Isaiah Chapter 23

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 23

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 27th, 2011, 9:36 pm

127. The vision of Tyre (23:1-3)
  • 23.1 Τὸ ὅραμα Τύρου.
Ὀλολύζετε, πλοῖα Χαρκηδόνος, ὅτι ἀπώλετο, καὶ οὐκέτι ἔρχονται ἐκ γῆς Κιτιαίων· ἦκται αἰχμάλωτος. 2 τίνι ὅμοιοι γεγόνασιν οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ μεταβόλοι Φοινίκης διαπερῶντες τὴν θάλασσαν 3 ἐν ὕδατι πολλῷ, σπέρμα μεταβόλων; ὡς ἀμητοῦ εἰσφερομένου οἱ μεταβόλοι τῶν ἐθνῶν.

128. The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded (23:4-9)
4 Αἰσχύνθητι, Σιδών, εἶπεν ἡ θάλασσα· ἡ δὲ ἰσχὺς τῆς θαλάσσης εἶπεν Οὐκ ὤδινον οὐδὲ ἔτεκον οὐδὲ ἐξέθρεψα νεανίσκους οὐδὲ ὕψωσα παρθένους. 5 ὅταν δὲ ἀκουστὸν γένηται Αἰγύπτῳ, λήμψεται αὐτοὺς ὀδύνη περὶ Τύρου. 6 ἀπέλθατε εἰς Καρχηδόνα, ὀλολύξατε, οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ. 7 οὐκ αὐτὴ ἦν ὑμῶν ἡ ὕβρις ἡ ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς πρὶν ἢ παραδοθῆναι αὐτήν; 8 τίς ταῦτα ἐβουλεύσατο ἐπὶ Τύρον; μὴ ἥσσων ἐστὶν ἢ οὐκ ἰσχύουσιν οἱ ἔμποροι αὐτῆς οἱ ἔνδοξοι, οἱ ἄρχοντες τῆς γῆς. 9 Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐβουλεύσατο παραλῦσαι πᾶσαν τὴν ὕβριν τῶν ἐνδόξων καὶ ἀτιμάσαι πᾶν ἔνδοξον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.
129. Tyre loses power over the sea (23:10-12)
10 ἐργάζου τὴν γῆν σου, καὶ γὰρ πλοῖα οὐκέτι ἔρχεται ἐκ Καρχηδόνος. 11 ἡ δὲ χείρ σου οὐκέτι ἰσχύει κατὰ θάλασσαν, ἡ παροξύνουσα βασιλεῖς· Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐνετείλατο περὶ Χανάαν ἀπολέσαι αὐτῆς τὴν ἰσχύν. 12 καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὐκέτι μὴ προσθῆτε τοῦ ὑβρίζειν καὶ ἀδικεῖν τὴν θυγατέρα Σειών.
130. No rest for Tyre (23:12-13)
καὶ ἐὰν ἀπέλθῃς εἰς Κιτιεῖς, οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται σοι · 13 καὶ εἰς γῆν Χαλδαίων, καὶ αὕτη ἠρήμωται ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων, οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται, ὅτι ὁ τοῖχος αὐτῆς πέπτωκεν.

131. Tyre abandoned for 70 years (23:14-16)

14 Ὀλολύζετε, πλοῖα Χαρκηδόνος, ὅτι ἀπώλετο τὸ ὀχύρωμα ὑμῶν. 15 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ καταλειφθήσεται Τύρος ἔτη ἑβδομήκοντα ὡς χρόνος βασιλέως, ὡς χρόνος ἀνθρώπου· καὶ ἔσται μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἔσται Τύρος ὡς ᾆσμα πόρνης 16 λαβὲ κιθάραν, ῥέμβευσον πόλεις, πόρνη ἐπιλελησμένη· καλῶς κιθάρισον, πολλὰ ᾆσον, ἵνα σου μνεία γένηται.
132. Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord (23:17-18)
17 καὶ ἔσται μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἐπισκοπὴν ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς Τύρου, καὶ πάλιν ἀποκατασταθήσεται εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον καὶ ἔσται ἐμπόριον πάσαις βασιλείαις τῆς οἰκουμένης. 18 καὶ ἔσται αὐτῆς ἡ ἐμπορία καὶ ὁ μισθὸς ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ· οὐκ αὐτοῖς συναχθήσεται, ἀλλὰ τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν ἔναντι Κυρίου ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ πᾶσα ἡ ἐμπορία αὐτῆς φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν καὶ ἐμπλησθῆναι εἰς συμβολὴν μνημόσυνον ἔναντι Κυρίου.
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Notes on Isaiah 23:1-3

