Isaiah Chapter 15

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 15

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 31st, 2011, 11:04 am

  • 15.1 Τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ κατὰ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος.
88. The word against Moabitis (15:1-2)
Νυκτὸς ἀπολεῖται ἡ Μωαβῖτις, νυκτὸς γὰρ ἀπολεῖται τὸ τεῖχος τῆς Μωαβίτιδος. 2 λυπεῖσθε ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῖς, ἀπολεῖται γὰρ Δαιβηδων· οὗ ὁ βωμὸς ὑμῶν, ἐκεῖ ἀναβήσεσθε κλαίειν· ἐπὶ Ναβαὺ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος
89. Moabitis cries out (15:2-5)
ὀλολύζετε ἐπὶ πάσης κεφαλῆς φαλάκρωμα, πάντες βραχίονες κατατετμημένοι εἰσιν· 3 ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις αὐτῆς περιζώσασθε σάκκους καὶ κόπτεσθε, ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτων αὐτῆς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις αὐτῆς πάντες ὀλολύζετε μετὰ καυθμοῦ. 4 ὅτι κέκραγεν Ἑσεβὼν καὶ ἐλάλησεν Ἐλεαλή, ἕως Ἰάσσα ἠκούσθη ἡ φωνὴ αὐτῆς· διὰ τοῦτο ἡ ὀσφὺς τῆς Μωαβείτιδος βοᾷ, ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτῆς γνώσεται. 5 ἡ καρδία τῆς Μωαβίτιδος βοᾷ ἐν ἑαυτῇ ὡς Σήγωρ, δάμαλις γάρ ἐστιν τριετής· ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναβάσεως τῆς Λουεὶθ πρὸς σὲ κλαίοντες ἀναβήσονται, τῇ ὁδῷ Ἁρωνιείμ• βοᾷ σύντριμμα καὶ σεισμός.
90. The seed of Moab will be taken away (15:6-16:1)
6 τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς Νεβρίμ, καὶ ὁ χόρτος αὐτῆς ἐκλείψει· χόρτος γὰρ χλωρὸς οὐκ ἔσται. 7 μὴ καὶ οὕτως μέλλει σωθῆναι; ἐπάξω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν φάραγγα Ἄραβας, καὶ λήμψονται αὐτήν. 8 συνῆψεν γὰρ ἡ βοὴ τὸ ὅριον τῆς Μωαβίτιδος τῆς Ἀγαλείμ, καὶ ὀλολυγμὸς αὐτῆς ἕως τοῦ φρέατος τοῦ Αἰλίμ. 9 τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τὸ Δερμὼν πλησθήσεται αἵματος· ἐπάξω γὰρ ἐπὶ Νεμμὼν Ἄραβας καὶ ἀρῶ τὸ σπέρμα Μωὰβ καὶ Ἀριὴλ καὶ τὸ κατάλοιπον Ἀδαμά.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 15:1-2

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 31st, 2011, 2:35 pm

88. The word against Moabitis (15:1-2)
Νυκτὸς ἀπολεῖται ἡ Μωαβῖτις, νυκτὸς γὰρ ἀπολεῖται τὸ τεῖχος τῆς Μωαβίτιδος. 2 λυπεῖσθε ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῖς, ἀπολεῖται γὰρ Δαιβηδών· οὗ ὁ βωμὸς ὑμῶν, ἐκεῖ ἀναβήσεσθε κλαίειν ἐπὶ Ναβαὺ τῆς Μωαβίτιδος.
Νυκτὸς] genitive of time: By night.
2
λυπεῖσθε] the addressee is not specified.
ἑαυτοῖς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἑαυτούς. The referent is the addressee of the imperative: “yourselves”.
Δαιβηδών] with A; changed by cb3 to καὶ Δηβών with B (Rahlfs); Ziegler (following Q) has καὶ Λεβηδων (note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler). Delta and lamda are shaped very much alike, and αι and ε are interchangeable, so Ziegler’s reading is very similar to that of S, and best explains the various other manuscript readings (see Ziegler’s apparatus).
οὗ] genitive of location, since ἐκεῖ resumes the sentence after the relative clause.
ἐπὶ] the preposition phrase is more likely modifying κλαίειν than in apposition to ἐκεῖ, given the earlier parallel λυπεῖσθε ἐφʼ ἑαυτοῖς.
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 15:2-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 31st, 2011, 2:36 pm

