Isaiah Chapter 14

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 14

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 8:22 am

79. Lord will have pity on Israel (14:1-2)
1 Καὶ ἐλεήσει Κύριος τὸν Ἰακώβ καὶ ἐκλέξεται ἔτι τὸν Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς αὐτῶν, καὶ ὁ γιώρας προστεθήσεται πρὸς αὐτούς, καὶ προστεθήσεται πρὸς τὸν οἶκον Ἰακώβ, 2 καὶ λήμψονται αὐτοὺς ἔθνη καὶ εἰσάξουσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον αὐτῶν, καὶ κατακληρονομήσουσιν καὶ πληθυνθήσονται οἶκος Ἰσραήλ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς τοῦ θεοῦ αὐτῶν εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας· καὶ ἔσονται αἰχμάλωτοι οἱ αἰχμαλωτεύσαντες αὐτούς, καὶ κυριευθήσονται οἱ κυριεύσαντες αὐτῶν.

80. God will give you rest in that day (14:3-4)
3 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀναπαύσει σε ὁ θεὸς τῆς ὀδύνης καὶ τοῦ θυμοῦ σου καὶ τῆς δουλείας σου τῆς σκληρᾶς, ἧς ἐδούλευσας αὐτοῖς.
4 καὶ λήμψῃ τὸν θρῆνον τοῦτον ἐπὶ βασιλέα Βαβυλῶνος
81. Dirge over the king of Babylon (14:4-11)
καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Πῶς ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἀπαιτῶν καὶ ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἐπισπουδαστής; 5 συνέτριψεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ζυγὸν τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν, τὸν ζυγὸν τῶν ἀρχόντων· 6 πατάξας ἔθνος θυμῷ πληγῇ ἀνιάτῳ, παίων ἔθνος πληγὴν θυμοῦ, ἣ οὐκ ἐφείσατο. 7 ἀνεπαύσατο πεποιθώς, πᾶσα ἡ γῆ βοᾷ μετʼ εὐφροσύνης, 8 καὶ τὰ ξύλα τοῦ δρυμοῦ εὐφράνθησαν ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἡ κέδρος τοῦ Λιβάνου Ἀφ οὗ σὺ κεκοίμησαι, οὐκ ἀνέβη ὁ κόπτων ἡμᾶς. 9 ὁ ᾅδης κάτωθεν ἐπικράνθη συναντήσας σοι, συνηγέρθησάν σοι πάντες οἱ γίγαντες οἱ ἄρχοντες τῆς γῆς οἱ ἐγείραντες ἐκ τῶν θρόνων αὐτῶν πάντες βασιλεῖς ἐθνῶν. 10 πάντες ἀποκριθήσονται καὶ ἐροῦσίν σοι Καὶ σὺ ἑάλως ὥσπερ καὶ ἡμεῖς, ἐν ἡμῖν δὲ κατελογίσθης. 11 κατέβη δὲ εἰς ᾅδου ἡ δόξα σου, ἡ πολλή εὐφροσύνη σου · ὑποκάτω σου στρώσουσιν σῆψιν, καὶ τὸ κατακάλυμμά σου σκώληξ.

82. The dawn-bringer’s fall (14:12-19)
12 Πῶς ἐξέπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωῒ ἀνατέλλων; συνετρίβη εἰς τὴν γῆν ἀποστέλλων εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθη. 13 σὺ δὲ εἶπας ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου Εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβήσομαι, ἐπάνω τῶν ἄστρων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ θήσω τὸν θρόνον μου, καθιῶ ἐν ὄρει ὑψηλῷ ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη τὰ ὑψηλὰ πρὸς βορρᾶν, 14 ἀναβήσομαι ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν, ἔσομαι ὅμοιος τῷ ὑψίστῳ. 15 νῦν δὲ εἰς ᾅδου καταβήσῃ καὶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς. 16 οἱ ἰδόντες σε θαυμάσουσιν ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ παροξύνων τὴν γῆν, σείων βασιλεῖς; 17 ὁ θεὶς τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην ἔρημον καὶ τὰς πόλεις καθεῖλεν, τοὺς ἐν ἐπαγωγῇ οὐκ ἔλυσεν. 18 πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐκοιμήθησαν ἐν τιμῇ, ἄνθρωπος ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ· 19 σὺ δὲ ῥιφήσῃ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ὡς νεκρὸς ἐβδελυγμένος μετὰ πολλῶν τεθνηκότων ἐκκεκεντημένων μαχαίραις καταβαινόντων εἰς ᾅδου.
83. Garment stained with blood (14:19-23)
ὃν τρόπον ἱμάτιον ἐν αἵματι πεφυρμένον οὐκ ἔσται καθαρόν, 20 οὕτως οὐδὲ σὺ ἔσῃ καθαρός, διότι τὴν γῆν μου ἀπώλεσας καὶ τὸν λαόν μου ἀπέκτεινας· οὐ μὴ μείνῃς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, σπέρμα πονηρόν. 21 ἑτοίμασον τὰ τέκνα σου σφαγῆναι ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις τοῦ πατρός σου, ἵνα μὴ ἀναστῶσιν καὶ τὴν γῆν κληρονομήσουσιν.

