Isaiah Chapter 39

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Ken M. Penner
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Isaiah Chapter 39

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 2nd, 2011, 12:07 pm

242. Maiodach hears of Hezekiah’s recovery (39:1)
39.1 Ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ ἀπέστειλεν Μαιωδὰχ υἱὸς τοῦ Λααδὰν ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς Βαβυλωνίας ἐπιστολὰς καὶ πρέσβεις καὶ δῶρα Ἑζεκίᾳ· ἤκουσεν γὰρ ὅτι ἐμαλακίσθη ἕως θανάτου καὶ ἀνέστη.

243. Hezekiah shows the embassy the storehouses (39:2)
2 Καὶ ἐχάρη ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς Ἑζεκίας χαρὰν μεγάλην καὶ ἔδειξεν αὐτοῖς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ νεχωτὰ καὶ τῆς τακτῆς καὶ τῶν θυμιαμάτων καὶ τοῦ μύρου καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου καὶ πάντας τοὺς οἴκους τῶν θησαυρῶν σκευῶν τῆς γάζης καὶ πάντα, ὅσα ἦν ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς αὐτοῦ· καὶ οὐκ ἦν οὐθέν, ὃ οὐκ ἔδειξεν Ἑζεκίας ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ.

244. Isaiah asks Hezekiah about the embassy (39:3-4)
3 Καὶ ἦλθεν Ἠσαίας ὁ προφήτης πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἑζεκίαν καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι οὗτοι καὶ πόθεν ἥκασιν πρὸς σέ;

Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Ἐκ γῆς πόρρωθεν ἥκασιν πρός με, ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος.

4 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἠσαίας Τί εἴδοσαν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ σου;

Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου εἴδοσαν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου ὃ οὐκ εἴδοσαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς μου.

245. Isaiah delivers the word of Lord (39:5-8)

5 Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἠσαίας Ἄκουσον τὸν λόγον Κυρίου Σαβαώθ 6 Ἰδοὺ ἡμέραι ἔρχονται καὶ λήμψονται πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ σου, καὶ ὅσα συνήγαγον οἱ πατέρες σου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης, εἰς Βαβυλῶνα ἥξει, καὶ οὐδὲν οὐ μὴ καταλίπωσιν·

Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος 7 ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τέκνων σου, ὧν ἐγέννησας, λήμψονται καὶ ποιήσουσιν σπάδοντας ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν Βαβυλωνίων.
8 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Ἠσαίᾳ, Ἀγαθὸς ὁ λόγος Κυρίου, ὃν ἐλάλησεν· γενηθήτω δὴ εἰρήνη καὶ δικαιοσύνη ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 39:1

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 2nd, 2011, 12:38 pm

242. Maiodach hears of Hezekiah’s recovery (39:1)
39.1 Ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ ἀπέστειλεν Μαιωδὰχ υἱὸς τοῦ Λααδὰν ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς Βαβυλωνίας ἐπιστολὰς καὶ πρέσβεις καὶ δῶρα Ἑζεκίᾳ· ἤκουσεν γὰρ ὅτι ἐμαλακίσθη ἕως θανάτου καὶ ἀνέστη.
1
Μαιωδὰχ] B has Μαρωδὰχ Βαλαδὰν ὁ; Rahlfs, Ziegler have Μαρωδαχ. 4Ki 20.12 has Μαρωδαχβαλαδαν. The nominative υἱὸς, in apposition to Μαιωδὰχ, indicates that this is the subject.
Λααδὰν] B has Βαλαδὰν. 4Ki 20.12 has Βαλαδαν. The article indicates this is a genitive, so the βασιλεὺς refers to Μαιωδάχ, not Λααδάν.
Βαβυλωνίας] is used only in 11:11; 14:23; 39:7; three times in 1 Esdras (4:53; 6:16; 8:13); and 2Macc 8:20; 3Macc 6:6. The mascuiline form appears in 2 Esdr 4.9; Ep. Jer 1; Bel 3, 23, 28.
ἐπιστολὰς] note the plural. Multiple letters were sent.
Ἑζεκία] lacking in B. 4Ki has πρὸς Εζεκιαν.
ἀνέστη] not the expected translation of חזק. ἀνίστημι is used for resurrection from death, but only rarely for recovery from illness (LSJ lists only Herodotus Hist 1.22.4 and Thucydides, Hist. 2.49.8). Perhaps the Greek translator thought Hezekiah had actually died.
Reception
See Josephus, Antiquities 10.30.
Eusebius, Comm. Isa. 2.15; Chron. (GCS 20.13)
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 39:2

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 2nd, 2011, 12:59 pm

243. Hezekiah shows the embassy the storehouses (39:2)
2 Καὶ ἐχάρη ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς Ἑζεκίας χαρὰν μεγάλην καὶ ἔδειξεν αὐτοῖς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ νεχωτὰ καὶ τῆς τακτῆς καὶ τῶν θυμιαμάτων καὶ τοῦ μύρου καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου καὶ πάντας τοὺς οἴκους τῶν θησαυρῶν σκευῶν τῆς γάζης καὶ πάντα, ὅσα ἦν ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς αὐτοῦ· καὶ οὐκ ἦν οὐθέν, ὃ οὐκ ἔδειξεν Ἑζεκίας ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ.
2
χαρὰν μεγάλην] lacking in B, with 4Ki.
αὐτοῖς] referring to the πρέσβεις
χαρὰν μεγάλην] adverbial accusative
νεχωτὰ] changed by ca to νεχωθὰ, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B also includes καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου here (see below), with 4Ki, which also includes here τὰ ἀρώματα καὶ τὸ ἔλαιον τὸ ἀγαθόν, καὶ τὸν οἶκον. In both this case and in 4Ki 20:13 the Hebrew נכתה is transliterated. LEH refers to P. N. Simotas, Αἱ ἀμετάφραστοι λέξεις ἐν τῷ κειμένῳ τῶν O’, Τhessaloniki, 1968.
τακτῆς] changed by ca to στακτῆς, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler). There is a word τακτῆς, an assessor of tribute according to LSJ, but that is in the nominative case. This would be understood as a substantive genitive feminine form of the adjective τακτός “prescribed,” but the implicitly modified noun is not evident. Στακτή is oil of myrrh.
θυμίαμα] commonly in the plural: incense.
καὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου] B lacks these words here, but has them earlier.
θησαυρῶν σκευῶν] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has simply σκευῶν, which makes more sense. The Hebrew is simply כלי.
γάζης] translates no Hebrew word here. Γάζα refers to the royal treasury; see Acts 8:27.
θησαυροῖς] θησαυρός can refer to either treasure or the place in which treasure is kept.
Reception
See Josephus, Antiquities 10.31.
Eusebius, Comm. Is. 2.15
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Ken M. Penner
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 39:3-4

