Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

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Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Stephen Carlson » February 24th, 2012, 11:43 pm

Gal 1:22 wrote: ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.
I think the meaning is pretty clear ("but I was unknown by face / personally to the churches of Judea which are in Christ"), but I'm wondering about the article before προσώπῳ. What is its function? Other places don't have the article (e.g., 1 Tim 2:17a).

Thoughts?

Stephen
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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by cwconrad » February 25th, 2012, 8:21 am

Stephen Carlson wrote:
Gal 1:22 wrote: ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.
I think the meaning is pretty clear ("but I was unknown by face / personally to the churches of Judea which are in Christ"), but I'm wondering about the article before προσώπῳ. What is its function? Other places don't have the article (e.g., 1 Tim 2:17a).

Thoughts?
Might it not be as simple a matter as the fact that it's his own face to which he's referring? Cf. Smyth §1121 "The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor. Κῦρος καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος τὸν θώρα_κα ἐνέδυ_ Cyrus leaped down from his chariot and put on his breastplate X. A. 1.8.3. "
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οὔτοι ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς πάντα θεοὶ θνητοῖς ὑπέδειξαν,
ἀλλὰ χρόνῳ ζητέοντες ἐφευρίσκουσιν ἄμεινον. (Xenophanes, Fragment 16)

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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by David Lim » February 25th, 2012, 11:55 am

Stephen Carlson wrote:
Gal 1:22 wrote: ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.
I think the meaning is pretty clear ("but I was unknown by face / personally to the churches of Judea which are in Christ"), but I'm wondering about the article before προσώπῳ. What is its function? Other places don't have the article (e.g., 1 Tim 2:17a).

Thoughts?
Hmm where is 1 Tim 2:17? Anyway 2 Cor 12:2-3 has a good example where the presence or absence of the article does not have any semantic significance.
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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Stephen Carlson » February 25th, 2012, 12:08 pm

David Lim wrote:Hmm where is 1 Tim 2:17?
Sorry, I meant 1 Thess 2:17 Ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, ἀπορφανισθέντες ἀφ' ὑμῶν πρὸς καιρὸν ὥρας, προσώπῳ οὐ καρδίᾳ, περισσοτέρως ἐσπουδάσαμεν τὸ πρόσωπον ὑμῶν ἰδεῖν ἐν πολλῇ ἐπιθυμίᾳ.
David Lim wrote:Anyway 2 Cor 12:2-3 has a good example where the presence or absence of the article does not have any semantic significance.
We've been over this point before but my view is that if a theory cannot explain the presence or absence of the article, then that theory is inadequate. (Note: significance need not be semantic.)

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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Stephen Carlson » February 25th, 2012, 12:10 pm

cwconrad wrote:Might it not be as simple a matter as the fact that it's his own face to which he's referring? Cf. Smyth §1121 "The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor. Κῦρος καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος τὸν θώρα_κα ἐνέδυ_ Cyrus leaped down from his chariot and put on his breastplate X. A. 1.8.3. "
Good suggestion. I'm still don't feel that I'm completely comfortable with the use of the article in essentially adverbial constructions (John 8:25 τὴν ἀρχήν is a recent example on this forum).

Stephen
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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Mark Lightman » February 25th, 2012, 1:09 pm

Stephen wrote: but I'm wondering about the article before προσώπῳ. What is its function?
Hi, Stephen,

Its function is to help produce a more rhythmic and balanced sentence. The multi-syllabic ἀγνοούμενος and προσώπῳ would sound a little clunky in succession.
DYSPHONIC: ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.

EUPHONIC: ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.


You could get the same euphonic effect, with virtually no change in meaning (hi, David Lim,) with
BEFORE: ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.

AFTER: ἀγνοούμενος δὲ ἤμην προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.
Euphony also “explains” the absence of the article in

1 Thess 2:17 Ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, ἀπορφανισθέντες ἀφ' ὑμῶν πρὸς καιρὸν ὥρας, προσώπῳ οὐ καρδίᾳ, περισσοτέρως ἐσπουδάσαμεν τὸ πρόσωπον ὑμῶν ἰδεῖν ἐν πολλῇ ἐπιθυμίᾳ.