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 8:40 am

127. The vision of Tyre (23:1-3)
  • 23.1 Τὸ ὅραμα Τύρου.
Ὀλολύζετε, πλοῖα Χαρκηδόνος, ὅτι ἀπώλετο, καὶ οὐκέτι ἔρχονται ἐκ γῆς Κιτιαίων· ἦκται αἰχμάλωτος. 2 τίνι ὅμοιοι γεγόνασιν οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ μεταβόλοι Φοινίκης διαπερῶντες τὴν θάλασσαν 3 ἐν ὕδατι πολλῷ, σπέρμα μεταβόλων; ὡς ἀμητοῦ εἰσφερομένου οἱ μεταβόλοι τῶν ἐθνῶν.
This chapter has been the subject of a book-length study by Arie van der Kooij.
1
ὅραμα] B has ῥῆμα
Ὀλολύζετε] recalls 14:31 and anticipates 23:14 precisely; the aorist is used at 10:10.
πλοῖα] vocative
Χαρκηδόνος] changed by ca to the normal spelling of Carthage, Καρχηδόνος, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἀπώλετο] the subject could be Tyre or Carthage; Carthage is the closer of the two.
ἔρχονται] the subject is not specified, but would not be the ships of Carthange, since this is not second but third person.
Κιτιαίων] with B (Rahlfs); spelled Κιτιέων in Ziegler
ἦκται] perfect passive singular. The subject likely remains the same as that of ἀπώλετο, but could now be the land of the Kitienes.
αἰχμάλωτος] is an adjective (contra BDAG) with identical masculine and feminine forms, modifying either Tyre or Carthage.
2
ὅμοιοι] predicate nominative of the equative verb γεγόνασιν
γεγόνασιν] perfect third person plural
οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες] subject of γεγόνασιν
μεταβόλοι] nominative in apposition to the inhabitants. The Hebrew is סחר.
Φοινίκης] the genitive most likely indicates the home of the traders, but (less probably) could indicate the place with which they trade. The Hebrew is צידון, Sidon.
διαπερῶντες] participle of διαπεράω, move across
3
ἐν ὕδατι πολλῷ] literal translation of ובמים רבים, indicating the sailors travel a great distance over the sea.
σπέρμα μεταβόλων] again, in apposition to οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες; In Greek, they are traders from a family of traders, but in the MT, the word here is שִׁחֹר, which was read confusing sin and samek.
ἀμητοῦ] genitive absolute of ἄμητος, harvest, either the time or the result, recalling 9:2, 17:5, 11; 18:4. This is the last occurrence in G.
μεταβόλοι] Here the Hebrew is סחר again. The nominative has no verb here; the only finite verb in verses 2-3 is γεγόνασιν. Therefore copular verb is supplied by translators. Ottley has “as when a harvest is gathered in, (are) the traffickers of the nations.” Silva has “The merchants of the nations are as when a harvest is being gathered in.” Van der Kooij has “As when the harvest is gathered in are the retailers of the nations.”

Reception
Athanasius (Festal Letter 2.3) when admonishing his readers not to be like the evildoers who were careless and imitated the wicked, alluded to 23:2 as the prophet praying in the Spirit, “Ye are to me like merchant-men of Phoenicia,” an example of the Word (the Son) trying to restrain his own people from such foolishness.
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Notes on Isaiah 23:4-9

