἀπὸ
20
εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον] The Hebrew word here נצח is not the usual one for eternity, but it is rendered this same way in 33:20 (εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα in 28:28).
οὐδ’ οὐ (twice)] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have οὐδὲ; the last of these parallel clauses certainly has both οὐδὲ and οὐ μὴ.
εἰσέλθωσιν (first)] the subject is not specified; it could be indefinite or the Arabs (subject of the next verb).
εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς (second)] with A; B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has διέλθωσιν
ἀναπαύσονται] future indicative, with B (Ziegler); A (Rahlfs) has the aorist subjunctive ἀναπαύσωνται, which fits the other parallel verbs better. (Note the difference between Ziegler and Rahlfs.)
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ἀναπαύσονται] instead of shepherds, wild animals and Sirens will do this.
ἐμπλησθήσονται] future passive of ἐμπίπλημι
ἤχου] sound, in this context of animals, probably “noise” is a better translation, to indicate the chaos that results from the absence of humans.
σειρῆνες] A Σειρήν was a woman or winged creature whose song lured sailors to the rocks (e.g., Odyssea 12.39). The Hebrew here is בנות יענה, ostrich daughters. In Micah 1:8, the ostriches are known for their “mourning;” there the Greek word Σειρήν is also used, as also in Jer 27:39. The Hebrew word appears in Isaiah also in 34:13 and 43:20, and in the Pentateuch in Lev 11:16 and Deut 14:15, all rendered with στρουθός, which means sparrow or ostrich.
δαιμόνια] the Hebrew is שׂעירים “goats,” which appears dozens of times in Leviticus and Numbers as χίμαρος. Isaiah never renders it as χίμαρος; it its other appearance in 34:14, it becomes ἕτερος, but δαιμόνια appears earlier in the verse, translating צִיִּים.
ὀρχήσονται] ὀρχέομαι means dance (see Matt 14:6; Mark 6:22).
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ὀνοκένταυροι] Literally “donkey-centaur,” LSJ has “a kind of tailless ape,” citing Claudius Aelianus, De natura animalum 17.9, which reads,
Ὀνοκενταύραν καλοῦσι ζῷόν τι, καὶ ταύτην ὅστις εἶδεν, οὐκ ἂν ἠπίστησεν ὅτι καὶ Κενταύρων φῦλα ἦν, καὶ οὐ κατεψεύσαντο οἱ χειρουργοὶ τῆς φύσεως, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐκείνους ἤνεγκεν ὁ χρόνος κράσει σωμάτων οὐχ ὁμοίων ἑνωθέντας. καταλείπωμεν δὲ αὐτούς, εἴτε ἐγένοντο ὄντως ἐπιδημίᾳ μιᾷ καὶ τῇ αὐτῇ, εἴτε ἡ φήμη κηροῦ παντὸς οὖσα εὐπλαστοτέρα τε καὶ εὐπειθεστέρα διέπλασεν αὐτούς, καὶ ἀνέμιξεν ἵππου καὶ ἀνθρώπου δαιμονίᾳ τινὶ συναφῇ ἡμίτομα, καὶ ἔδωκε μίαν ψυχήν. αὕτη δὲ ὑπὲρ ἧς ὥρμηται λέγειν ὅδε ὁ λόγος, ἐς ἀκοὴν τὴν ἐμὴν τοιάδε ἀφίκετο. ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ πρόσωπον εἴκασται, περιέρχονται δὲ αὐτὸ βαθεῖαι τρίχες. τράχηλός τε ὑπὸ τῷ προσώπῳ καὶ στέρνα, καὶ ταῦτα ἀνθρωπικά• μαζοὶ δὲ ἠρμένοι καὶ κατὰ τοῦ στήθους ἐφεστῶτες, ὦμοι δὲ καὶ βραχίονες καὶ πήχεις, ἔτι δὲ χεῖρες καὶ στέρνα ἐς ἰξύν, καὶ ταῦτα ἀνθρωπικά• ῥάχις δὲ καὶ πλευραὶ καὶ γαστὴρ καὶ πόδες οἱ κατόπιν ὄνῳ καὶ μάλα ἐμφερῆ, καὶ τεφρώδης κατ’ ἐκεῖνον ἡ χρόα, τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ τὰς λαπάρας ἡσυχῆ λευκανθίζει. αἱ χεῖρες δὲ τῷδε τῷ ζῴῳ διπλῆν παρέχουσι χρείαν• ἔνθα μὲν γὰρ τάχους δεῖ, προθέουσι τῶν ὀπίσω σκελῶν, καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν τετρα- πόδων οὐχ ἡττᾶται τὸν δρόμον• δεῖ δὲ πάλιν ἢ ἀφελεῖν τι ἢ καταθέσθαι ἢ συλλαβεῖν καὶ σφίγξαι, καὶ οἱ πόδες οἱ τέως χεῖρες ἐγένοντο, καὶ οὐ βαδίζει, κάθηται δέ. βαρύθυμον δὲ ἰσχυρῶς τὸ ζῷόν ἐστιν. ἐὰν γοῦν ἁλῷ, δουλείαν μὴ φέρον καὶ τῆς τέως ἐλευθερίας γλιχόμενον τροφὴν ἀπέστραπται πᾶσαν, καὶ ἀποθνήσκει λιμῷ. Πυθαγόρας λέγει καὶ ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οὖν τεκμηριοῖ Κράτης ὁ ἐκ τοῦ Μυσίου Περγάμου.
Since this is a word unattested in extant Greek, the reader of G would probably discern its meaning solely by etymology, “donkey-centaur.” The Hebrew is איים, which is also the word for island, and is otherwise rendered ὀνοκένταυρος again in 34:14.
νοσσοποιήσουσιν] make a nest
ἐχῖνοι] LSJ has ἐχῖνος as the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 13 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 24th, 2011, 4:13 pm