Καὶ ἐμπλήσωσι τὴν γῆν πολέμων. 22 Καὶ ἐπαναστήσομαι αὐτοῖς, λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ, καὶ ἀπολῶ αὐτῶν ὄνομα καὶ κατάλειμμα καὶ σπέρμα – τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ– 23 καὶ θήσω τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν ἔρημον ὥστε κατοικεῖν ἐχίνους, καὶ ἔσται εἰς οὐθέν· καὶ θήσω αὐτὴν πηλοῦ βάραθρον εἰς ἀπώλειαν.

84. The Assyrians will be destroyed (14:24-25)

24 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Ὃν τρόπον εἴρηκα, οὕτως ἔσται, καὶ ὃν τρόπον βεβούλευμαι, οὕτως μενεῖ, 25 τοῦ ἀπολέσαι τοὺς Ἀσσυρίους ἐκ τῆς γῆς τῆς ἐμῆς καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρέων μου, καὶ ἔσονται εἰς καταπάτημα, καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτῶν, καὶ τὸ κῦδος αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ὤμων ἀφαιρεθήσεται.

85. Lord’s resolution (14:26-28)
26 Αὕτη ἡ βουλή, ἣν βεβούλευται Κύριος ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην, καὶ αὕτη ἡ χεὶρ ἣ ὑψώθη ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τῆς οἰκουμένης. 27 ἃ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος βεβούλευται, τίς διασκεδάσει; καὶ τὴν χεῖρα τὴν ὑψηλὴν τίς ἀποστρέψει;
  • 28 Τοῦ ἔτους, τοῦ ἀπέθανεν Ἀχὰζ ὁ βασιλεύς, ἐγενήθη τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο.
86. Foreigners, do not rejoice (14:29-30)
29 Μὴ εὐφρανθείητε, πάντες οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι, συνετρίβη γὰρ ὁ ζυγὸς τοῦ παίοντος ὑμᾶς· ἐκ γὰρ σπέρματος ὄφεως ἐξελεύσεται ἔκγονα ἀσπίδων, καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν ἐξελεύσεται ὄφεις πετόμενοι. 30 καὶ βοσκηθήσονται πτωχοὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ, πτωχοὶ δὲ ἄνδρες ἐπʼ εἰρήνης ἀναπαύσονται· ἀνελεῖ δὲ λιμῷ τὸ σπέρμα σου καὶ τὸ κατάλειμμά σου ἀνελεῖ.

87. Foreigners take warning (14:31-15:1)
31 Ὀλολύζετε, πύλαι πόλεων, κεκραγέτωσαν πόλεις τεταραγμέναι, οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι πάντες, ὅτι καπνὸς ἀπὸ βορρᾶ ἔρχεται, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν τοῦ εἶναι. 32 καὶ τί ἀποκριθήσονται βασιλεῖς ἐθνῶν; ὅτι Κύριος ἐθεμελίωσεν τὴν Σιών, καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ σωθήσονται οἱ ταπεινοὶ τοῦ λαοῦ.
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 14:1-2

