Galatians 1:1-5

Jonathan Robie
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Galatians 1:1-5

Post by Jonathan Robie » October 8th, 2013, 6:23 am

The text from SBLGNT:
1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν, 2 καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί, ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας· 3 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 4 τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν, 5 ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ἀμήν.
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Stephen Carlson
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5 (Textual Matters)

Post by Stephen Carlson » October 8th, 2013, 7:36 am

Because we're going with the SBLGNT text, it is helpful to lay out the textual variants that its editors has indicated:

a. ΠΡΟΣ ΓΑΛΑΤΑΣ 1:3 καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Treg RP] ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου WH NIV
b. ΠΡΟΣ ΓΑΛΑΤΑΣ 1:4 ὑπὲρ WH NIV] περὶ Treg RP
c. ΠΡΟΣ ΓΑΛΑΤΑΣ 1:4 αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος WH Treg NIV] ἐνεστῶτος αἰῶνος RP

In my dissertation, I agree will all three decisions (the first two against the NA27 critical text, and the second two against the Byzantine text).
Stephen C. Carlson, Ph.D.
Melbourne, Australia

Stephen Carlson
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Galatians 1:1-5 (Segmentation)

Post by Stephen Carlson » October 8th, 2013, 7:39 am

All one period without a finite verb in sight!

For a close reading, I would suggest that the first step is to break the period down into its colons (κῶλα) or intontation / information units, each can be phrased in a single breath and basically corresponding to one idea (referent, state, or event). I would suggest the following breakdown (it is possible that some of these colons can be merged together, perhaps 1c-d, 1e-f, and 4b-c):

1a Παῦλος
1b ἀπόστολος,
1c οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
1d οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου
1e ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς
1f τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν,
2a καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί,
2b ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας·
3a χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,
4a τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν
4b ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ
4c κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν,
5a ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων·
5b ἀμήν.

As you can see, the modern punctuation does not finely segment the text.
Stephen C. Carlson, Ph.D.
Melbourne, Australia

Jonathan Robie
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5 (Parsing)

Post by Jonathan Robie » October 8th, 2013, 7:40 am

I would expect a reader's guide to list these verb forms:
  • ἐγειρ-αντος (ἐγείρω, raise) - Participle, Singular aorist active: genitive (m)
  • δ-όντος (δίδωμι, give) - Participle, Singular aorist active: genitive (m)
  • ἐξέληται = ἐκ:ἑλ-ηται (ἐξαιρέω, take away from) - 3rd person singular; aorist subjunctive; mediopassive
  • ἐν:ἑστ-ῶτος (ἐνίστημι, here: be present in) - Participle, Singular perfect active: genitive (m)
Alpheios breaks verbs down into morphemes nicely, doesn't it!

What else should a reader's guide spell out? Most of the vocabularly here seems relatively simple.
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Jonathan Robie
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5 (Segmentation)

Post by Jonathan Robie » October 8th, 2013, 2:21 pm

Stephen Carlson wrote:As you can see, the modern punctuation does not finely segment the text.
Does this imply that older punctuation did?
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Stephen Carlson
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5 (Segmentation)

Post by Stephen Carlson » October 9th, 2013, 3:00 am

Jonathan Robie wrote:
Stephen Carlson wrote:As you can see, the modern punctuation does not finely segment the text.
Does this imply that older punctuation did?
No.
Stephen C. Carlson, Ph.D.
Melbourne, Australia

Jonathan Robie
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5 (Segmentation)

Post by Jonathan Robie » October 9th, 2013, 6:26 am

Stephen Carlson wrote:For a close reading, I would suggest that the first step is to break the period down into its colons (κῶλα) or intontation / information units, each can be phrased in a single breath and basically corresponding to one idea (referent, state, or event).
So what would you do as a second step?
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Stephen Carlson
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5 (Discourse)

Post by Stephen Carlson » October 9th, 2013, 8:56 am

Jonathan Robie wrote:So what would you do as a second step?
The best thing to do now is to march through the segments, one at time, and build a picture of what the author is saying.

They should be small enough to grasp easily in terms of syntax but also independent enough to identify their discourse function in relation to discourse entities.