Because here προσώπῳ lies between words with fewer syllables.
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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Stephen Carlson » February 25th, 2012, 3:00 pm

Mark Lightman wrote:
Stephen wrote: but I'm wondering about the article before προσώπῳ. What is its function?
Its function is to help produce a more rhythmic and balanced sentence. The multi-syllabic ἀγνοούμενος and προσώπῳ would sound a little clunky in succession.
I appreciate the attempt, but this explanation does not seem to work for 2 Cor 3:18 ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳ τὴν δόξαν κυρίου κατοπτριζόμενοι τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν, . . . unless Paul is excused as a writer of "clunky" Greek.

Yet this would mean that all of these are writers of clunky Greek too:

Sappho: μειδιαίσαισ’ ἀθανάτωι προσώπωι

Anacreon: χαῖρε φίλον φῶς χαρίεντι μειδιῶν προσώπωι·

Xenophon: ἐκ πολλῶν δὲ καὶ δυσθύμων τε καὶ ἐξεστηκότων προσώπων ἥθροισται.

Hippocrates: τά τε ἐν τῷ ξύμπαντι προσώπῳ,

Theocritus: τοῖον ἐπισκύνιον βλοσυρῷ ἐπέκειτο προσώπῳ.

LXX Deut 28.50: ἔθνος ἀναιδὲς προσώπῳ,

LXX 4 Kgdms 5.1: Καὶ Ναιμαν ὁ ἄρχων τῆς δυνάμεως Συρίας ἦν ἀνὴρ μέγας ἐνώπιον τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ καὶ τεθαυμασμένος προσώπῳ,

Dionysius Halicarnassius: καὶ παντὶ συνεξομοιωθῆναι προσώπῳ δυνατώτατος.

Aristonicus the grammarian: ἀθετοῦνται στίχοι ιδʹ ἕως „ἀνδράσι μίσγηται“ ὡς ἀνοίκειοι τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ προσώπῳ.

Dorotheus: ἵνα γνῶμεν τοὺς βοηθοῦντας ἑκατέρῳ προσώπῳ·

Plutarch: οὐχ ὥσπερ Ἀντίπατρος ἰδιώτου προσώπῳ καὶ φαυλότητι χλαμυδίου

Galen: ὀρῶν γάρ τοί τινων τὴν περιγραφὴν ἢ τὸ σχῆμα παραπλήσιον εἶναι λέοντος προσώπῳ,

Apollonius Dyscolus the grammarian: ἐγγραφομένων γὰρ τῶν ἀντωνυμιῶν διὰ τὰς ἐπισυμβεβηκυίας πράξεις τῷ τε ἀποφαινομένῳ προσώπῳ ὑπὲρ αὑτοῦ καὶ τῷ πρὸς ὃν ἡ ἀπότασις τοῦ λόγου,

Justin Martyr: ἁβρᾷ ἐσθῆτι καὶ ἐρωτοπεποιημένῳ καὶ ἀνθοῦντι ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων προσώπῳ,

Hephaestion the grammarian: μελλίχροος δ’ ἐπ’ ἰμερτῷ κέχυται προσώπῳ.

Vettius Valens: ἔοικε γὰρ τὸ μεσουράνημα ἀναλογεῖν τῷ βασιλικῷ προσώπῳ.

Cassius Dio: οὔτ’ ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἐν τῷ καθεστῶτι προσώπῳ ἐποίουν.

Clement of Alexandria: Σχῆμα μὲν οὖν σχήματι θεωρεῖται, καὶ πρόσωπον προσώπῳ, καὶ ἐπιγινώσκεται τὰ γνωρίσματα τοῖς σχήμασι καὶ ταῖς οὐσίαις.

Hermogenes: ὁ δὲ Πλάτων καὶ ἀφειδέστερον ἐν τῷ Συμποσίῳ καταχρησάμενος τῷ τοῦ Ἀγάθωνος προσώπῳ ὡς ποιητοῦ τῇ παραπλοκῇ ταύτῃ ἐχρήσατο·

Origen: ἀλλ’ ὅτι οὐχ ἁρμοζόντως τῷ ἰουδαϊκῷ προσώπῳ,

Porphyry: λύεται οὖν τὸ ζήτημα προσώπῳ.