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 9:34 am

79. Lord will have pity on Israel (14:1-2)
1 Καὶ ἐλεήσει Κύριος τὸν Ἰακώβ καὶ ἐκλέξεται ἔτι τὸν Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἀναπαύσονται ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς αὐτῶν, καὶ ὁ γιώρας προστεθήσεται πρὸς αὐτούς, καὶ προστεθήσεται πρὸς τὸν οἶκον Ἰακώβ, 2 καὶ λήμψονται αὐτοὺς ἔθνη καὶ εἰσάξουσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον αὐτῶν, καὶ κατακληρονομήσουσιν καὶ πληθυνθήσονται οἶκος Ἰσραήλ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς τοῦ θεοῦ αὐτῶν εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας· καὶ ἔσονται αἰχμάλωτοι οἱ αἰχμαλωτεύσαντες αὐτούς, καὶ κυριευθήσονται οἱ κυριεύσαντες αὐτῶν.
1
τὸν Ἰακώβ] Note the article with the proper name, which here serves to indicate the direct object, and corresponds to the Hebrew definite direct object marker. Of the 40 times Iakob appears in G, 4 have the genitive article, and three have the accusative article. Never is the nominative or dative article used with Iakob in G. In the rest of the OG, the dative article is used with Iakob (more than the accusative and genitive combined), but never the nominative. The DDO gets omitted in translation before proper names in 7:12, 13; 8:13; 62:6, 9 (Lord); 11:3 (Judah); 11:13 (Ephraim); 13:19 (Sodom, Gomorra); 19:4, 13, 14 (Egypt); 20:4 (Ethiopia); 23:17 (Tyre); 36:2 (Rapsakes); 36:19 (Samaria); 36:20; 62:7; 65:18 (Jerusalem); 37:2 (Somnas, Eliakim); 37:12 (Charran). The DDO becomes the Greek article before proper names in 1:4; 6:1; 9:12; 11:9; 19:21 (Lord); 8:2 (Urias, Zacharias); 8:6 (Raasson); 9:11 (Israel); 9:20 (Manasseh); 13:17 (Medes); 14:1 (Jacob); 19:22 (Egypt). Note that after chapter 19, the DDO never becomes the Greek article before proper names.
ἐκλέξεται] not quite parallel to ἐλεήσει in meaning, but similar in sound. A literal translation of בחר.
ἀναπαύσονται] recalls 13:20-21.
γιώρας] transliteration of גר, which would likely not be a familiar word to a Greek reader. Besides this occurence, Josephus also used the word as the surname of Simon (BJ 2.652; 4.503; 5.11; 6.114; 7.25, 154, 265). Theodoret of Cyr (in Isaiam 5.208) explains that this is a proselyte: Γιώρας τῇ Ἑλλάδι φωνῇ ὁ προσήλυτος ἑρμηνεύεται.
προστεθήσεται] translates a different Hebrew word each time: first ונלוה then ונספחו. Both mean “be joined.” The resulting Greek sounds redundant rather than poetic.
2
οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ] lacking in A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). This grammatically singular subject takes plural verbs here.
τοῦ θεοῦ αὐτῶν] lacking in B; lacking αὐτῶν in A (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
εἰς δούλους καὶ δούλας] The preposition εἰς seems out of place here, but it is a literal translation of לעבדים ולשׁפחות. The meaning seems to be that as they increase in the land, they will become bondservants.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 14:3-4

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 9:51 am

80. God will give you rest in that day (14:3-4)
3 Καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἀναπαύσει σε ὁ θεὸς τῆς ὀδύνης καὶ τοῦ θυμοῦ σου καὶ τῆς δουλείας σου τῆς σκληρᾶς, ἧς ἐδούλευσας αὐτοῖς.
4 καὶ λήμψῃ τὸν θρῆνον τοῦτον ἐπὶ βασιλέα Βαβυλῶνος
3
ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ] In chapter 13, “that day” was a day of violence. Now, “that day” will bring rest.
ἐν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); deleted by cb2 (with B); reinstated by cb3
ἀναπαύσει] this verb has three objects in the genitive: pain, temper, and servitude. Pain and servitude have parallel meanings, but θυμοῦ σου does not match the other two.
ὁ θεὸς] B has Κύριος ἀπὸ; changed by ca to ὁ θεὸς ἐκ, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
καὶ] with A (Rahlfs); lacking in B (Ziegler)
θυμοῦ σου] does not match the other two genitive objects of ἀναπαύσει semantically. The pain and servitude are things God might stop his people from experiencing, and even wrath might fit, if it were God’s wrath. But it is the people’s θυμος. The possessive pronoun σου could modify ὀδύνης rather than θυμοῦ, but this possibility is weakened by the presence of the conjunction καὶ.
δουλείας σου] with B (Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has only δουλείας.
ἧς] genitive by attraction to δουλείας σκληρᾶς; it should be accusative or dative in the relative clause.
4
θρῆνον] an expression of grief
βασιλέα] changed by cb2 to τὸν βασιλέα, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
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Notes on Isaiah 14:4-11

