Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

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Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 14th, 2017, 3:13 pm

As I work on learning about discourse analysis, I would like to look at Levinsohn's Greek New Testament Discourse Features for a passage. Since I need to work on Mark 16:1-8, let's pick that one. Let's try to understand what Levinsohn is saying about this text together.

Here's the text, backing up slightly into Mark 15, from SBLGNT:
ἡ δὲ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ Ἰωσῆτος ἐθεώρουν ποῦ τέθειται.
Καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν. καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου. καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς· Τίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν τὸν λίθον ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου; καὶ ἀναβλέψασαι θεωροῦσιν ὅτι ἀποκεκύλισται ὁ λίθος, ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα. καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον εἶδον νεανίσκον καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν, καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν. ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς· Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε· Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον· ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε· ἴδε ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν· ἀλλὰ ὑπάγετε εἴπατε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ Πέτρῳ ὅτι Προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν· ἐκεῖ αὐτὸν ὄψεσθε, καθὼς εἶπεν ὑμῖν. καὶ ἐξελθοῦσαι ἔφυγον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου, εἶχεν γὰρ αὐτὰς τρόμος καὶ ἔκστασις· καὶ οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν εἶπαν, ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ.
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 14th, 2017, 3:20 pm

Levinsohn's markup can be seen in PDFs here: http://www-01.sil.org/~levinsohns/BART.html

Here is the key for interpreting this markup: http://www-01.sil.org/~levinsohns/Enhan ... playNT.pdf

Here is his markup for the first part of this text:
Screen Shot 2017-04-14 at 2.30.59 PM.png
Screen Shot 2017-04-14 at 2.30.59 PM.png (83.66 KiB) Viewed 1888 times
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Jonathan Robie
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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 14th, 2017, 3:51 pm

I'm new to this, but let me try to interpret that.

In Mark 15:47, Levinsohn sees ἡ μαρία ἡ μαγδαληνὴ καὶ μαρία ἡ ἰωσῆτος as a referential point of departure. In the key, we see this described as "pre-verbal topical subject or other referential point of departure".

Let's look at the relevant parts of his key:
Koiné Greek is of the VS/VO language type (NARR §0.3). Many variations in constituent order can be explained by reference to Simon Dik’s P1 P2 V X template (1989:363), where:
  1. P1 can be occupied by a pre-verbal topical subject and/or other points of departure;
  2. P2 can be occupied by a FOCUS constituent, to give it prominence (NARR §4.2.3).
Constituents in P1 are underlined and marked with one of the following labels:
  1. Top―pre-verbal topical subject or other referential point of departure (NARR §3.1, NonNarr
    §4.3, DFNTG §§2.2, 2.8; as in 1 Th 1:6).
  2. Sit―situational point of departure (e.g. temporal, spatial, conditional―ibid.; as in 1 Th 3:4).
  3. Art―articular pronoun, which often introduces an ‘intermediate step’ in a reported conversation
    (NARR §7.5, DFNTG §13.1; as in Mt 26:15)
Constituents in P2 to give them focal prominence (NonNarr §5.2, DFNTG §3.6) are enclosed in a
solid red box (e.g. 1 Th 2:5).
So Levinsohn says ἡ μαρία ἡ μαγδαληνὴ καὶ μαρία ἡ ἰωσῆτος is a referential point of departure, which means he assigns it to P1 and treats it as a subject.

Now let's look at Mark 16:1. Here, Levinsohn treats Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Σαλώμη as a pre-verbal referential point of departure. He also treats the first part of this, Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου as over-encoded, repeating something when you don't have to. I'm confused by this part - in verse 15:47, the reference is to μαρία ἡ ἰωσῆτος, in verse 16:1, the reference is to Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου. So is this really overencoded?

And I'm really not sure how to interpret the three ways this particular Mary is described in 15:40, 15:47, and 16:1:
  • 15:40 Ἦσαν δὲ καὶ γυναῖκες ἀπὸ μακρόθεν θεωροῦσαι, ἐν αἷς καὶ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ Ἰακώβου τοῦ μικροῦ καὶ Ἰωσῆτος μήτηρ καὶ Σαλώμη
  • 15:47 ἡ δὲ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ Ἰωσῆτος ἐθεώρουν ποῦ τέθειται.
  • 16:1 Καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν.
Why is she identified first by two of her sons, then once by one of them, and once by the other? And is this really overencoded when it identifies the same woman by one of her sons, then by the other?