Hippolytus: Καὶ ἐπ’ ἐσχάτων τῆς βασιλείας αὐτῶν πληρουμένων τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν ἀναστήσεται βασιλεὺς ἀναιδὴς προσώπῳ καὶ συνιῶν προβλήματα,

Triphiodorus: ὡς δ’ ὁπότε πλήθουσα πυρὸς γλαυκοῖο σελήνη οὐρανὸν αἰγλήεντα κατεχρύσωσε προσώπῳ·

Gregory of Nyssa: μηδὲ δεῖν φαίνεσθαι τῷ ἀκηράτῳ προσώπῳ τὸν ἐμμολυνθέντα ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἡμῶν αἰῶνα·

Eusebius: καταβὰς αὐτοῖς διελέξατο εὖ μάλα φαιδρῷ καὶ πραοτάτῳ προσώπῳ,

Epiphanius: ἵνα ἐν καθαρῷ συνειδότι, ἀνεπαισχύντῳ προσώπῳ, πεφωτισμένῃ καρδίᾳ τῶν θείων τούτων μεταλαμβάνοντες ἁγιασμάτων καὶ ὑπ’ αὐτῶν ζωοποιούμενοι,

Gregory of Nazianzus: τὸ δ’ οὐ φύγον ἔχθος ἄπιστον Δυσμενέος λοχόωντος ἐν εὐμενέοντι προσώπῳ.

Basil of Caesarea: ὃ πάντων αὐτῇ τῶν ἀγαθῶν προτιμότατον, τῷ σῷ προσβλέψαι προσώπῳ καὶ τῆς σῆς ἀκοῦσαι φωνῆς.

Good thing this forum has someone whose sense of euphony is more certain than a millennium's worth of Greek writers!

Stephen
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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Scott Lawson » February 25th, 2012, 10:17 pm

David Lim wrote:Anyway 2 Cor 12:2-3 has a good example where the presence or absence of the article does not have any semantic significance.
BDF §255 “The article can be omitted in prepositional phrases. (formulae from the earlier anarthrous stage of the language.” If correct, then the reason for its absence may be accounted for at 2 Cor. 12:2,3 semantically significant or not.

2 Cor 12:2...οῖδα ἄνθρωπν ἐν Χριστῶ πρὸ ἐτῶν δεκατεσςάρων, εἴτε ἐν σώματι οὐκ οῖδα, εἴτε ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματος οὐκ οῖδα...


BDF §258 “The article is often lacking with the abstracts…The more abstract the sense in which the noun is used, the less likely it is to take any other than the generic article;…”

Gal 1:22 ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ. Evidently literal.

2 Thess. 2:17 Ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, ἀπορφανισθέντες ἀφ’ ὑμῶν πρὸς καιρὸν ὥρας, προςώπῳ οὐ καρδία, περισσοτέρως ἐσπουδάσαμεν τὸ πρόσωπον ὑμῶν ἰδεῖν....

Here is a nice example of the figurative/abstract use of πρόσωπον contrasted with the literal and the absence and presence of the article accordingly.


Again, a figurative use of πρόσωπον, unless ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες have one face.

2 Cor 3:18 ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳ τὴν δόξαν κυρίου κατοπτριζόμενοι τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν…

Just a thought.

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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by David Lim » February 26th, 2012, 12:10 am

Stephen Carlson wrote:
cwconrad wrote:Might it not be as simple a matter as the fact that it's his own face to which he's referring? Cf. Smyth §1121 "The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor. Κῦρος καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος τὸν θώρα_κα ἐνέδυ_ Cyrus leaped down from his chariot and put on his breastplate X. A. 1.8.3. "
Good suggestion. I'm still don't feel that I'm completely comfortable with the use of the article in essentially adverbial constructions (John 8:25 τὴν ἀρχήν is a recent example on this forum).

Stephen
I view these two cases as completely different, because "τω προσωπω" in Gal 1:22 is to me merely a shorter alternative of "εν τω προσωπω μου", so it is really a prepositional clause functioning normally, unlike "την αρχην" in John 8:25 which is an adverb and not a prepositional clause. I also think it is rather common for "εν" to be omitted compared to other prepositions.
Stephen Carlson wrote:
Mark Lightman wrote:
Stephen wrote: but I'm wondering about the article before προσώπῳ. What is its function?
Its function is to help produce a more rhythmic and balanced sentence. The multi-syllabic ἀγνοούμενος and προσώπῳ would sound a little clunky in succession.
I appreciate the attempt, but this explanation does not seem to work for 2 Cor 3:18 ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳ τὴν δόξαν κυρίου κατοπτριζόμενοι τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν, . . . unless Paul is excused as a writer of "clunky" Greek.

