In Jeremiah 31:21 LXX what is the sense of τιμωρίαν?

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Bill Ross
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In Jeremiah 31:21 LXX what is the sense of τιμωρίαν?

Post by Bill Ross » June 9th, 2019, 9:13 am

Jeremiah 31:21 στῆσον σεαυτήν Σιων ποίησον τιμωρίαν δὸς καρδίαν σου εἰς τοὺς ὤμους ὁδὸν ἣν ἐπορεύθης ἀποστράφητι παρθένος Ισραηλ ἀποστράφητι εἰς τὰς πόλεις σου πενθοῦσα
BDAG has only one usage listed which doesn't seem relevant:
τιμωρία, ας, ἡ (fr. τιμωρό ‘avenger’, s. τιμωρέω) punishment (Aeschyl., Hdt.+) in our lit. inflicted by God (Theopompus [IV B.C.]: 115 Fgm. 253, p. 590, 29 Jac. παρὰ θεῶν τιμ.; Eth. Epic. col. 12, 7 τιμ. ἐκ θεῶν; Diod S 13, 21, 1 τιμ. παρὰ θεῶν; 16, 64, 1; Aesop, Fab. 1 P.=5 H. ἐκ θεοῦ τιμ. Cp. Jos., Bell. 2, 155 τιμωρίαι ἀδιάλειπτοι) B 20:1; Hs 6, 3, 2b; 6, 4, 4; 6, 5, 3ab. πόσῳ δοκεῖτε χείρονος ἀξιωθήσεται τιμωρίας; how much more severe a punishment, do you think, will be decreed for … ? Hb 10:29 (Diod S 4, 12, 7 ἕκαστος τιμωρίας ἠξιώθη=each one had punishment inflicted on him; 16, 31, 2; 16, 46, 3). Pl. (Pla., Ep. 7, 335a μεγίστας τ. [of God]; Diod S 1, 96, 5 τὰς τῶν ἀσεβῶν ἐν ᾅδου τιμωρίας; Plut., Mor. 566e [in the nether world]; LXX; TestJos 3:1; EpArist 208; Philo; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 292; Just., A II, 20, 4 al.; Tat. 17, 1) Hs 6, 3, 3; 4ab; 6, 5, 7. μετὰ πολλὰς … βασάνους καὶ τιμωρίας Papias (3:3). τιμωρίαν ὑπέχειν undergo punishment (schol. on Soph., Oed. Col. 1565 p. 460 Papag.; Ath. 2, 1) MPol 6:2. ὁ ἄγγελος τῆς τιμωρίας the punishing angel (s. τιμωρητής) Hs 6, 3, 2a; 7:2 (Leutzsch, Hermas 476 n. 157).—DELG s.v. τιμωρό. M-M.

Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 1006). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Is the sense here "remember"? "revisit"?" or something else?
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Barry Hofstetter
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Re: In Jeremiah 31:21 LXX what is the sense of τιμωρίαν?

Post by Barry Hofstetter » June 10th, 2019, 9:00 am

That's Jer 38:21 LXX, BTW.

Something like "take vengeance." LES has "make retaliation." Now it gets a bit strange with the NETS rendering:

"Set up for yourself sionim; make timorim..."

Westcott and Ralfs both read Στῆσον σεαυτήν, Σιων, ποίησον τιμωρίαν. The NETS instead takes the words as transliterations of the Hebrew:

הַצִּ֧יבִי לָ֣ךְ צִיֻּנִ֗ים שִׂ֤מִי לָךְ֙ תַּמְרוּרִ֔ים

And reflects that in the English glossing the words with footnotes.

Ken Penner or other LXX gurus can perhaps explain a little better about this? Perhaps a reference to the Gottingen would help?
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N.E. Barry Hofstetter
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Jack M. Barrack Hebrew Academy
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Bill Ross
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Re: In Jeremiah 31:21 LXX what is the sense of τιμωρίαν?

Post by Bill Ross » June 10th, 2019, 9:07 am

Thanks.

So is it a command to take back Zion by force?

Matthew 11:12 ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ἡμερῶν Ἰωάννου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ ἕως ἄρτι ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν βιάζεται καὶ βιασταὶ ἁρπάζουσιν αὐτήν
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Ken M. Penner
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Re: In Jeremiah 31:21 LXX what is the sense of τιμωρίαν?

Post by Ken M. Penner » June 10th, 2019, 3:06 pm

Barry Hofstetter wrote:
June 10th, 2019, 9:00 am
The NETS instead takes the words as transliterations of the Hebrew:
הַצִּ֧יבִי לָ֣ךְ צִיֻּנִ֗ים שִׂ֤מִי לָךְ֙ תַּמְרוּרִ֔ים
And reflects that in the English glossing the words with footnotes.
Ken Penner or other LXX gurus can perhaps explain a little better about this? Perhaps a reference to the Gottingen would help?
The NETS translators try to reflect what was going on in the translator's mind when reading the Hebrew that would have led them to write τιμρωριμ (as the Goettingen edition has it). They were transliterating Hebrew תַּמְרוּרִ֔ים (tamrurim), so the NETS translators did the same.
The LES translators are more interested in how this Greek would have been understood by later Greek readers who knew no Hebrew. So they translate τιμωρία (as Swete has it) with its usual meaning of punishment or vengeance.
FWIW, Brenton understood it the same way as LES:
for Jeremiah 38, Brenton wrote:21 Prepare[Lit. set] thyself, O Sion; execute vengeance; look to thy ways[The reading οἴμους has been adopted here.]: return, O virgin of Israel, by the way by which thou wentest, return mourning to thy cities.
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Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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