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 10:24 am

128. The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded (23:4-9)
4 Αἰσχύνθητι, Σειδών, εἶπεν ἡ θάλασσα· ἡ δὲ ἰσχὺς τῆς θαλάσσης εἶπεν Οὐκ ὤδινον οὐδὲ ἔτεκον οὐδὲ ἐξέθρεψα νεανίσκους οὐδὲ ὕψωσα παρθένους. 5 ὅταν δὲ ἀκουστὸν γένηται Αἰγύπτῳ, λήμψεται αὐτοὺς ὀδύνη περὶ Τύρου. 6 ἀπέλθατε εἰς Καρχηδόνα, ὀλολύξατε, οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ. 7 οὐκ αὐτὴ ἦν ὑμῶν ἡ ὕβρις ἡ ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς πρὶν ἢ παραδοθῆναι αὐτήν; 8 τίς ταῦτα ἐβουλεύσατο ἐπὶ Τύρον; μὴ ἥσσων ἐστὶν ἢ οὐκ ἰσχύουσιν οἱ ἔμποροι αὐτῆς οἱ ἔνδοξοι, οἱ ἄρχοντες τῆς γῆς. 9 Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐβουλεύσατο παραλῦσαι πᾶσαν τὴν ὕβριν τῶν ἐνδόξων καὶ ἀτιμάσαι πᾶν ἔνδοξον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.
4
Αἰσχύνθητι] aorist passive imperative of αἰσχύνω
Σειδών] with B; spelled Σιδών by Rahlfs, Ziegler. Vocative.
εἶπεν ἡ θάλασσα] The sea is an unexpected speaker here, but this is a literal translation of כי אמר ים, except that כי is ignored, and the article was added. In Hebrew, it is not the sea but the prophet who tells Sidon to be ashamed.
ὤδινον] imperfect of ὠδίνω (translating a qatal form, חלתי); the Greek form could be first person singular or third person plural, but the parallel ἐξέθρεψα establishes this as first person as well. The aorist form would be ὤδῑνα or ὠδίνησα (Ps 7:15).
ἔτεκον] aorist of τίκτω (contrast to the preceding imperfect)
ἐξέθρεψα] aorist of ἐκτρέφω, bring up children.
οὐδὲ] spelled οὐδʼ by Swete
ὕψωσα] ὑψόω is not normally used for raising children; this is a literal translation of רוממתי.
5
ἀκουστὸν] neuter nominative, since the verb is γίνομαι.
γένηται] the neuter subject is impersonal.
λήμψεται] the subject is ὀδύνη
αὐτοὺς] the plural object is the Egyptians, despite the fact that Egypt was introduced as a singular noun.
ὀδύνη] noun cognate with the verb ὤδινον in 23:4.
6
ὀλολύξατε] with B (Rahlfs); Ziegler has ὀλολύζετε. Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. The addressees are the inhabitants.
ἐνοικοῦντες] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has κατοικοῦντες. Vocative.
ταύτῃ] Van der Kooij has argued that this demonstrative pronoun is very significant since it was added by G: “It is to be noted that LXX offers a variation between ys 2 and vs 6: ἐν τῇ νήσῳ and ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ταύτῃ respectively; ΜΤ has in both verses the same reading (ישבי אי). It suggests that, unlike MT where both verses the same place is meant (Tyre; see chapter II), LXX vs 6 refers to a place different from the one envisaged in vs 2 which as we have seen is about the isle of the retailers of Phoenicia. The parallel wording of the text seems to point to Carthage: “Depart ye to Carthage, cry aloud, inhabitants of that isle.” Notice that van der Kooij changed the demonstrative from near (“this”) to far (“that”). I would argue that ταύτῃ is not an addition by G; it is rather a translation of the next Hebrew word, הזאת, which was doubly translated, once as ταύτῃ, and once as οὐχ αὕτη ἦν (οὐκ αὐτὴ ἦν in S). A similar double-translation appears in 21:6, where לך was understood both as an imperative and as a prepositional phrase. See the notes to 21:6. Therefore we do not have an intentional change of referent from Tyre to Carthage, nor did the early readers of the oracle of Tyre perceive a change of referent. Eusebius, Jerome, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, and Cyril of Alexandria did associate the prophecy in the first half of Isaiah 23 with a historical event in the past, but they held that it was Tyre, not Carthage, that was being led captive, and that this prophecy refers to the Babylonian capture of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. If the translator intended to convince his readers that the events prophesied had been fulfilled in his own day, he appears to have failed in his purpose.
7
οὐκ αὐτὴ] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has οὐχ αὕτη. The referent is likely Carthage, but “this island” is also a grammatically possible referent.
ὑμῶν] the addressees are the inhabitants of “this” island.
ἡ] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; lacking in B
8
ἐβουλεύσατο] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has ἐβούλευσεν
Τύρον] the main topic is still Tyre rather than Carthage.
ἥσσων] inferior, translating המעטירה , probably reading the root מעט, “be small.”
ἰσχύουσιν] plural; B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has the singular ἰσχύει. Probably the following plural nominative influenced the change to a plural verb.
ἔμποροι] translates סחר, which was earlier (23:2-3) translated by μεταβόλοι. Van der Kooij (60) draws significance from this change, since ἔμποροι denotes wholesalers, whereas μεταβόλοι denotes retailers (see LSJ on μεταβολος). The evidence from Philo (O.M. 147) Josephus (Ant. 2.32; 20.34) and T. Zeb. (4:6) indicate that ἔμποροι are merchants who travel.
οἱ ἔνδοξοι] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has only ἔνδοξοι. The ἔνδοξοι have appeared in 5:14; and 10:33, and in the singular form in 12:4; 13:19; 22:18, 24. In 23:9 and 26:15 the connection with the earth will reoccur. The Hebrew here is נכבדי, like the second instance in 23:9.
οἱ ἄρχοντες] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has only ἄρχοντες
9
ἐβουλεύσατο] the question asked in 23:8 is answered here. Who planned this? Lord Sabaoth.
ἐνδόξων] translates צבי
ἀτιμάσαι] aorist infinitive of ἀτιμάζω
ἔνδοξον] translates נכבדי