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 2nd, 2011, 1:21 pm

244. Isaiah asks Hezekiah about the embassy (39:3-4)
3 Καὶ ἦλθεν Ἠσαίας ὁ προφήτης πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ἑζεκίαν καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι οὗτοι καὶ πόθεν ἥκασιν πρὸς σέ;

Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Ἐκ γῆς πόρρωθεν ἥκασιν πρός με, ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος.

4 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἠσαίας Τί εἴδοσαν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ σου;

Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου εἴδοσαν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ μου ὃ οὐκ εἴδοσαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖς θησαυροῖς μου.
In this dialog, S begins a new paragraph when the speaker changes.
3
Τί] in this instance and the next, the question is “what” rather than “why.”
λέγουσιν] the present tense is unexpected, translating אָמְרוּ, a qatal form.
ἥκασιν] Perfect of ἥκω, which has a perfect sense anyway. Normally in the LXX (almost ten times as often) בא is translated by ἔρχομαι, but ἥκω is the next most common rendering. However, in Isaiah, ἔρχομαι (32 times), and ἥκω (30 times) are used with roughly equal frequency. Note that in both the 4Ki version and here the same unusual rendering is chosen, even though 4Ki strongly prefers ἔρχομαι or παραγίνομαι, indicating the translation of Isaiah influenced that of Kingdoms.
4
εἴδοσαν] from εἶδον, not οἶδα.
ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ] does not have a counterpart in the Hebrew
Reception
See Josephus, Antiquities 10.32.
None in Biblia Patristica before 350.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 39:5-8

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 2nd, 2011, 1:40 pm

245. Isaiah delivers the word of Lord (39:5-8)
5 Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἠσαίας Ἄκουσον τὸν λόγον Κυρίου Σαβαώθ 6 Ἰδοὺ ἡμέραι ἔρχονται καὶ λήμψονται πάντα τὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ σου, καὶ ὅσα συνήγαγον οἱ πατέρες σου ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης, εἰς Βαβυλῶνα ἥξει, καὶ οὐδὲν οὐ μὴ καταλίπωσιν.
Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος 7 ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τέκνων σου, ὧν ἐγέννησας, λήμψονται καὶ ποιήσουσιν σπάδοντας ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν Βαβυλωνίων.
8 Καὶ εἶπεν Ἑζεκίας Ἠσαίᾳ, Ἀγαθὸς ὁ λόγος Κυρίου, ὃν ἐλάλησεν· γενηθήτω δὴ εἰρήνη καὶ δικαιοσύνη ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις.
5
6
ἔρχονται] with B and 4Ki; Rahlfs, Ziegler have ἔρχονται, λέγει κύριος,
λήμψονται] the subject is unspecified, but in context must be the Babylonians.
ἥξει] the object is ὅσα συνήγαγον
καταλίπωσιν] from καταλείπω, “leave behind”
Κύριος] with 4Ki, which does not have the article; changed by cb2 to θεὸς, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), and back to Κύριος by cb3. Note the unusual article on Κύριος even though referring to God. The article indicates that the original is probably θεὸς, written ΘϹ, which was mistaken for ΚϹ.
7
ἐγέννησας] aorist, with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has the future γεννήσεις, with 4Ki, reflecting the Hebrew yiqtol form תּוֹלִיד
σπάδοντας] σπάδων refers to one who is castrated (LSJ). 4Ki has εὐνοῦχος here.
8
Ἠσαίᾳ] with B; changed by cb2 to πρὸς Ησαιαν, with Rahlfs, Ziegler.
ὁ] lacking in B
γενηθήτω] passive; B has the middle γενέσθω; 4Ki has ἔστω
ἡμέραις ] changed by cb2 to ἡμέραις μου, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) and 4Ki, which makes more sense.
Reception
See Josephus, Antiquities 10.33-34.
Justin Martyr, Dial. 50.3 says 39:8 refers “to the office of forerunner discharged by John the Baptist and prophet before this our Lord Jesus Christ.” Justin’s text matches A: Καὶ εἶπεν Ἐζεκίας πρὸς Ἠσαΐαν, Ἀγαθὸς ὁ λόγος κυρίου, ὃν ἐλάλησε• Γενέσθω εἰρήνη καὶ δικαιοσύνη ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις μου.
Eusebius, Comm. Is. 2.15
Origen, Hom. Ezek. 14 4.8 uses 39:5, 7; De Orat. 16.3; Comm. Matt. 10-17 15.5; Ep. Afr. (PG 11.80) use 39:7
Tertullian, Marc. 4.15.9 uses 39:6
Julius Africanus, Ep. Orig. (Reichardt, TU 34,3.79)
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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