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 1:42 pm

81. Dirge over the king of Babylon (14:4-11)
καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Πῶς ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἀπαιτῶν καὶ ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἐπισπουδαστής; 5 συνέτριψεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ζυγὸν τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν, τὸν ζυγὸν τῶν ἀρχόντων· 6 πατάξας ἔθνος θυμῷ πληγῇ ἀνιάτῳ, παίων ἔθνος πληγὴν θυμοῦ, ἣ οὐκ ἐφείσατο. 7 ἀνεπαύσατο πεποιθώς, πᾶσα ἡ γῆ βοᾷ μετʼ εὐφροσύνης, 8 καὶ τὰ ξύλα τοῦ δρυμοῦ εὐφράνθησαν ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἡ κέδρος τοῦ Λιβάνου Ἀφ οὗ σὺ κεκοίμησαι, οὐκ ἀνέβη ὁ κόπτων ἡμᾶς. 9 ὁ ᾅδης κάτωθεν ἐπικράνθη συναντήσας σοι, συνηγέρθησάν σοι πάντες οἱ γίγαντες οἱ ἄρχοντες τῆς γῆς οἱ ἐγείραντες ἐκ τῶν θρόνων αὐτῶν πάντες βασιλεῖς ἐθνῶν. 10 πάντες ἀποκριθήσονται καὶ ἐροῦσίν σοι Καὶ σὺ ἑάλως ὥσπερ καὶ ἡμεῖς, ἐν ἡμῖν δὲ κατελογίσθης. 11 κατέβη δὲ εἰς ᾅδου ἡ δόξα σου, ἡ πολλή εὐφροσύνη σου · ὑποκάτω σου στρώσουσιν σῆψιν, καὶ τὸ κατακάλυμμά σου σκώληξ.
ἐρεῖς] the second person subject continues from the preceding section, where οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ was apparently the addressee.
ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B
Πῶς ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἀπαιτῶν καὶ ἀναπέπαυται ὁ ἐπισπουδαστής] G manages to include alliteration in this phrase
ἐπισπουδαστής] Silva has “taskmaster” for this rare word. The meaning of the MT מדהבה is uncertain: insolence, fury, hostility, and even golden city have been suggested. The opinion of most moderns is expressed by Wildberger: “מדהבה can hardly be the correct reading … the hiphʿil מַרְהִיב (tyrant, stormer) (or, if need be, the piʿel מְרַהֵב, “tyrant, stormer”) should be read here (A Continental Commentary: Isaiah 13-27 [Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1997]. 1QIsaa confirm the reading מרהבה. Perhaps G had in mind the root מהר when he rendered it ἐπισπουδαστής.
5
συνέτριψεν] aorist of συντρίβω
ὁ θεὸς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has Κύριος
ἁμαρτωλῶν … ἀρχόντων] here sinners and rulers are in synonymous parallelism, recalling the beginning of chapter 13 (13:2, 9).
6
πατάξας] masculine nominative, modifying συνέτριψεν
ἔθνος] neuter accusative, the object of πατάξας
ἀνιάτῳ] recalling 13:9
παίων] παίω normally means to hit bodily.
ἐφείσατο] φείδομαι recalls 13:18
Rahlfs divide verses 6 and 7 before ἀνεπαύσατο πεποιθώς; Swete and Ziegler after. In S, the gap is slightly larger before these words than after, so I follow Rahlfs rather than Swete and Ziegler here.
7
ἀναπαύω] recalls 13:20, 21 and 14:1
πεποιθώς] see note on 12:2. Here it translates שׁקט “keep quiet.”
8
Note the differences between Rahlfs and Ziegler in this verse.
δρυμοῦ] apparently changed by cb2 to Λιβάνου, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), but reverted to δρυμοῦ by cb3. ΔΡΥΜΟΥ and ΛΙΒAΝΟΥ are visually similar.
εὐφράνθησαν] with B (Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has ηὐφράνθησαν
Ἀφ οὗ σὺ κεκοίμησαι] literal translation of מאז שׁכבת, From (the time) when you have fallen asleep. The perfect tense is unusual in G (except for the perfect of πείθω and καταλείπω), being used 71 times for a qatal verb.
κόπτων] with A (Rahlfs); B (Ziegler) has κόπων, from κοπόω “exhaust”. Κόπτων “one who chops” fits the context of trees, and matches the Hebrew כרת “cut”.
9
ᾅδης] properly, the god of the underworld (hence κάτωθεν), death personified.
ἐπικράνθη] aorist passive of πικραίνω, embitter.
συναντήσας] circumstantial participle, modifying ἐπικράνθη.
συνηγέρθησάν σοι] the dative “you” would normally be understood as “with you” with this verb, but BDAG renders Isa 14:9 as “all rise up together for you.”
γίγαντες … ἄρχοντες] recalls 13:2-3, the Babylonians.
ἄρχοντες] changed by ca to ἄρξαντες, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). Recalls 14:5.
πάντες] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have πάντας; this would make the kings (βασιλεῖς can be nominative or accusative) the direct objects of ἐγείραντες.
10
ἑάλως] aorist indicative, second person singular of ἁλίσκομαι. Recalls 13:15. Here it translates חלה “be weak.”
κατελογίσθης] καταλογίζομαι “reckoned” only appears here in G (it also appears in Wis 5:5).
11
κατέβη] Third person aorist of καταβαίνω
δὲ εἰς] with A (Rahlfs; Ziegler); B has only εἰς
εὐφροσύνη σου] with A, B; Rahlfs, Ziegler σου εὐφροσύνη, with support from Q and the Lucianic family.
στρώσουσιν] στρωννύω “spread”
σῆψιν] σῆψις “putrefaction” (related to “septic”)
κατακάλυμμα] covering
σκώληξ] worm, especially the kind that eats rotting corpses.
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Notes on Isaiah 14:12-19