Reception
Hippolytus (Treatise on Christ and Antichrist 52) quotes 23:4-5, saying these things shall be in the future and refer to the actions of the Antichrist, whose “first expedition will be against Tyre and Berytus, and the circumjacent territory. For by storming these cities first he will strike terror into the others.”
Gregory Nazianzen (Oration 30.2), in discussing Wisdom personified in Proverb 8:22, notes that the scripture often personifies lifeless objects, providing Isaiah 23:4 as an example.
See also Gregory the Great, Pastor 3.28: “For Sidon is as it were brought to shame by the voice of the sea, when the life of him who is fortified, and as it were stedfast, is reproved by comparison with the life at those who are secular and fluctuating in this world.”
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Notes on Isaiah 23:10-12

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 11:56 am

129. Tyre loses power over the sea (23:10-12)
10 ἐργάζου τὴν γῆν σου, καὶ γὰρ πλοῖα οὐκέτι ἔρχεται ἐκ Καρχηδόνος. 11 ἡ δὲ χείρ σου οὐκέτι ἰσχύει κατὰ θάλασσαν, ἡ παροξύνουσα βασιλεῖς· Κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐνετείλατο περὶ Χανάαν ἀπολέσαι αὐτῆς τὴν ἰσχύν. 12 καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὐκέτι μὴ προσθῆτε τοῦ ὑβρίζειν καὶ ἀδικεῖν τὴν θυγατέρα Σειών.
10
The reason for working the land is that it is no longer possible to make a living by overseas trade with Carthage.
ἐργάζου] the imperatives are now singular, in contrast to those in 23:6.
καὶ] the conjunction joining the two clauses is γὰρ, so καὶ must be acting adverbially.
11
ἰσχύει] recalls 23:8, as does ἰσχύν. The present tense indicates the decline of Tyre had already taken place. The Hebrew form is qatal, but might have been read as a participle.
ἡ παροξύνουσα] modifies χείρ
ἀπολέσαι] aorist infinitive of ἀπόλλυμι
12
προσθῆτε] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has προστεθῆτε
ὑβρίζειν] although cognate to ὕβρις, which we have been translating as “insolence,” the normal meaning of ὑβρίζω, “abuse,” fits this context well.
θυγατέρα Σειών] recalls chapters 3 and 4. Instead of Zion, B has Sidon: θυγατέρα Σειδῶνος; Rahlfs, Ziegler spell it θυγατέρα Σιδῶνος

Reception
No early church fathers quote from this paragraph.
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Notes on Isaiah 23:12-13

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 12:02 pm

130. No rest for Tyre (23:12-13)
καὶ ἐὰν ἀπέλθῃς εἰς Κιτιεῖς, οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται σοι · 13 καὶ εἰς γῆν Χαλδαίων, καὶ αὕτη ἠρήμωται ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων, οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται, ὅτι ὁ τοῖχος αὐτῆς πέπτωκεν.
ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται σοι] with B; Rahlfs, Ziegler have σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται
13
αὕτη] γῆ is implied
ἠρήμωται] perfect passive of ἐρημόω. No Hebrew word lies behind this.
οὐδὲ ἐκεῖ σοι ἀνάπαυσις ἔσται, ὅτι] with Rahlfs; lacking in B (Ziegler). Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
πέπτωκεν] perfect of πίπτω
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Notes on Isaiah 23:14-16

