Isaiah Chapter 40

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 40

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 11:23 am

246. Comfort Jerusalem! (40:1-2)
40.1 Παρακαλεῖτε παρακαλεῖτε, λαός μου, λέγει ὁ θεός. 2 ἱερεῖς, λαλήσατε εἰς τὴν καρδίαν Ἰερουσαλήμ, παρακαλέσατε αὐτήν· ὅτι ἐπλήσθη ἡ ταπείνωσις αὐτῆς, λέλυται γὰρ αὐτῆς ἡ ἁμαρτία· ὅτι ἐδέξατο ἐκ χειρὸς Κυρίου διπλᾶ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα αὐτῆς.

247. Prepare Lord’s way! (40:3-5)
3 Φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν· 4 πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία· 5 καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα Κυρίου, καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ· ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν.

248. Every body withers like grass (40:6-8)
6 Φωνὴ λέγοντος Βόησον· καὶ εἶπα Τί βοήσω; Πᾶσα σὰρξ χόρτος, καὶ πᾶσα δόξα ἀνθρώπου ὡς ἄνθος χόρτου· 7 ἐξηράνθη ὁ χόρτος, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος ἐξέπεσεν, 8 τὸ δὲ ῥῆμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.

249. Lord comes to tend his flock (40:9-11)
9 Ἐπʼ ὄρος ὑψηλὸν ἀνάβηθι, ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Σειών· ὕψωσον τῇ ἰσχύι σου τὴν φωνήν, ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Ἰερουσαλὴμ· ὑψώσατε, μὴ φοβεῖσθε· εἰπὸν ταῖς πόλεσιν Ἰουδα Ἰδοὺ ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν. 10 Κύριος μετὰ ἰσχύος ἔρχεται καὶ ὁ βραχίων μετὰ Κυρίας, ἰδοὺ ὁ μισθὸς αὐτοῦ μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ. 11 ὡς ποιμὴν ποιμανεῖ τὸ ποίμνιον αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦ συνάξει ἄρνας καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσας παρακαλέσει.

250. Who has ever instructed Lord? (40:12-17)
12 Τίς ἐμέτρησεν τῇ χειρὶ τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν σπιθαμῇ καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν δρακί; τίς ἔστησεν τὰ ὄρη σταθμῷ καὶ τὰς νάπας ζυγῷ; 13 τίς ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, καὶ τίς αὐτοῦ σύμβουλος ἐγένετο, ὃς συμβιβᾷ αὐτόν; 14 ἢ πρὸς τίνα συνεβουλεύσατο καὶ συνεβίβασεν αὐτόν; ἢ τίς ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ κρίσιν; ἢ ὁδὸν συνέσεως τίς ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ; ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ; 15 εἰ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ὡς σταγὼν ἀπὸ κάδου καὶ ὡς ῥοπὴ ζυγοῦ ἐλογίσθησαν, καὶ ὡς σίελος λογισθήσονται· 16 ὁ δὲ Λίβανος οὐχ ἱκανὸς εἰς καῦσιν, καὶ πάντα τὰ τετράποδα οὐχ ἱκανὰ εἰς ὁλοκάρπωσιν, 17 καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ὡς οὐδέν εἰσι καὶ εἰς οὐδὲν ἐλογίσθησαν.