  • 13.1 A vision which Esaias son of Amos saw against Babylon:
72. Lord Sabaoth leads giants against the world (13:2-5)
2 On a flat hill lift up a sign; raise your voice to them; do not be frightened; be encouraged by the hand, Open, rulers! 3 I myself appoint and I myself lead them; they are sanctified, and I lead them; giants are coming, rejoicing and boasting together, to fulfill my anger. 4 A sound of many nations is a sound of kings and gathered nations. Lord Sabaoth has appointed a heavily armed nation 5 to come from a land from afar, from the edge of the foundation of the sky - Lord and his heavily armed men - to spoil the entire inhabited world.

73. The day of Lord is near (13:6-8)
6 Wail, for the day of Lord is near, and crushing from God will come. 7 Because of this, every hand will be set free, and every soul of mankind will fear. 8 And the old men will be troubled, and pangs will take hold of them like those of a woman giving birth, and they will wail one to another and they will be amazed, and like a flame they will change their face.

74. The sky will be darkened (13:9-11)
9 For look, the day of Lord, of anger and of wrath, is coming, incurable, to make the whole inhabited world desolate and to destroy the sinners from it. 10 For the stars of the sky and Orion and all the house of the sky will not give light and at the sun’s rising it will be darkened and the moon will not give its light. 11 And I will appoint bad things for the whole inhabited land and for the impious people, their sins, and I will destroy lawless people's insolence and I will bring down arrogant people's insolence.
75. Lord Sabaoth’s wrath will shake the land (13:12-13)
12 And those left behind will be more valued than raw gold, and the person will be more valued than a stone from Souphir. 13 For the sky will be angry, and the land will be shaken from its foundations because of the anger of Lord Sabaoth’s wrath, on the day when his anger comes.
76. Survivors will flee (13:14-16)
14 And those left behind will be like a little gazelle fleeing, and like a wandering sheep, and there will be no one who gathers them, so that a person will be turned back to his people and a person will be chased into his own land. 15 For whoever is caught will be defeated and those who are gathered together will fall by the sword. 16 And they will plunder their children in front of them and they will possess their women.

77. The Medes will crush your children (13:17-18)
17 Look, I am rousing against you the Medes, who do not regard silver, nor have need of gold. 18 They will crush young men’s arrows and they will not have mercy on your children, not even at your children will their eyes spare.
78. Babylon will be deserted (13:19-22)
19 And Babylon, which is called esteemed by the king of the Chaldeans, will be in the way that God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. 20 It will not be inhabited forever, nor will they enter into it for many generations, nor will Arabs enter it, nor may shepherds rest in it. 21 And wild animals will rest there, and the houses will be filled with noise, and Sirens will rest there and divine beings will dance there. 22 And donkey-centaurs will settle there and hedgehogs will make dens among their houses. It is coming quickly and it will not delay.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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