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 12:30 pm

131. Tyre abandoned for 70 years (23:14-16)
14 Ὀλολύζετε, πλοῖα Χαρκηδόνος, ὅτι ἀπώλετο τὸ ὀχύρωμα ὑμῶν. 15 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ καταλειφθήσεται Τύρος ἔτη ἑβδομήκοντα ὡς χρόνος βασιλέως, ὡς χρόνος ἀνθρώπου· καὶ ἔσται μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἔσται Τύρος ὡς ᾆσμα πόρνης 16 λαβὲ κιθάραν, ῥέμβευσον, πόλις, πόρνη ἐπιλελησμένη· καλῶς κιθάρισον, πολλὰ ᾆσον, ἵνα σου μνεία γένηται.
14
Ὀλολύζετε] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has ὀλολύξατε. Recalls 23:1 exactly.
Χαρκηδόνος] changed by ca to Καρχηδόνος, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἀπώλετο] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἀπόλωλε. Continues to recall 23:1.
τὸ ὀχύρωμα ὑμῶν] Whereas 23:1 did not specify who had perished, here the fortress is specified. ὀχύρωμα recalls 22:10, where the wall was being made into a fortress for the city of David.
15
ἔτη ἑβδομήκοντα] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη. Accusative of duration.
ὡς χρόνος βασιλέως] the meaning of this phrase is obscure, but it represents well the underlying Hebrew כימי מלך, “days of a king.”
ὡς χρόνος ἀνθρώπου] represents simply אחד “one,” into which G imported his understanding of the preceding “like the time of a king.”
ἔσται Τύρος ὡς ᾆσμα πόρνης] it seems odd for a city to be compared to a song, but it is G’s attempt to render יהיה לצר כשׁירת הזונה, read as יהיה צר כשׁירת זונה, without the preposition ל and article.
16
λαβὲ] the city is being addressed
ῥέμβευσον] aorist imperative of ῥεμβεύω, synonymous with ῥεμβω, to move aimlessly.
πόλις] if singular, this is vocative, but in scribe B’s spelling, this could be the plural πόλεις, which here would be accusative: “Roam cities!”
πόρνη ἐπιλελησμένη] vocative. The participle is from ἐπιλανθάνομαι, “forget.”
κιθάρισον] imperative of κιθαρίζω, cognate with κιθάραν from earlier in this verse.
ᾆσον] imperative of ᾄδω, cognate with ᾆσμα from 23:15.
μνεία] something by which to remember.
γένηται] aorist subjunctive
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Notes on Isaiah 23:17-18

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 1:21 pm

132. Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord (23:17-18)
17 καὶ ἔσται μετὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἐπισκοπὴν ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς Τύρου, καὶ πάλιν ἀποκατασταθήσεται εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον καὶ ἔσται ἐμπόριον πάσαις βασιλείαις τῆς οἰκουμένης. 18 καὶ ἔσται αὐτῆς ἡ ἐμπορία καὶ ὁ μισθὸς ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ· οὐκ αὐτοῖς συναχθήσεται, ἀλλὰ τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν ἔναντι Κυρίου ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ πᾶσα ἡ ἐμπορία αὐτῆς φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν καὶ ἐμπλησθῆναι εἰς συμβολὴν, μνημόσυνον ἔναντι Κυρίου.
17
καὶ ἔσται μετὰ τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη ἐπισκοπὴν ποιήσει ὁ θεὸς Τύρου, καὶ πάλιν ἀποκαταστήσεται εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον] Swete and Ziegler divide verses 16 and 17 after these words; Rahlfs divides them before. S has a new paragraph beginning with these words, so the division clearly agrees with Rahlfs.
ἐπισκοπὴν] visitation, in a supervisory role.
ἀποκατασταθήσεται] from ἀποκαθίστημι or ἀποκαθιστάνω, “restore.”
τὸ ἀρχαῖον] adverbial accusative: the way it was in ancient times.
ἐμπόριον] the place where merchants trade; there was such an “Exchange” in Athens. Recalls the ἔμποροι in 23:8, and indicates their restoration to even greater prosperity.
πάσαις] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has πάσαις ταῖς
οἰκουμένης] B has οἰκουμένης ἐπὶ πρόσωπον τῆς γῆς
18
αὐτῆς ἡ ἐμπορία] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has ἡ ἐμπορία αὐτῆς. Refers to the activity in which merchants, ἔμποροι, engage. Recalls the cognates ἐμπόριον in 23:17 and ἔμποροι in 23:8.
μισθὸς] normally applies to the wages of an individual, but can refer to recompense of any kind.
ἅγιον] two nominative nouns are the subject of ἔσται, but they are differing genders. The predicate nominative is a neuter singular adjective.
τῷ Κυρίῳ] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has only Κυρίῳ. This is one of the rare places where the article appears with Lord.
οὐκ … ἀλλὰ] each of these two words is followed by the dative case, confirming they indicate a contrasting pair.
συναχθήσεται] the subject is now πᾶσα ἡ ἐμπορία αὐτῆς.
ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ] lacking in B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἐμπλησθῆναι] aorist passive infinitive of ἐμπίπλημι
εἰς] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has καὶ εἰς. Indicates the purpose or result.
συμβολὴν] Normally συμβολή expressing some kind of coming together. In the plural, it can specifically mean “contribution,” which fits this context, despite the singular form.
μνημόσυνον] μνημόσυνον is often used as a neuter noun, but μνημόσυνος is also an adjective, although the feminine form follows the first declension. Here we have the second declension, so μνημόσυνον cannot be modifying συμβολὴν. Instead, we have two nouns in apposition.