Let's step through Gal 1:1ff. I'll be rather brief, but we can expand upon them if need be.
1a Παῦλος
Nominative name. As an initial segment/colon, it is a topic frame to establish Paul as the topic for the following segments. It promises a finite verb for a prediction, which we won't quite get (cf. 2b).
1b ἀπόστολος,
Another noun, also in the nominative. But Paul is already toplicalized, so it is in apposition to 1a, and it tells us (comments) something about Paul: that he's an apostle.
1c οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
A negated prepositional phrase. It is still telling us something about the topic, Paul: that he's not from (a group of) people.
1d οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου
Another negative prepositonal. It is a thematic addition (οὐδέ), adding another denial: that he's not any person's agent.
1e ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς
The initial element ἀλλά signals a counterpoint to the previous point(s), viz. 1c 1d, correcting some notion about his apostle.
1f τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν,
A participial phrase in the genitive. The case shows that it is is now commenting upon God in 1e.
2a καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί,
Another nominative noun phrase, introduced by a marker of addition. This adds all the fellow Christians with Paul to the topical frame. Now it's about Paul and his fellow Christians.
2b ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας·
This is where we should get the verb but all we have is a dative. Epistolary conventions would have us mentally supply an appropriate and predicable verb, like γράφουσι. With the verb so deemphasized as to be ellipsed, all we have left of this predication is the focus.
3a χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,
This is the greeting. Paul and crew wishes grace and peace from God the Father and Jesus Christ to the recipients.
4a τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν
A participial phrase in the genitive. The case shows that it is is now commenting upon Christ in 3a. God was already commented upon in 1f.
4b ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ
A purpose clause, explaining why Jesus gave himself, possibly to clarify the obscure ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. Christ is the active topic, so it can used as the implied subject of the verb. The structure of the noun phrase is fairly complex and may merit additional commentary.
4c κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν,
An adverbial adjunct, elaborating about the nature of Jesus's purposed action.
5a ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων·
Relative clause. Its antecendent is the active topic, Jesus, and tells us more about him. An appropriate form of εἶναι should be suppled for this verbless clause, probably ἔστω.
5b ἀμήν.
An interjection that terminates the greeting.
Stephen C. Carlson, Ph.D.
Melbourne, Australia

Jonathan Robie
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5

Post by Jonathan Robie » October 9th, 2013, 10:01 am

Stephen Carlson wrote:
Jonathan Robie wrote:So what would you do as a second step?
The best thing to do now is to march through the segments, one at time, and build a picture of what the author is saying.
This is terrific! But I do have a few questions ...

They should be small enough to grasp easily in terms of syntax but also independent enough to identify their discourse function in relation to discourse entities.
Stephen Carlson wrote:
1b ἀπόστολος,
Another noun, also in the nominative. But Paul is already toplicalized, so it is in apposition to 1a, and it tells us (comments) something about Paul: that he's an apostle.
1c οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
A negated prepositional phrase. It is still telling us something about the topic, Paul: that he's not from (a group of) people.
I think you are saying this because your theory tells you that Παῦλος is topicalized, so each of these becomes an assertion about Παῦλος. I have been reading 1c, 1d, and 1e as assertions about his role as an apostle:

ἀπόστολος,
-- οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
-- οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου
ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς

That is:

οὐκ ἀπόστολος ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
οὐδὲ ἀπόστολος δι’ ἀνθρώπου
ἀλλὰ ἀπόστολος διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς

Am I missing something here, or misunderstanding you?
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Stephen Carlson
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Re: Galatians 1:1-5

Post by Stephen Carlson » October 9th, 2013, 2:52 pm

Jonathan Robie wrote: I think you are saying this because your theory tells you that Παῦλος is topicalized, so each of these becomes an assertion about Παῦλος. I have been reading 1c, 1d, and 1e as assertions about his role as an apostle:

ἀπόστολος,
-- οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
-- οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου
ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς

That is:

οὐκ ἀπόστολος ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
οὐδὲ ἀπόστολος δι’ ἀνθρώπου
ἀλλὰ ἀπόστολος διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς

Am I missing something here, or misunderstanding you?
These prepositional phrases of source and means seem to make better sense in connection with some kind of verbal notion. While I think it's necessary to supply something to complete the sense, I have preferred to read in a cognate participle like ἀπεσταλμένος, much like what the NRSV, NIV, and NASB did by explicitly adding "sent."
Stephen C. Carlson, Ph.D.
Melbourne, Australia

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