Section 5 is devoted to the present indicative, and subsection 5.1, the focus of this topic, is about its temporal location:
Rijksbaron, p.9 wrote:The present indicative signifies that the state of affairs is located at the moment of utterance; the state of affairs continues through the moment of utterance:
(4) τί κάτησθε, ὦ Πέρσαι, ἐνθαῦτα ...; ('Persians, why are you sitting here?', Hdt. 3,151,2)
(5) ὁ δ' ὦμος οὐτοσὶ πιέζεται ('My shoulder here is stuck,', Ar. Ra. 30)
After this clear and apparently unequivocal statement, R. walks it back somewhat with a set of exceptions in Note 1:
- The present indicative can be used with completed sayings and perceptions.
- The following verbs: ἥκω, φεύγω, ἡττῶμαι, τίκτω.