89. Moabitis cries out (15:2-5)
ὀλολύζετε ἐπὶ πάσης κεφαλῆς φαλάκρωμα, πάντες βραχίονες κατατετμημένοι εἰσιν· 3 ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις αὐτῆς περιζώσασθε σάκκους καὶ κόπτεσθε, ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτων αὐτῆς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις αὐτῆς πάντες ὀλολύζετε μετὰ κλαυθμοῦ. 4 ὅτι κέκραγεν Ἑσεβὼν καὶ ἐλάλησεν Ἐλεαλή, ἕως Ἰάσσα ἠκούσθη ἡ φωνὴ αὐτῆς· διὰ τοῦτο ἡ ὀσφὺς τῆς Μωαβείτιδος βοᾷ, ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτῆς γνώσεται. 5 ἡ καρδία τῆς Μωαβίτιδος βοᾷ ἐν ἑαυτῇ ὡς Σήγωρ, δάμαλις γάρ ἐστιν τριετής· ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναβάσεως τῆς Λουεὶθ πρὸς σὲ κλαίοντες ἀναβήσονται, τῇ ὁδῷ Ἁρωνιείμ βοᾷ σύντριμμα καὶ σεισμός.
ὀλολύζετε] present, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has the aorist ὀλολύξατε.
φαλάκρωμα] recalls 3:24, where the women would have baldness instead of golden head ornamentation.
κατατετμημένοι] perfect participle of κατατέμνω, “cut in pieces”.
εἰσιν] deleted by ca, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); the meaning is the same.
3
πλατείαις] πλατύς “broad” ways are implied: streets.
περιζώσασθε] from περιζώννυμι or περιζωννύω
πάντες] vocative
κλαυθμοῦ] with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); changed by scribe B himself from καυθμοῦ.
4
κέκραγεν] In S, this clearly perfect form (with –εν) is in parallel with an aorist (see discussion of the tenses of κράζω at 14:31). The Hebrew form is yiqtol.
ἐλάλησεν] with A; lacking in B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). This word has no counterpart in the Hebrew, it probably appeared as a Greek scribal error regarding the next word, Ἐλεαλή (the Hebrew is אלעלה, which has nothing to do with speaking). A has only ἐλάλησεν; B has only Ἐλεαλή; S had both until ca corrected it to match A.
Ἐλεαλή] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); deleted by ca, with A.
φωνὴ αὐτῆς] singular, with A (Ziegler), since only Hesebon is mentioned; B (Rahlfs) has•the plural φωνὴ αὐτῶν because Eleale is also mentioned, making the cities plural (note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler: Ziegler has a mismatch: two cities, but a singular pronoun referring to them).
ὀσφὺς] Loins are not what one would expect to cry out, but other body parts call out in the next verse as well.
γνώσεται] an obvious misreading of ירעה “tremble” as ידעה “know”.
5
ἑαυτῇ ὡς] changed by ca to ἑαυτῇ ἕως, with A (Ziegler); B (Rahlfs) has αὐτῇ ἕως (note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler). Corrector ca turned a simile “like Segor” to an extent “as far as Segor.”
δάμαλις γάρ ἐστιν τριετής] G reasonably understood the place-name עגלת שׁלשׁיה as common nouns: “heifer of a third,” resulting in little sense in this context.
ἀναβάσεως] “ascent,” so I translate the cognate verb ἀναβήσονται as “ascend.”
τῆς Λουεὶθ] B has only Λουεὶθ; A has only τῆς; Rahlfs, Ziegler spell it τῆς Λουιθ
Ἁρωνιείμ] could be genitive “on the way of Haroneiim it cries out” (which would be parallel to the ascent of Loueith) or nominative “on the way, Haronieim cries out.” Since the last subject was plural, a change to a singular subject is preferable, to match the singular verb βοᾷ.
βοᾷ] also could be an imperative βοᾶ: “on the ascent of Loueith they will ascend to you, weeping on the way of Haronieim: Cry out, Ruins and earthquake!
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 15:6-16:1