251. To whom will you compare the Lord? (40:18-24)
18 Τίνι ὡμοιώσατε Κύριον καὶ τίνι ὁμοιώματι ὡμοιώσατε αὐτόν; 19 μὴ εἰκόνα ἐποίησεν τέκτων, ἢ χρυσοχόος χωνεύσας χρυσίον περιεχρύσωσεν αὐτόν, ὁμοίωμα κατεσκεύασεν αὐτόν; 20 ξύλον γὰρ ἄσηπτον ἐκλέγεται τέκτων καὶ σοφῶς ζητήσει πῶς στήσει αὐτὸ εἰκόνα καὶ ἵνα μὴ σαλεύηται.
21 Οὐ γνώσεσθε; οὐκ ἀκούσεσθε; οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὑμῖν; οὐκ ἔγνωτε τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς; 22 ὁ κατέχων τὸν γῦρον τῆς γῆς, καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ ὡς ἀκρίδες, ὁ στήσας ὡς καμάραν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ διατείνας ὡς σκηνὴν κατοικεῖν, 23 ὁ διδοὺς ἄρχοντας εἰς οὐδὲν ἄρχειν, τὴν δὲ γῆν ὡς οὐδὲν ἐποίησεν. 24 οὐ γὰρ μὴ σπείρωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσωσιν, οὐδὲ μὴ ῥιζωθῇ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἡ ῥίζα αὐτῶν· ἔπνευσεν ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐξηράνθησαν, καὶ καταιγὶς ὡς φρύγανον λήμψεται αὐτούς.

252. The holy one is incomparable (40:25-26)
25 Νῦν οὖν τίνι με ὁμοιώσατε καὶ ὑψωθήσομαι; εἶπεν ὁ ἅγιος. 26 ἀναβλέψατε εἰς ὕψος τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὑμῶν καὶ ἴδετε· τίς κατέδειξεν ταῦτα πάντα ; ὁ ἐκφέρων κατὰ ἀριθμὸν τὸν κόσμον αὐτῶν πάντας ἐπʼ ὀνόματι καλέσει·
253. Do not say God has removed my judgement (40:26-28)
ἀπὸ πάσης δόξης καὶ ἐν κράτει ἰσχύος οὐδέν σε ἔλαθεν. 27 Μὴ γὰρ εἴπῃς, Ἰακώβ, καὶ τί ἐλάλησας, Ἰσραήλ Ἀπεκρύβη ἡ ὁδός μου ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ὁ θεός μου τὴν κρίσιν ἀφεῖλεν καὶ ἀπέστη;
254. Those who wait upon God will not grow weary (40:28-31)
28 καὶ νῦν οὐκ ἔτι γνωσει εἰ μὴ ἤκουσας; θεὸς αἰώνιος ὁ θεὸς ὁ κατασκευάσας τὰ ἄκρα τῆς γῆς, οὐ πεινάσει οὐδὲ διψήσει οὐδὲ κοπιάσει, οὐδὲ ἔστιν ἐξεύρεσις τῆς φρονήσεως αὐτοῦ· 29 διδοὺς τοῖς πεινῶσιν ἰσχὺν καὶ τοῖς μὴ ὀδυνωμένοις λύπην. 30 πεινάσουσιν γὰρ νεώτεροι, καὶ κοπιάσουσιν νεανίσκοι, καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ ἀνίσχυες ἔσονται· 31 οἱ δὲ ὑπομένοντες τὸν θεὸν ἀλλάξουσιν ἰσχύν, πτεροφυήσουσιν ὡς ἀετοί, δραμοῦνται καὶ οὐ κοπιάσουσιν, βαδιοῦνται καὶ οὐ πεινάσουσιν.
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Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 40:1-2

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 11:25 am

246. Comfort Jerusalem! (40:1-2)
40.1 Παρακαλεῖτε παρακαλεῖτε, λαός μου, λέγει ὁ θεός. 2 ἱερεῖς, λαλήσατε εἰς τὴν καρδίαν Ἰερουσαλήμ, παρακαλέσατε αὐτήν· ὅτι ἐπλήσθη ἡ ταπείνωσις αὐτῆς, λέλυται γὰρ αὐτῆς ἡ ἁμαρτία· ὅτι ἐδέξατο ἐκ χειρὸς Κυρίου διπλᾶ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα αὐτῆς.
The text of chapter 40 is relatively free of variants among the uncials. Many verses exhibit no differences.
1
τὸν λαόν] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); changed by ca from λαός. The singular nominative here is out of place; with the plural imperative one would expect a plural vocative.
2
ἱερεῖς] vocative plural of ἱερεύς
λαλήσατε εἰς τὴν καρδίαν] literal translation of דברו על לב
ἐπλήσθη] πίμπλημι is not usually used for completion of time, except in the first two chapters of Luke’s gospel (1:23, 57; 2:6, 21, 22), but this usage is attested in inscriptions (see LSJ πίμπλημι I.4). So is the usage of complete a prescribed experience (LSJ πίμπλημι I.5), which is what we see here.
γὰρ] lacking in A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἁμαρτία] singular, translating the singular עונ‍ה.
ἁμαρτήματα] plural, translating the plural חטאתיה
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Notes on Isaiah 40:3-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 11:43 am