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 2:57 pm

82. The Fall of the Morning Star (14:12-19)
12 Πῶς ἐξέπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωῒ ἀνατέλλων; συνετρίβη εἰς τὴν γῆν ἀποστέλλων εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη. 13 σὺ δὲ εἶπας ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου Εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβήσομαι, ἐπάνω τῶν ἄστρων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ θήσω τὸν θρόνον μου, καθιῶ ἐν ὄρει ὑψηλῷ ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη τὰ ὑψηλὰ πρὸς βορρᾶν, 14 ἀναβήσομαι ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν, ἔσομαι ὅμοιος τῷ ὑψίστῳ. 15 νῦν δὲ εἰς ᾅδου καταβήσῃ καὶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς. 16 οἱ ἰδόντες σε θαυμάσουσιν ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ παροξύνων τὴν γῆν, σείων βασιλεῖς; 17 ὁ θεὶς τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην ἔρημον καὶ τὰς πόλεις καθεῖλεν, τοὺς ἐν ἐπαγωγῇ οὐκ ἔλυσεν. 18 πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐκοιμήθησαν ἐν τιμῇ, ἄνθρωπος ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ· 19 σὺ δὲ ῥιφήσῃ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ὡς νεκρὸς ἐβδελυγμένος μετὰ πολλῶν τεθνηκότων ἐκκεκεντημένων μαχαίραις καταβαινόντων εἰς ᾅδου.
12
πῶς] normally introduces a question
ἑωσφόρος] literally “dawn-bringer,” the star that appears at the dawn. Greek ἀστήρ had the same connotation of “star” as English, when applied to an outstanding person. The bright star ἑωσφόρος was also known as Ἀφροδίτης ἀστήρ (Eudoxus, Ars astronomica 5.2), which was in turn also called Φωσφόρος (Geminus, Elementa astronmiae 1.28), meaning “light-bearer,” which is translated into Latin as lucifer. ἑωσφόρος appears in some manuscripts of 2 Pet 1:19 for Φωσφόρος. In any case, an illustrious person is meant. The connection between Lucifer and Satan is therefore not made here in Isaiah, but by Luke 10:18; Ottley notes the similarity between Luke 10:15 and Isa 14:13, 15.
ἀποστέλλων] ὁ ἀποστέλλων. Similar sound to ἀνατέλλων earlier in the verse. G misread חולש as שולח and probably also על as כל.
εἰς] changed by ca to πρὸς, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἔθνη] with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), changed by scribe B himself from ἔθη.
13
σὺ] note the shift to second-person address. The nominatives in the preceding verse are not vocatives, since ἐξέπεσεν is third person.
ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ] rendering the Hebrew ב‍לבב‍ literally; B has τῇ διανοίᾳ; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has ἐν τῇ διανοίᾳ.
ἄστρων] with A (Rahlfs); B (Ziegler) has ἄστέρων. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. By the second century, ἄστρον and ἀστήρ have become synonymous.
οὐρανοῦ] with A, B (Rahlfs); Ziegler retroverts θεοῦ, supported by Cyprian and Tyconius.
καθιῶ] future of καθίζω
πρὸς] changed by ca to τὰ πρὸς, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
14
νεφελῶν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has νεφῶν
τῷ ὑψίστῳ] standard translation of עליון, used of God (e.g., Gen 14:18; see Luke 1:32; 6:35; Acts 7:4). The ultimate expression of arrogance, which has been condemned repeatedly in G.
15
ᾅδου] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ᾅδην. The genitive is the appropriate case here (following Homer), since it is a proper name: (the abode) of Hades.
τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς] even lower than the earth.
16
θαυμάσουσιν] active, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has the middle θαυμάσονται, which is the more common future form.
παροξύνων] related to “sharpen”: provoke
17
θεὶς] aorist participle of τίθημι
θεὶς τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην] recalling especially 13:9, where God makes the world deserted, but also 10:14, 23; 13:5, 9, 11; anticipating 14:26; 37:18.
πόλεις] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B adds αὐτοῦ; A omits καὶ τὰς πόλεις καθεῖλεν; Ottley includes it in angle brackets.
καθεῖλεν] aorist indicative of καθαιρέω; the finite verb does not match the coordinated participle θεὶς. Another participle is expected, or at least a relative clause.
ἐπαγωγῇ] recalls 10:4; ἐπαγωγή generally means bringing in, so can be used for enticement, but in this military context, an “attack” would probably be understood (Polybius 10.23.7).
18
ἐκοιμήθησαν] κοιμάω recalls 14:8, where the trees had not been chopped since they had fallen asleep.
ἄνθρωπος] literal translation of אישׁ, used distributively: “each”
19
ῥιφήσῃ] aorist passive of ῥίπτω, “throw down”
ἐβδελυγμένος] perfect passive participle of βδελύσσομαι, loathe.
τεθνηκότων] perfect participle of the only occurrence of θνήσκω in G.
ἐκκεκεντημένων] from ἐκκεντέω, an appropriate but unprecedented translation of טען.
ᾅδου] see note on 14:15
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St. Francis Xavier University

