## ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου ... ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου

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Jonathan Robie
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### ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου ... ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου

OK, here's a puzzle ...
Ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου
ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου
καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου
καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ἰσχύϊ σου
καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου,
καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.
Why is this ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας, but ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ / ἰσχύϊ / διανοίᾳ?
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Louis L Sorenson
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Location: Burnsville, MN, USA
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### Re: ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου ... ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου

Why the variation of ἐξ and ἐν?
Ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου
ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου
καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου
καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ἰσχύϊ σου
καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου,
καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.
The above text is part of the Shema (Deut. 6:4-9.). In the NT, it is found in Mt 22:37 (ἐν, ἐν, ἐν), Mk 12:30 (ἐξ, ἐξ, ἐξ, ἐξ), and Lk 10:27 (ἐξ, ἐν, ἐν, ἐν) The verse in the LXX is Deut. 6:5. The Hebrew in every case uses the preposition בְ, but the LXX uses ἐξ in vs 5, and ἐν in vs 6. I don't have an explanation why - I can only observe the difference. The parallel in 2 Kings 23:25 (listed below) also has ἐν throughout. In the gospel parallels, some change the word ἰσχύϊ with δυνάμεώς.
4 Καὶ ταῦτα τὰ δικαιώματα καὶ τὰ κρίματα, ὅσα ἐνετείλατο κύριος τοῖς υἱοῖς Ισραηλ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἐξελθόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου Ἄκουε, Ισραηλ, κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν, 5 καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς δυνάμεώς σου. 6 καὶ ἔσται τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα, ὅσα ἐγὼ ἐντέλλομαί σοι σήμερον, ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου καὶ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ σου, 7 καὶ προβιβάσεις αὐτὰ τοὺς υἱούς σου καὶ λαλήσεις ἐν αὐτοῖς καθήμενος ἐν οἴκῳ καὶ πορευόμενος ἐν ὁδῷ καὶ κοιταζόμενος καὶ διανιστάμενος, 8 καὶ ἀφάψεις αὐτὰ εἰς σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς χειρός σου, καὶ ἔσται ἀσάλευτον πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου, 9 καὶ γράψετε αὐτὰ ἐπὶ τὰς φλιὰς τῶν οἰκιῶν ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν πυλῶν ὑμῶν.

Septuaginta: With morphology. (1996). (Dt 6:4–9). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.
The Hebrew text is as follows:
וְאָ֣הַבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖ת יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ֥ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶֽךָ׃

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: with Westminster Hebrew Morphology. (1996). (electronic ed., Dt 6:5). Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society; Westminster Seminary.
4 Reigns (2 Kings) 23:25 has a version of this. Note the difference between the two.
25 ὅμοιος αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐγενήθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ βασιλεύς, ὃς ἐπέστρεψεν πρὸς κύριον ἐν ὅλῃ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ ψυχῇ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ ἰσχύι αὐτοῦ κατὰ πάντα τὸν νόμον Μωυσῆ, καὶ μετ̓ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἀνέστη ὅμοιος αὐτῷ.

Septuaginta: With morphology. (1996). (4 Kgdms 23:25–26). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.
25 וְכָמֹהוּ֩ לֹֽא־הָיָ֨ה לְפָנָ֜יו מֶ֗לֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֤ב אֶל־יְהוָה֙ בְּכָל־לְבָב֤וֹ וּבְכָל־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ וּבְכָל־מְאֹד֔וֹ כְּכֹ֖ל תּוֹרַ֣ת מֹשֶׁ֑ה וְאַחֲרָ֖יו לֹֽא־קָ֥ם כָּמֹֽהוּ׃

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: with Westminster Hebrew Morphology. (1996). (electronic ed., 2 Ki 23:25). Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society; Westminster Seminary.
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