247. Prepare Lord’s way! (40:3-5)
3 Φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν· 4 πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία· 5 καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα Κυρίου, καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ· ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν.
3
φωνὴ βοῶντος] the mismatched genders here make it impossible for the participle to modify the noun as might in Hebrew, where קול קורא is masculine, and the state of קול is ambiguous: either in the construct state (yielding a genitive construction, as in G) or in the absolute state “a voice calling.”
4
φάραγξ] in G, seems to mean the opposite of a mountain or hill; i.e., a valley. But the usual meaning for φάραγξ is something smaller and steeper, something from which escape is difficult; something in which things can be thrown, something that can be filled, i.e., a chasm or ravine. It is the most common rendering of the Hebrew גיא (also in 22:1, 5; Zec 14:5; Jer 7:32).
πληρωθήσεται … ταπεινωθήσεται] recalls ἐπλήσθη ἡ ταπείνωσις from 40:2.
σκολιὰ] σκολιός means crooked, and carries a figurative meaning similar to “crooked” in English.
πεδία] with B (Rahlfs); changed by ca to ὁδοὺς λείας, with A (Ziegler). Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler. Aquila and Symmachus have πεδία, the normal translation of בקעה. ὁδοὺς λείας is inexplicable unless it is original.
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Notes on Isaiah 40:6-8

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 12:29 pm

248. Every body withers like grass (40:6-8)
6 Φωνὴ λέγοντος Βόησον· καὶ εἶπα Τί βοήσω; Πᾶσα σὰρξ χόρτος, καὶ πᾶσα δόξα ἀνθρώπου ὡς ἄνθος χόρτου· 7 ἐξηράνθη ὁ χόρτος, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος ἐξέπεσεν, 8 τὸ δὲ ῥῆμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
6
Φωνὴ λέγοντος] recalls Φωνὴ βοῶντος from 40:3
εἶπα] the first person form here is unexpected; it reflects the first person singular אקרא. Previously, the priests were addressed; here the imperative was singular. The speaker is assumed to be the prophet.
Τί βοήσω] the extent of the prophet’s speech is not specified. The third person reference to God, together with a first-person pronoun in τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν indicates that the speech continues to the end of verse 8.
Πᾶσα σὰρξ χόρτος] The subject of this verbless clause is the more definite Πᾶσα σὰρξ. The time reference is gnomic: something true as a rule.
πᾶσα δόξα ἀνθρώπου ὡς ἄνθος χόρτου] Similarly, the subject of this verbless clause is the more definite πᾶσα δόξα.
7
ἐξηράνθη … ἐξέπεσεν] The aorist here was chosen because of the qatal tense of יבשׁ and נבל, not because the aorist is the appropriate tense for gnomic statements.
8
μενεῖ] The future tense here reflects the yiqtol form יקום. It could have been read as a Greek present tense, since only the accent distinguishes the present from the liquid future of μένω. S has no accents.
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Notes on Isaiah 40:9-11