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Notes on Isaiah 14:19-23

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 3:54 pm

83. Babylon’s garment stained with blood (14:19-23)
ὃν τρόπον ἱμάτιον ἐν αἵματι πεφυρμένον οὐκ ἔσται καθαρόν, 20 οὕτως οὐδὲ σὺ ἔσῃ καθαρός, διότι τὴν γῆν μου ἀπώλεσας καὶ τὸν λαόν μου ἀπέκτεινας· οὐ μὴ μείνῃς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον, σπέρμα πονηρόν. 21 ἑτοίμασον τὰ τέκνα σου σφαγῆναι ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις τοῦ πατρός σου, ἵνα μὴ ἀναστῶσιν καὶ τὴν γῆν κληρονομήσουσιν.

Καὶ ἐμπλήσωσι τὴν γῆν πολέμων. 22 καὶ ἐπαναστήσομαι αὐτοῖς, λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ, καὶ ἀπολῶ αὐτῶν ὄνομα καὶ κατάλειμμα καὶ σπέρμα–τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ–23 καὶ θήσω τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν ἔρημον ὥστε κατοικεῖν ἐχίνους, καὶ ἔσται εἰς οὐθέν· καὶ θήσω αὐτὴν πηλοῦ βάραθρον εἰς ἀπώλειαν.
πεφυρμένον] pefect passive participle of φύρω, “soak”
ἐν αἵματι … οὐκ ἔσται καθαρόν] the future is unexpected; these words have no counterpart in Hebrew; οὐκ ἔσται καθαρόν is drawn from the next verse, so the verb tense here was probably chosen to match ἔσῃ there. Tov suggests ἐν αἵματι comes from 34:3.
20
ἀπώλεσας] ἀπόλλυμι is a favourite word of G, translating 20 different Hebrew words.
μου] the introduction of a first-person singular pronoun indicates the dirge over the king of Babylon is over , although to this point there has been no explicit speaker since 13:3, 11.
μείνῃς] aorist subjunctive of μένω.
σπέρμα πονηρόν] after a second person intransitive verb, this must be vocative.
21
σφαγῆναι] aorist passive infinitive of σφάζω
σου (second)] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) “your father”; B has αὐτῶν “their father”
ἀναστῶσιν] by this time, resurrection from the dead would have been understood.
τὴν γῆν κληρονομήσουσιν] the Christian reader would have recalled Matt 5:5.
κληρονομήσουσιν] future, therefore not part of the ἵνα clause; A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the subjunctive κληρονομήσωσιν, matching ἀναστῶσιν, and putting this phrase withing the ἵνα clause.
S begins a new paragraph at this point, by hanging the Καὶ a bit into the margin to the left.
ἐμπλήσωσι] subjunctive of ἐμπίπλημι, matching the mood of ἀναστῶσιν, but not κληρονομήσουσιν.
πολέμων] with A, B (Ziegler); Rahlfs has πόλεων, citing only V and the three. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
22
ἐπαναστήσομαι] ἐπανίστημι recalls the enemies of 9:10.
λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ] here we discover the subject of the first person verbs since 14:20.
ἀπολῶ] recalls 14:20, where God’s land was being destroyed.
κατάλειμμα] spelled κατάλιμμα, with Swete
Σαβαώθ (second)] lacking in A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
23
θήσω … ἔρημον] recalls 14:17 (see note there), where the whole world was deserted.
ἐχίνους] recalls 13:22, where the hedgehog was building nests in a deserted Babylon.
οὐθέν] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have οὐδέν
πηλοῦ βάραθρον] clay pit
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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Notes on Isaiah 14:24-25