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 31st, 2011, 10:04 pm

90. The seed of Moab will be taken away (15:6-16:1)
6 τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς Νεβρίμ, καὶ ὁ χόρτος αὐτῆς ἐκλείψει· χόρτος γὰρ χλωρὸς οὐκ ἔσται. 7 μὴ καὶ οὕτως μέλλει σωθῆναι; ἐπάξω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν φάραγγα Ἄραβας, καὶ λήμψονται αὐτήν. 8 συνῆψεν γὰρ ἡ βοὴ τὸ ὅριον τῆς Μωαβίτιδος τῆς Ἀγαλείμ, καὶ ὀλολυγμὸς αὐτῆς ἕως τοῦ φρέατος τοῦ Αἰλίμ. 9 τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τὸ Δερμὼν πλησθήσεται αἵματος· ἐπάξω γὰρ ἐπὶ Νεμμὼν Ἄραβας καὶ ἀρῶ τὸ σπέρμα Μωὰβ καὶ Ἀριὴλ. καὶ τὸ κατάλοιπον Ἀδαμά 16.1 ἀποστελῶ ὡς ἑρπετὰ ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς.
6
Νεβρὶμ] ca added ἔρημος ἔσται, with A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). Swete spells it Νεμηρεὶμ, Ottley Νεμρεὶμ; Rahlfs and Ziegler Νεμριμ. The addition of ἔρημος ἔσται removes the awkward singular verb ἐκλείψει with two subjects.
ἐκλείψει] future of ἐκλείπω
7
μὴ] introduces a question expecting a negative answer. Silva has “Even so, will she be saved?” Ottley has “Is she like to be saved, even thus?”
ἐπάξω] the speaker is unspecified, but is assumed to be Lord.
γὰρ] unexpected, after a rhetorical question. γὰρ usually introduces the reason for an assertion.
φάραγγα] φάραγξ is a ravine.
Ἄραβας] accusative plural of Ἄραψ
αὐτήν] the referent is most naturally the ravine.
8
συνῆψεν] aorist of συνάπτω, which normally indicates two things coming together, in this case the shout and the border, but the border is of course stationary.
Αἰλίμ] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; Ottley and Swete spell it Αἰλείμ
ὀλολυγμὸς] cognate with ὀλολύζω, “wail,” “howl.”
φρέατος] φρέαρ denotes a well, pit, or shaft.
9
τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τὸ Δερμὼν] Δερμὼν is in the position normally held by an attributive adjective, “the Dermon water,” but could be a genitive: “the water of Dermon.”
πλησθήσεται] future passive of πίμπλημι
Δερμὼν] changed by ca to Ρεμμων with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has Δειμὼν
Νεμμὼν] changed by ca to Ρεμμων with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has Δειμὼν
σπέρμα … κατάλοιπον] these two nouns are in parallel, as σπέρμα and κατάλειμμα in 14:22 and 14:30 (compare also ἐγκατέλιπεν σπέρμα in 1:9.
1
ἀποστελῶ] S begins a new section after γῆς, in the middle of 16:1. The object of ἀποστελῶ could be implicit “I will send things like reptiles…” or gapped, with the preceding object understood “I will send them like reptiles,” or the sentence could begin with the preceding καὶ “and I will send the remnant of Adama like reptiles…”
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 15 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 31st, 2011, 10:06 pm

  • 15.1 The word against Moabitis:
88. The word against Moabitis (15:1-2)
By night Moabitis will be destroyed, for by night the city wall of Moabitis will be destroyed. 2 Grieve over yourselves, for Daibedon, will be destroyed; where your altar is, there you will go up to weep over Nabau of Moabitis.
89. Moabitis cries out (15:2-5)
Wail! Baldness is on every head; all arms are cut in pieces! 3 In its streets gird yourselves with sackcloth and strike yourselves; wail, all of you, with burning, over its houses and in its lanes! 4 Because Hesebon has cried aloud, and Eleale has spoken, its voice was heard as far as Iassa ; because of this the loins of Moabitis cry out; its soul will know. 5 The heart of Moabitis cries out inside itself like Segor, for she is a three-year old heifer, and on the ascent of Loueith they will ascend to you weeping; on the way, Haronieim cries out, Ruin and earthquake!
90. The seed of Moab will be taken away (15:6-16:1)
6 The water of Nebrim and its pasture will fail, for there will be no green pasture. 7 Is it about to be saved also in this way? For I will bring Arabs upon the ravine and they will take it. 8 For the shout reached the border of Moabitis of Agallim, and its wail as far as the well of Ailim 9 and the Dermon water will be filled with blood, for I will bring Arabs upon Nemmon and I will take away the seed of Moab and Ariel. Αnd the remnant of Adama 16.1 I will send from the land like reptiles.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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