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 12:49 pm

249. Lord comes to tend his flock (40:9-11)
9 Ἐπʼ ὄρος ὑψηλὸν ἀνάβηθι, ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Σειών· ὕψωσον τῇ ἰσχύι σου τὴν φωνήν, ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Ἰερουσαλήμ· ὑψώσατε, μὴ φοβεῖσθε· εἰπὸν ταῖς πόλεσιν Ἰούδα Ἰδοὺ ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν. 10 Κύριος μετὰ ἰσχύος ἔρχεται καὶ ὁ βραχίων μετὰ κυρίας, ἰδοὺ ὁ μισθὸς αὐτοῦ μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ. 11 ὡς ποιμὴν ποιμανεῖ τὸ ποίμνιον αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦ συνάξει ἄρνας καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσας παρακαλέσει.
9
ἀνάβηθι] In G, the addressee of this singular imperative would seem to be the same as in 40:6, until the vocative ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος Ἰερουσαλὴμ is encountered. In Hebrew the change of addressee is more obvious, since the imperative here is feminine, but in 40:6 it was masculine.
σου τὴν φωνήν σου] changed by scribe B himself from σου τὴν φωνήν; B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has τὴν φωνήν σου
Σειών … Ἰερουσαλήμ] In G, the feminine cities cannot be the ones bringing good news because the participles are masculine. The cities must be the objects of the verb, the recipients of the news. In Hebrew, the participles are feminine.
ὑψώσατε, μὴ φοβεῖσθε] G has plural imperatives, probably reading the feminine imperative ending yod as a masculine plural ending waw.
εἰπὸν] singular imperative, matching the feminine singular imperative אמרי.
ταῖς πόλεσιν Ἰουδα] in G, these cities could be in parallel with Jerusalem: all Judea’s cities are addressed. In Hebrew, Jerusalem addresses the other cities.
10
Κύριος] changed by cb2 to ἰδοὺ κύριος, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ἰδοὺ κύριος Κύριος, with MT.
κυρίας] “lady” with A, B; Rahlfs, Ziegler have κυριείας “lordship”, which could be spelled the same.
11
ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσας] This phrase could not have the same referent as the masculine subjects of the verbs ποιμανεῖ and συνάξει, αὐτοῦ, so this phrase must describe the object of παρακαλέσει: he comforts the pregnant sheep.
παρακαλέσει] recalls 40:1
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Notes on Isaiah 40:12-17

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 1:35 pm

250. Who has ever instructed Lord? (40:12-17)
12 Τίς ἐμέτρησεν τῇ χειρὶ τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν σπιθαμῇ καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν δρακί; τίς ἔστησεν τὰ ὄρη σταθμῷ καὶ τὰς νάπας ζυγῷ; 13 τίς ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, καὶ τίς αὐτοῦ σύμβουλος ἐγένετο, ὃς συμβιβᾷ αὐτόν; 14 ἢ πρὸς τίνα συνεβουλεύσατο καὶ συνεβίβασεν αὐτόν; ἢ τίς ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ κρίσιν; ἢ ὁδὸν συνέσεως τίς ἔδειξεν αὐτῷ; ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ; 15 εἰ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ὡς σταγὼν ἀπὸ κάδου καὶ ὡς ῥοπὴ ζυγοῦ ἐλογίσθησαν, καὶ ὡς σίελος λογισθήσονται· 16 ὁ δὲ Λίβανος οὐχ ἱκανὸς εἰς καῦσιν, καὶ πάντα τὰ τετράποδα οὐχ ἱκανὰ εἰς ὁλοκάρπωσιν, 17 καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ὡς οὐδέν εἰσι καὶ εἰς οὐδὲν ἐλογίσθησαν.