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 4:03 pm

84. The Assyrians will be destroyed (14:24-25)
24 Τάδε λέγει Κύριος Σαβαώθ Ὃν τρόπον εἴρηκα, οὕτως ἔσται, καὶ ὃν τρόπον βεβούλευμαι, οὕτως μενεῖ, 25 τοῦ ἀπολέσαι τοὺς Ἀσσυρίους ἐκ τῆς γῆς τῆς ἐμῆς καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρέων μου, καὶ ἔσονται εἰς καταπάτημα, καὶ ἀφαιρεθήσεται ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτῶν, καὶ τὸ κῦδος αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ὤμων ἀφαιρεθήσεται.
25
τοῦ ἀπολέσαι] the content of what Lord Sabaoth has spoken and planned.
ἐκ] changed by cb2 to ἀπὸ, with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has ἐπὶ.
ἀπὸ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἐπὶ
καταπάτημα] recalls 5:5 and 7:25, where it symbolized the desolation of Israel.
ζυγὸς] after this chapter (and before this in 5:18; 9:3; 10:27; 14:5), the word ζυγός does not appear again in G except for chapters 40 and 46-47.
ἀφαιρεθήσεται (first)] A, B add ἀπʼ αὐτῶν, which is added by ca after ὁ ζυγὸς αὐτῶν.
κῦδος] appears only here in G.
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Notes on Isaiah 14:26-28

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 26th, 2011, 4:16 pm

85. Lord’s resolution (14:26-28)
26 Αὕτη ἡ βουλή, ἣν βεβούλευται Κύριος ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην, καὶ αὕτη ἡ χεὶρ ἣ ὑψώθη ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τῆς οἰκουμένης. 27 ἃ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος βεβούλευται, τίς διασκεδάσει; καὶ τὴν χεῖρα τὴν ὑψηλὴν τίς ἀποστρέψει;
  • 28 Τοῦ ἔτους, οὗ ἀπέθανεν Ἀχὰζ ὁ βασιλεύς, ἐγενήθη τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο.
26
ἣ ὑψώθη] changed by ca to ἡ ὑψηλὴ, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). The upraised hand image appeared frequently (5:25; 9:11, 16, 20; 10:4) and here it is explained.
τῆς οἰκουμένης] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B
27
ὁ ἅγιος] with A, B (Rahlfs); Ziegler has σαβαωθ, with no support, conjectured solely on the basis of the MT.
διασκεδάσει] from διασκεδάζω or διασκεδάννυμι, meaning “scatter” (to the winds).
χεῖρα] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B adds αὐτοῦ
ἀποστρέψει] meaning, who will thwart Lord’s plan?
28
Τοῦ ἔτους] genitive indicating time when the main clause happened.
οὗ] with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); changed by scribe B himself from τοῦ. Again, genitive of time.
Ἀχὰζ ὁ βασιλεύς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ὁ βασιλεύς Ἀχὰζ
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Notes on Isaiah 14:29-30