Yet this would mean that all of these are writers of clunky Greek too:

[...]
We should exclude all those where an article would be semantically incorrect or grammatically bound..
Sappho: μειδιαίσαισ’ ἀθανάτωι προσώπωι (the article must come before "αθανατω" and alters the meaning)
Anacreon: χαῖρε φίλον φῶς χαρίεντι μειδιῶν προσώπωι· (the article must come before "χαριεντι" and alters the meaning)
Xenophon: ἐκ πολλῶν δὲ καὶ δυσθύμων τε καὶ ἐξεστηκότων προσώπων ἥθροισται. (it is indefinite)
Hippocrates: τά τε ἐν τῷ ξύμπαντι προσώπῳ, (the article is already there)
Aristonicus the grammarian: ἀθετοῦνται στίχοι ιδʹ ἕως „ἀνδράσι μίσγηται“ ὡς ἀνοίκειοι τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ προσώπῳ. (the article is already there)
Plutarch: οὐχ ὥσπερ Ἀντίπατρος ἰδιώτου προσώπῳ καὶ φαυλότητι χλαμυδίου (it is indefinite)
Galen: ὀρῶν γάρ τοί τινων τὴν περιγραφὴν ἢ τὸ σχῆμα παραπλήσιον εἶναι λέοντος προσώπῳ, (it is indefinite)
Apollonius Dyscolus the grammarian: ἐγγραφομένων γὰρ τῶν ἀντωνυμιῶν διὰ τὰς ἐπισυμβεβηκυίας πράξεις τῷ τε ἀποφαινομένῳ προσώπῳ ὑπὲρ αὑτοῦ καὶ τῷ πρὸς ὃν ἡ ἀπότασις τοῦ λόγου, (the article is already there)
Justin Martyr: ἁβρᾷ ἐσθῆτι καὶ ἐρωτοπεποιημένῳ καὶ ἀνθοῦντι ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων προσώπῳ, (it is indefinite)
Hephaestion the grammarian: μελλίχροος δ’ ἐπ’ ἰμερτῷ κέχυται προσώπῳ. (it is in a prepositional clause)
Vettius Valens: ἔοικε γὰρ τὸ μεσουράνημα ἀναλογεῖν τῷ βασιλικῷ προσώπῳ. (the article is already there)
Cassius Dio: οὔτ’ ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἐν τῷ καθεστῶτι προσώπῳ ἐποίουν. (the article is already there)
Clement of Alexandria: Σχῆμα μὲν οὖν σχήματι θεωρεῖται, καὶ πρόσωπον προσώπῳ, καὶ ἐπιγινώσκεται τὰ γνωρίσματα τοῖς σχήμασι καὶ ταῖς οὐσίαις. (doesn't "προσωπον προσωπω" mean "face to face"? though I thought it is usually "προσωπον προς προσωπον"..)
Hermogenes: ὁ δὲ Πλάτων καὶ ἀφειδέστερον ἐν τῷ Συμποσίῳ καταχρησάμενος τῷ τοῦ Ἀγάθωνος προσώπῳ ὡς ποιητοῦ τῇ παραπλοκῇ ταύτῃ ἐχρήσατο· (the article is already there)
Origen: ἀλλ’ ὅτι οὐχ ἁρμοζόντως τῷ ἰουδαϊκῷ προσώπῳ, (the article is already there)
Porphyry: λύεται οὖν τὸ ζήτημα προσώπῳ. (I don't get what this phrase means..)
Gregory of Nyssa: μηδὲ δεῖν φαίνεσθαι τῷ ἀκηράτῳ προσώπῳ τὸν ἐμμολυνθέντα ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἡμῶν αἰῶνα· (the article is already there)
Eusebius: καταβὰς αὐτοῖς διελέξατο εὖ μάλα φαιδρῷ καὶ πραοτάτῳ προσώπῳ, (it is indefinite)
Epiphanius: ἵνα ἐν καθαρῷ συνειδότι, ἀνεπαισχύντῳ προσώπῳ, πεφωτισμένῃ καρδίᾳ τῶν θείων τούτων μεταλαμβάνοντες ἁγιασμάτων καὶ ὑπ’ αὐτῶν ζωοποιούμενοι, (it is indefinite)
Gregory of Nazianzus: τὸ δ’ οὐ φύγον ἔχθος ἄπιστον Δυσμενέος λοχόωντος ἐν εὐμενέοντι προσώπῳ. (I don't get it.)
Basil of Caesarea: ὃ πάντων αὐτῇ τῶν ἀγαθῶν προτιμότατον, τῷ σῷ προσβλέψαι προσώπῳ καὶ τῆς σῆς ἀκοῦσαι φωνῆς. (the article is already there)