12
Τίς] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler); changed by scribe B himself from Τί
ἐμέτρησεν] from μετρέω “measure”
τῇ χειρὶ] instrumental dative
σπιθαμῇ] σπιθαμή is the span from the thumb to little finger of a spread hand.
δρακί] δράξ is a hand or more specifically, a handful
σταθμῷ] σταθμός generally refers to something standing: station, post, or in this case, a balance for weighing things (LSJ σταθμός III).
νάπας] νάπη is a wooded valley, which is the opposite of the Hebrew גבעה, “hill.”
ζυγῷ] ζυγός is not only a yoke, but also a balance for weighing things (as in Rev 6:5).
13
ἔγνω] the aorist tense corresponds to the Hebrew qatal.
ἐγένετο] the Hebrew uses a verbless clause. Presumably the aorist was chosen to match ἔγνω.
αὐτοῦ σύμβουλος] with B (Rahlfs); A (Ziegler) has σύμβουλος αὐτοῦ
συμβιβᾷ] from συμβιβάζω, which normally means “bring together” or “infer,” but here these meanings do not fit. The Pentateuch used συμβιβάζω for teaching (Exod 4:15 and Deut 4:9), which fits the context here. The future is normally συμβιβάσω, but the Attic form is συμβιβῶ, used also in Ps 31:8. The Hebrew tense is yiqtol יודיע.
14
συνεβουλεύσατο] συμβουλεύω in the active means give advice; in the middle seek advice. From whom did he seek advice, and they instructed him?
συνεβίβασεν] see note on συμβιβάζω in verse 13
ἔδειξεν] aorist of δείκνυμι
κρίσιν] in this context, correct judgment is understood, in parallel with ὁδὸν συνέσεως.
αὐτῷ; ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ] changed by cb2 to αὐτῷ, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), then reverted back by cb3.
15
εἰ] interjection (LSJ A), or marker of a strong assertion (BDAG 4)
σταγὼν] drop (of liquid)
κάδου] κάδος is a jar for liquid
καὶ ὡς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has only ὡς
ῥοπὴ] tip; i.e., the movement of a scale, or the weight used to do so. Metaphorically, the decisive moment (in which the scales are tipped); here used for the instantaneous nature of this movement.
σίελος] alternate form of σίελον, spittle.
16
ἱκανὸς] The implication of Lebanon (known for its trees) not being “sufficient” for burning, in the context of τετράποδα and ὁλοκάρπωσιν (a neologism from Genesis 8 and 22), seems to be that not even it could provide enough firewood for an offering suitable for God.
17
οὐδὲν] B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has οὐθὲν
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Notes on Isaiah 40:18-24