To what degree am I accurately following Levinsohn here? Does Runge say anything particularly different here that I should be aware of?
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

paorear
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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by paorear » April 14th, 2017, 4:59 pm

Over-encoding/Overspecification is either when a referent is specified (with qualifiers) the same way more than once in a row, or when the same referent is specified again with slightly different qualifiers.

So specifying Mary the Magdalene twice was unnecessary so that qualifies. It's maintaining focus on that specific Mary.

Specifying Mary the mother of Joses and then Mary the mother of James (i.e. both are Mary the mother of Jesus) was also overspecifying but with different qualifiers the second time for a nuance, but also basically unnecessary from the point of view of identifying which Mary was in focus. This keeps this Mary in focus as well, while bringing in Jesus' brothers.
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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 14th, 2017, 5:05 pm

paorear wrote:
April 14th, 2017, 4:59 pm
Specifying Mary the mother of Joses and then Mary the mother of James (i.e. both are Mary the mother of Jesus) was also overspecifying but with different qualifiers the second time for a nuance, but also basically unnecessary from the point of view of identifying which Mary was in focus. This keeps this Mary in focus as well, while bringing in Jesus' brothers.
Any idea why he refers to her by both sons, then one, then the other?

Anyone?
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 15th, 2017, 8:38 am

Here's the next section, with Mark 16:2-6:
Screen Shot 2017-04-14 at 2.31.52 PM.png
Screen Shot 2017-04-14 at 2.31.52 PM.png (185.9 KiB) Viewed 1802 times
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Jonathan Robie
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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 15th, 2017, 9:11 am

In verse 16:2, λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων occurs before the verb ἔρχονται - Levinsohn says it is a situational point of departure, placing it in P1. Basically, this is the setting for ἔρχονται and what follows.

Levinsohn notes also that the default position of λίαν is after the constituent it intensifies, and says that it is embedded for focal prominence. "And very early on the first day of the week".

Levinsohn also notes the historical present ἔρχονται.

In verse 16:4, he notes the historical present θεωροῦσιν.

In verse 16:6, in ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς the articular pronoun ὁ comes before the verb λέγει, and is in P1, so we have a new point of departure and the speaker is topicalized. λέγει is a historical present.

In Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε· Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον· ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, Ἰησοῦν comes before ζητεῖτε, making Jesus the focus. It's a split focus, where the full constituent is Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον, interrupted by ζητεῖτε.
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 15th, 2017, 9:17 am

Here's the rest of Mark 16:6, down to Mark 16:8:
Screen Shot 2017-04-15 at 9.15.56 AM.png
Screen Shot 2017-04-15 at 9.15.56 AM.png (102.03 KiB) Viewed 1787 times
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 15th, 2017, 9:32 am

In Mark 16:6, ἴδε ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν·, Levinsohn colors ἴδε green, calling it a highlighter.

In ἀλλὰ ὑπάγετε εἴπατε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ Πέτρῳ ὅτι Προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν· , the embedded quote from Jesus - Προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν - is highlighted in purple.

In ἐκεῖ αὐτὸν ὄψεσθε, καθὼς εἶπεν ὑμῖν, ἐκεῖ is marked as the focus.

In Mark 16:8: καὶ ἐξελθοῦσαι ἔφυγον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου, εἶχεν γὰρ αὐτὰς τρόμος καὶ ἔκστασις· καὶ οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν εἶπαν, ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ., οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν is marked as a constituent negation.
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

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Re: Levinsohn on Mark 16:1-8

Post by Jonathan Robie » April 15th, 2017, 9:37 am

So for you discourse experts ... is this pretty much what Levinsohn is saying about the passage? How does this differ from Runge? What am I missing?

Is the attention to topic and focus the main benefit of looking at the discourse features in this passage?
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ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

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