Here are the remaining ones:
Theocritus: τοῖον ἐπισκύνιον βλοσυρῷ ἐπέκειτο προσώπῳ.
LXX Deut 28.50: ἔθνος ἀναιδὲς προσώπῳ,
LXX 4 Kgdms 5.1: Καὶ Ναιμαν ὁ ἄρχων τῆς δυνάμεως Συρίας ἦν ἀνὴρ μέγας ἐνώπιον τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ καὶ τεθαυμασμένος προσώπῳ,
Dionysius Halicarnassius: καὶ παντὶ συνεξομοιωθῆναι προσώπῳ δυνατώτατος.
Dorotheus: ἵνα γνῶμεν τοὺς βοηθοῦντας ἑκατέρῳ προσώπῳ·
Hippolytus: Καὶ ἐπ’ ἐσχάτων τῆς βασιλείας αὐτῶν πληρουμένων τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν ἀναστήσεται βασιλεὺς ἀναιδὴς προσώπῳ καὶ συνιῶν προβλήματα,
Triphiodorus: ὡς δ’ ὁπότε πλήθουσα πυρὸς γλαυκοῖο σελήνη οὐρανὸν αἰγλήεντα κατεχρύσωσε προσώπῳ·

I think that when it is not semantically or grammatically bound, the article is subject to each individual's preference. But I think I will agree that in Gal 1:22 perhaps it is more probably due to its (semantic) "non-abstractness" as Scott suggested.
Scott Lawson wrote:
David Lim wrote:Anyway 2 Cor 12:2-3 has a good example where the presence or absence of the article does not have any semantic significance.
BDF §255 “The article can be omitted in prepositional phrases. (formulae from the earlier anarthrous stage of the language.” If correct, then the reason for its absence may be accounted for at 2 Cor. 12:2,3 semantically significant or not.

2 Cor 12:2...οῖδα ἄνθρωπν ἐν Χριστῶ πρὸ ἐτῶν δεκατεσςάρων, εἴτε ἐν σώματι οὐκ οῖδα, εἴτε ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματος οὐκ οῖδα...
I was actually comparing between "εν σωματι" and "εκτος του σωματος". In any case what you are saying does imply that frequently the omission of the article in prepositional clauses has no semantic significance because it can be omitted. But I now think this is not related to the case of Gal 1:22.
Scott Lawson wrote:BDF §258 “The article is often lacking with the abstracts…The more abstract the sense in which the noun is used, the less likely it is to take any other than the generic article;…”
This does account for the seven occurrences in Stephen's list, so I think it is a good explanation.
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Re: Gal 1:22 τῷ προσώπῳ

Post by Stephen Carlson » February 26th, 2012, 8:25 am

Scott Lawson wrote: BDF §255 “The article can be omitted in prepositional phrases. (formulae from the earlier anarthrous stage of the language.” If correct, then the reason for its absence may be accounted for at 2 Cor. 12:2,3 semantically significant or not.

BDF §258 “The article is often lacking with the abstracts…The more abstract the sense in which the noun is used, the less likely it is to take any other than the generic article;…”
I'm aware of these "rules" in BDF. They're just not that helpful. Sometimes the article is omitted in prepositional phrases; sometimes it is not. Sometimes an abstract noun lacks the article; sometimes it has the generic article. BDF makes the observations but it does not say why or when. It is observation without explanation; evidence without theory.

Stephen

ETA: One way to test the usefulness of such rules is to see whether you can use them in composition. If I were writing Greek, how would I know to use the article before προσώπῳ? Just being told that it can be sometimes omitted in preposition phrases isn't enough.
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