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 4:10 pm

251. To whom will you compare the Lord? (40:18-24)
18 Τίνι ὡμοιώσατε Κύριον καὶ τίνι ὁμοιώματι ὡμοιώσατε αὐτόν; 19 μὴ εἰκόνα ἐποίησεν τέκτων, ἢ χρυσοχόος χωνεύσας χρυσίον περιεχρύσωσεν αὐτόν, ὁμοίωμα κατεσκεύασεν αὐτόν; 20 ξύλον γὰρ ἄσηπτον ἐκλέγεται τέκτων καὶ σοφῶς ζητήσει πῶς στήσει αὐτὸ εἰκόνα καὶ ἵνα μὴ σαλεύηται.

21 Οὐ γνώσεσθε; οὐκ ἀκούσεσθε; οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὑμῖν; οὐκ ἔγνωτε τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς; 22 ὁ κατέχων τὸν γῦρον τῆς γῆς, καὶ οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ ὡς ἀκρίδες, ὁ στήσας ὡς καμάραν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ διατείνας ὡς σκηνὴν κατοικεῖν, 23 ὁ διδοὺς ἄρχοντας εἰς οὐδὲν ἄρχειν, τὴν δὲ γῆν ὡς οὐδὲν ἐποίησεν. 24 οὐ γὰρ μὴ σπείρωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσωσιν, οὐδὲ μὴ ῥιζωθῇ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἡ ῥίζα αὐτῶν· ἔπνευσεν ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐξηράνθησαν, καὶ καταιγὶς ὡς φρύγανον λήμψεται αὐτούς.
18
ὡμοιώσατε] the aorists here do not match the Hebrew yiqtol forms of דמה and ערך, respectively.
ὁμοιώματι] cognate with the two verbs in this verse, as the Hebrew דמות is with the first of the verbs.
19
μὴ] expects a negative answer to the rhetorical question: Has a craftsman made his image?
χρυσοχόος χωνεύσας χρυσίον περιεχρύσωσεν] notice the alliteration with χρυσ-. None of the Hebrew words behind this phrase are cognates. Χρυσοχόος is a goldsmith; χωνεύω is contracted from χοᾰνεύω, to cast (metal); περιχρυσόω is to enclose with gold, whether by gilding or mounting.
κατεσκεύασεν] κατασκευάζω means to make ready; in this case to construct it (LSJ 3).
20
ἄσηπτον] ἄσηπτος means not liable to decomposition, or undecayed. Both senses are applicable here.
σοφῶς] adverb of σοφός
ζητήσει] with B; changed by cb2 to ζητεῖ, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler). Ηere information is sought (BDAG ζητέω 2)
καὶ ἵνα] this combination is a bit awkward; here the καί makes more sense as an adverb than as a conjunction.
σαλεύηται] the passive of σαλεύω means “be shaken”
21
γνώσεσθε … ἀκούσεσθε] the future reflects the Hebrew yiqtol.
ἀνηγγέλη … ἔγνωτε] the aorist reflects the Hebrew qatal.
22
κατέχων] the participle reflects the Hebrew participle יֹּשֵׁב.
γῦρον] γῦρος is a ring or circle
οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες] the subject shifts to the plural: the inhabitants of the world are like grasshoppers to him.
ἀκρίδες] ἀκρίς is the desert locust, schistocerca gregaria
ὁ στήσας] the singular subject resumes
καμάραν] καμάρα is an arch
διατείνας] διατείνω here has the sky as its object: he stretches the sky out like a tent.
23
διδοὺς] participle of δίδωμι, reflecting the Hebrew participle.
εἰς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has ὡς. The preposition indicates purpose or result here: they rule in vain.
ἐποίησεν] the finite verb reflects the Hebrew qatal.
24
σπείρωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσωσιν] with Rahlfs, Ziegler; B has φυτεύσωσιν οὐδὲ μὴ σπείρωσιν, with the MT; A has the future σπείρουσιν οὐδὲ μὴ φυτεύσουσιν. The plural subjunctives translate plural qatals.
ῥιζωθῇ] the singular aorist passive subjunctive translates a singular qatal. The singular subject is ἡ ῥίζα.
ἔπνευσεν] 1st aorist of πνέω. The subject could be personal (God blew) or impersonal (it blew)
ἐξηράνθησαν] aorist passive of ξηραίνω
καταιγὶς] a gust of wind
φρύγανον λήμψεται] changed by cb2 to φρύγανα ἀναλήμψεται, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B has φρύγανα λήμψεται. Note the haplography of ΑΝΑ. Φρύγανον in the singular is a bush or dry stick; it is usually used in the plural, for dry brushwood.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 40:25-26

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 4:27 pm

252. The holy one is incomparable (40:25-26)
25 Now then, compare me to someone, and I will be exalted, says the holy one. 26 Lift your eyes up to the height and see! Who has discovered all these things? The one who brings forth their world by number will call them all by name.
25
ὁμοιώσατε] the imperative form was not corrected by any later scribes; A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have the preferable indicative ὡμοιώσατε. The Hebrew has a yiqtol form.
ὑψωθήσομαι] with A, B (Rahlfs); Ziegler has ἰσωθήσομαι, on the basis of only 88, the Syrohexapla, and Jerome. The Hebrew form is weyiqtol.
ὁ ἅγιος] the Hebrew has no article.
26
ἀναβλέψατε] the imperative form matches ὁμοιώσατε in 40:26
κατέδειξεν] καταδείκνυμι means to make known
ταῦτα πάντα] πάντα ταῦτα
αὐτῶν] changed by ca to αὐτοῦ, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
ἐπʼ ὀνόματι] translates בשׁם
πάσης] changed by cb2 to πολλῆς, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler)
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 40:26-27