Reception
Rev 17:2’s βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς (and 18:3) possibly allude to the phrase πάσαις βασιλείαις τῆς οἰκουμένης of 23:17.
In Demonstration 21.6 Aphrahat wrote, “Now we see that Tyre was inhabited, and was opulent after she had wandered seventy years, and after she had received the reward of her harlotries and after she had committed fornication with all kingdoms. And she took the harp, and played it sweetly, and multiplied her music.”
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 23 translation

Post by Ken M. Penner » September 28th, 2011, 1:22 pm

127. The vision of Tyre (23:1-3)
  • 23.1 The vision of Tyre:
Wail, ships of Carthage, for it has perished, and they no longer come from the land of the Kitienes; it has been led captive. 2 To whom have those living on the island become comparable, traders of Phoenicia, crossing the sea 3 in much water, the seed of traders? The traders of the nations are like when a harvest is being gathered in.

128. The esteemed of Tyre will be disregarded (23:4-9)
4 Be ashamed, Sidon, said the sea, and the strength of the sea said, I did not have pangs or give birth or rear young men or elevate virgins. 5 But when it is heard in Egypt, pangs will take them concerning Tyre. 6 Go away to Carthage; wail, you living on this island! 7 Was she not your pride from the beginning, before she was handed over? 8 Who planned these things against Tyre? Is she weaker? Are her esteemed merchants not powerful, the leaders of the land? 9 Lord Sabaoth planned to undo all the pride of the esteemed, and to disregard every esteemed person on the land.
129. Tyre loses power over the sea (23:10-12)
10 Work your land, for even ships no longer come from Carthage. 11 But your hand that provoked kings no longer has power over the sea; Lord Sabaoth commanded concerning Chanaan to destroy its power. 12 And they will say, You will certainly no longer continue to abuse and to wrong the daughter of Seion.
130. No rest for Tyre (23:12-13)
And if you go away to Kitieis, there will be no rest for you even there, 13 and to the land of Chaldeans, even this has been made desolate by the Assyrians; not even there will there be rest for you because its wall has fallen.

131. Tyre abandoned for 70 years (23:14-16)
14 Wail, ships of Charkedon, because your fortress has perished. 15 And it will be on that day, that Tyre will be abandoned for seventy years, like a king's time, like a person's time. And it will be that after seventy years Tyre will be like a song of a prostitute: 16 Take a lyre; roam, O city, forgotten prostitute! Play the lyre well; sing many things, so that there might be remembrance of you.
132. Tyre re-established, holy to the Lord (23:17-18)
17 And it will be that after seventy years, God will pay a visit to Tyre, and it will be re-established to the ancient way and it will be a marketplace for all kingdoms of the inhabited world. 18 And her commerce and earnings will be a holy thing to the Lord, all her commerce will be collected not for them but for those residing in the presence of Lord in Jerusalem, to eat and drink and be filled, as a memorial, a contribution in the presence of Lord.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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