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 28th, 2011, 11:24 am

86. Foreigners, do not rejoice (14:29-30)
29 Μὴ εὐφρανθείητε, πάντες οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι, συνετρίβη γὰρ ὁ ζυγὸς τοῦ παίοντος ὑμᾶς· ἐκ γὰρ σπέρματος ὄφεως ἐξελεύσεται ἔκγονα ἀσπίδων, καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν ἐξελεύσεται ὄφεις πετόμενοι. 30 καὶ βοσκηθήσονται πτωχοὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ, πτωχοὶ δὲ ἄνδρες ἐπʼ εἰρήνης ἀναπαύσονται· ἀνελεῖ δὲ λιμῷ τὸ σπέρμα σου καὶ τὸ κατάλειμμά σου ἀνελεῖ.
29
εὐφρανθείητε] aorist passive optative of εὐφραίνω
ἀλλόφυλοι] literally means other-tribe, generally indicating what is foreign or alien. In the OG, it is used for non-Israelites, especially the Philistines.
συνετρίβη] recalls 14:5, where God shattered the yoke of the sinners.
παίοντος] παίω recalls 14:6, where God hit a nation with a blow of his wrath.
ὑμᾶς] here the foreigners are not to rejoice, because the yoke of those striking them has been broken. But that does sound like a cause for rejoicing. G apparently misunderstood כי to mean γάρ rather than ὅτι: do not rejoice that the yoke of those striking you has been broken.
ὄφεως] with B (Ziegler); changed by ca to ὄφεων, with A (Rahlfs). ὄφις “snake” is used for both נחשׁ and שׂרף in this verse. In 6:2, 6 שׂרף was rendered σεραφιν; in 1:7 as πυρικαυστοι.
ἐξελεύσεται (second)] changed by ca to ἐξελεύσονται, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἔκγονα ἀσπίδων] recalls 11:8, where the child would put its hand on their bed in peace.
τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν ἐξελεύσεται ὄφεις πετόμενοι] this clause has two nominatives. The subject is clearly τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῶν, not only because it is more definite, but also because the form of the verb is singular, which is appropriate for neuter plural subjects. The form in which they will go out is expressed by the other nominative, ὄφεις πετόμενοι. The image is that their descendents will be even more fearsome than the parents.
πετόμενοι] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has πετάμενοι. Literal translation of מְעוֹפֵף.
30
βοσκηθήσονται] the passive form is used for what the livestock does; the active form for what the herder does.
δι’ αὐτοῦ] the referent of this pronoun would seem to be σπέρματος ὄφεως. These words have no counterpart in Hebrew. Δια with the genitive here expresses agency (Danker, Bauer, and Arndt 2000, sec. A.4).
ἄνδρες] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἄνθρωποι. This word has no counterpart in Hebrew.
ἐπ’ εἰρήνης] recalls chapter 11
ἀναπαύσονται] recalls 11:2; 13:20, 21; 14:1, 3, 4, 7. The Hebrew root here is the same as in 13:20, 21, but not as in 11:2; 14:1, 3, 4, 7.
ἀνελεῖ] two different Hebrew words for killing are behind the two instances of ἀναιρέω. The first recalls 11:4, where the breath of lips would kill the impious.
τὸ σπέρμα σου and τὸ κατάλειμμά σου] accusative; if they were nominative, the transitive verb ἀνελεῖ would have no object.
σπέρμα] appears four times in this chapter, the first time since chapter 1:4, 9.
κατάλειμμα] recalls 10:22 and especially 14:22, where κατάλειμμα and σπέρμα were also coordinated. Anticipates 37:20, where κατάλειμμα and σπαίραντες appear together.
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Notes on Isaiah 14:31-15:1

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 29th, 2011, 10:23 am

87. Foreigners take warning (14:31-15:1)
31 Ὀλολύζετε, πύλαι πόλεων, κεκραγέτωσαν πόλεις τεταραγμέναι, οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι πάντες, ὅτι καπνὸς ἀπὸ βορρᾶ ἔρχεται, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν τοῦ εἶναι. 32 καὶ τί ἀποκριθήσονται βασιλεῖς ἐθνῶν; ὅτι Κύριος ἐθεμελίωσεν τὴν Σιών, καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ σωθήσονται οἱ ταπεινοὶ τοῦ λαοῦ.
  • 15.1 Τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ κατὰ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος.
31
ὀλολύζετε] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ὀλολύξατε. Recalls 10:10 (aorist) and 13:6 (present).
πύλαι] vocative plural
κεκραγέτωσαν] It is clear that this is a third person plural active imperative, but it is not clear what the tense is. It has a thematic (connecting) vowel ε, which appears only in the present and second aorist principal parts. Normally the perfect imperative is periphrastic (Smyth §599g; 714), and although inflected perfect imperatives do occur (Smyth §697-698; 712), one of the example from κράζω Smyth provides (κέκραχθι) does not use a thematic vowel, and the other does (κεκράγετε, in Vesp. 415). Of the three possibilities (reduplicated second aorist of κράζω, perfect of κράζω, or a present form of another verb, κεκράγω, the data Smyth provides favours understanding it as a second perfect (with present meaning) of κράζω. See also the discussion at 6:3.
τεταραγμέναι] perfect passive participle of ταράσσω
οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι πάντες] vocative
καπνὸς ἀπὸ βορρᾶ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἀπὸ βορρᾶ καπνὸς. βορρᾶ] genitive of βορρᾶς, the colloquial form of βορέας, “north”
οὐκ ἔστιν τοῦ εἶναι] The Greek is so awkward that Ottley suggests some words are missing here, or that μεῖναι is the correct reading, from מעמד or לעמד. Silva has “there is no way to live,” with a note: “Gk uncertain.” As the text stands, it expresses the absence of τοῦ εἶναι, which if understood as something that has being as its purpose, would mean what aims at existence does not exist. In context, it would probably be understood that what is needed for existence is not there.
32
τί] the object of ἀποκριθήσονται, rather than the interrogative pronoun, given the ὅτι clause following.
σωθήσονται] aorist passive of σῴζω
ταπεινοὶ] recalls 11:4
1
Τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ κατὰ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος] The title is indented from the left margin of the column in S. The section number is located after this title.
κατὰ] recalls 1:1 (Judea, Jerusalem); 13:1 (Babylon), but even more exactly anticipates 17:1 (Damascus).
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St. Francis Xavier University

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