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 7:38 pm

253. Do not say God has removed my judgement (40:26-27)
ἀπὸ πάσης δόξης καὶ ἐν κράτει ἰσχύος οὐδέν σε ἔλαθεν. 27 Μὴ γὰρ εἴπῃς, Ἰακώβ, καὶ τί ἐλάλησας, Ἰσραήλ Ἀπεκρύβη ἡ ὁδός μου ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ὁ θεός μου τὴν κρίσιν ἀφεῖλεν καὶ ἀπέστη;
ἀπὸ πάσης δόξης … ἐν κράτει ἰσχύος] the relation of these prepositional phrases to the main clause is unclear. Brenton takes them with the preceding sentence. Silva has “because of abundant glory and by might of strength, nothing has escaped you.”
ἔλαθεν] aorist of λανθάνω
27
Ἀπεκρύβη] aorist passive of ἀποκρύπτω “hide”
κρίσις] as in 40:14, right judgement, i.e., justice. Israel should not complain that God is not acting justly.
ἀφεῖλεν] aorist of ἀφαιρέω “take away”
ἀπέστη] 2nd aorist of ἀφίστημι, putting distance between things
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 40:28-31

Post by Ken M. Penner » December 7th, 2011, 7:38 pm

254. Those who wait upon God will not grow weary (40:28-31)
28 καὶ νῦν οὐκ ἔγνως εἰ μὴ ἤκουσας; θεὸς αἰώνιος ὁ θεὸς ὁ κατασκευάσας τὰ ἄκρα τῆς γῆς, οὐ πεινάσει οὐδὲ διψήσει οὐδὲ κοπιάσει, οὐδὲ ἔστιν ἐξεύρεσις τῆς φρονήσεως αὐτοῦ· 29 διδοὺς τοῖς πεινῶσιν ἰσχὺν καὶ τοῖς μὴ ὀδυνωμένοις λύπην. 30 πεινάσουσιν γὰρ νεώτεροι, καὶ κοπιάσουσιν νεανίσκοι, καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ ἀνίσχυες ἔσονται· 31 οἱ δὲ ὑπομένοντες τὸν θεὸν ἀλλάξουσιν ἰσχύν, πτεροφυήσουσιν ὡς ἀετοί, δραμοῦνται καὶ οὐ κοπιάσουσιν, βαδιοῦνται καὶ οὐ πεινάσουσιν.
28
It appears that cb2 agrees with A and B, but cb3 changes the text back to the original reading of scribe B.
ἔγνως] with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) and MT ידעת; changed by cb2 from ἔτι γνωσει, then reverted by cb3.
εἰ μὴ] with a secondary tense, indicates a contrary to fact situation, such as in John 15:22“if I had not come” or John 9:33 “if this man were not from God”…
ἄκρα] ἄκρος indicates the farthest point, the extremes
πεινάσει] future of πεινάω, “be hungry”
διψήσει οὐδὲ] deleted by cb2, with B (Rahlfs, Ziegler), but reverted by cb3.
κοπιάσει] future of κοπιάω, be tired from exertion
ἐξεύρεσις] literal translation of חקר, “searching,” indicating one can never comprehend it.
φρονήσεως] genitive of φρόνησις, thinking
29
διδοὺς] participle of δίδωμι
πεινῶσιν] dative plural participle of πεινάω (see 40:28)
ὀδυνωμένοις] dative plural passive participle of ὀδυνάω, pain
30
νεώτεροι] young men
πεινάσουσιν … κοπιάσουσιν] recalls 40:28
ἀνίσχυς] neologism “without strength,” translating an infinitive absolute כשׁול יכשׁלו
31
ὑπομένοντες] participle of ὑπομένω
ἀλλάξουσιν] future of ἀλλάσσω “change,” a literal translation of יחליפו
πτεροφυήσουσιν] grow feathers, as the phoenix does in 1Cl 25:3
ἀετοί] ἀετός is the eagle (despite being used of vultures in Matt 24:28; Luke 17:37), a symbol of swiftness (Rev 12:14), used as the Roman standard in Plutarch, Marius 23.
δραμοῦνται] future of τρέχω, to rush ahead
κοπιάσουσιν … πεινάσουσιν] recalls 20:28, 29, 30
βαδιοῦνται] future of βαδίζω, “go”; “walk,” in contrast to τρέχω
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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