"Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

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Dmitriy Reznik
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"Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

Post by Dmitriy Reznik » January 18th, 2018, 1:34 pm

Dear experts,

I have a question on 1 Cor 6:18:
φεύγετε τὴν πορνείαν πᾶν ἁμάρτημα ὃ ἐὰν ποιήσῃ ἄνθρωπος ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ δὲ πορνεύων εἰς τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα ἁμαρτάνει

I wonder why all translations that I found understand εἰς as "against". Wouldn't it be more natural to understand it as "in" with meaning "with"? I know that normally εἰς means direction toward something, but I also remember that there are enough exceptions.

Please advise.

Thanks,
Dmitriy Reznik

Barry Hofstetter
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Re: "Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

Post by Barry Hofstetter » January 18th, 2018, 2:54 pm

εἰς of course is used with an extremely wide range of usage and careful attention has to be paid to the context. With verbs that imply hostility, such as attacking, insulting and so forth "against" is the sense. ἁμαρτάνω is considered one such verb.

ⓒ of actions or feelings directed in someone’s direction in hostile or friendly sense (Thu. 1, 38; 66; 130; X., Cyr. 1, 3, 5; Paus. 7, 9, 3; 7, 10, 2; Aelian, VH 11, 10).
α. in a hostile sense (Arrian, Anab. 1, 1, 4; PEleph 1, 9 [311/310 B.C.] κακοτεχνεῖν εἰς Δημητρίαν; UPZ 170b, 47 [127 B.C.]): ἁμαρτάνειν εἴς τινα (Herodian 7, 9, 11; EpJer 12; Jdth 5:20; 11:10) sin against someone Lk 15:18, 21. βλασφημεῖν εἴς τινα (Bel 8 Theod.; Just., D. 122, 2) defame someone Mk 3:29; Lk 12:10; 22:65; θαρρεῖν εἴς τινα 2 Cor 10:1. ψεύδεσθαι εἴς τινα (Sus 55; 59 Theod.) Col 3:9. Also w. nouns and adj. (Paus. 7, 8, 4; PFay 12, 7 [c. 103 B.C.] ἀδικήματα εἴς με; En 97:7 μνημόσυνον εἰς ὑμᾶς κακόν) Ac 6:11; 23:30; Ro 8:7.


Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 290). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
N.E. Barry Hofstetter
Instructor of Latin
Jack M. Barrack Hebrew Academy
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Jonathan Robie
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Re: "Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

Post by Jonathan Robie » January 18th, 2018, 3:00 pm

Dmitriy Reznik wrote:
January 18th, 2018, 1:34 pm
I have a question on 1 Cor 6:18:
φεύγετε τὴν πορνείαν πᾶν ἁμάρτημα ὃ ἐὰν ποιήσῃ ἄνθρωπος ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ δὲ πορνεύων εἰς τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα ἁμαρτάνει

I wonder why all translations that I found understand εἰς as "against". Wouldn't it be more natural to understand it as "in" with meaning "with"? I know that normally εἰς means direction toward something, but I also remember that there are enough exceptions.
If he meant '"in" with meaning "with"', I think he would have said ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ σώματι. And that's the natural opposite - see 2 Cor 12:2 εἴτε ἐν σώματι οὐκ οἶδα · εἴτε ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματος οὐκ οἶδα. But he doesn't say that, and I think that's intentional.

Prepositions are funny across languages, I don't really know how many of the 'exceptions' are just mismatches between Greek and English/German. Here, I do think εἰς is intended, and it's rather like an accusative of respect, he sins with respect to his own body, and in target/trajector imagery, there's a clear sense of direction. "Sins with respect to his own body" is strange English, so is "sins toward his own body", but "sins against his own body" works well in English (though it loses the directionality of the Greek preposition).

As Barry points out, the verb makes a big difference in choice of preposition.
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

Jonathan Robie
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Re: "Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

Post by Jonathan Robie » January 18th, 2018, 3:00 pm

Dmitriy Reznik wrote:
January 18th, 2018, 1:34 pm
Dear experts,
Now Mike Aubrey needs to weigh in too ;->
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
http://jonathanrobie.biblicalhumanities.org/

MAubrey
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Re: "Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

Post by MAubrey » January 18th, 2018, 3:14 pm

Jonathan Robie wrote:
January 18th, 2018, 3:00 pm
Dmitriy Reznik wrote:
January 18th, 2018, 1:34 pm
Dear experts,
Now Mike Aubrey needs to weigh in too ;->
I'd say Barry has a solid handle on it. ;)

I'd add to this...
Barry Hofstetter wrote:
January 18th, 2018, 2:54 pm
εἰς of course is used with an extremely wide range of usage and careful attention has to be paid to the context. With verbs that imply hostility, such as attacking, insulting and so forth "against" is the sense. ἁμαρτάνω is considered one such verb.
The verb contributes the 'force' or 'hostility' and είς contributes the directionality and motion (i.e. 'toward').
Mike Aubrey, Linguist
Koine-Greek.com

Dmitriy Reznik
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Re: "Against" in 1 Cor 6:18

Post by Dmitriy Reznik » January 18th, 2018, 3:23 pm

Thank you all for your answers. I really appreciate it.

Regards,
Dmitriy Reznik

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