[Dickey] Ch 1: Analysis

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EricSowell
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[Dickey] Ch 1: Analysis

Post by EricSowell » August 10th, 2019, 5:10 pm

Behold, a nauseatingly literal translation!

1. From Darius and Parysatis came two children, the older one Artaxerxes (a), the younger one Cyrus (b). When Darius was growing weak and was anticipating the end of his (c) life, he wanted both (d) his two sons present.
- a. Ἀρταξέρξης: no article because of first mention and not well known
- b. Κῦρος: no article because of first mention and not well known
- c. τοῦ: article indicating possession
- d. τὼ: article indicating possession (his sons)

2. Now (a) the elder happened to be present. But he summons Cyrus from (b) his command of which he made him satrap, and had made him general of everyone they collect in the plain of Kastolos.
- a. ὁ: previous mention
- b. τῆς: possession, or perhaps just to indicate definiteness

3. Now (a) Cyrus goes up, taking Tissaphernes as a friend, and having three hundred (b) hoplites from the (c) Greeks he went up, Xenias of Parrasia leading (the hoplites).
- a. ὁ...πρεσβύτερος: previous mention
- b. ὁπλίτας: no article because indefinite
- c. τῶν Ἑλλήνων: class

4. When Darius died and Artaxerxes settled into (a) his kingdom, Tissaphernes slandered (b) Cyrus to his (c) brother that he was plotting against him.
- a. τὴν βασιλείαν: perhaps possession, perhaps idiosyncratic definiteness because there was only one Persian kingdom
- b. τὸν Κῦρον: previous mention
- c. τὸν ἀδελφὸν: possession, also previous mention

5. And (a) he is persuaded and arrests Cyrus to kill him. But (b) his mother, begging him out of the danger, sent him again out again to (c) his command.
- a. ὁ: picks up oblique case ἀδελφόν (referring to Artaxerxes) from previous sentence.
- b. ἡ: previous mention and possession
- c. τὴν: previous mention and possession

6. Now (a) he, as he left endangered and dishonoured, deliberated how he would no longer be in the power of (b) his brother, but if he be able, he would rule instead of him.
- a. ὁ: picks up oblique case αὐτὸν (referring to Cyrus) from previous sentence.
- b. τῷ: possession and/or previous mention

7. Parysatis, (a) his mother, was in fact devoted to (b) Cyrus, loving him more than (c) Artaxerxes who was ruling.
- a. ἡ: possession and/or previous mention
- b. τῷ: previous mention
- c. τὸν: previous mention

8. Now whoever (a) of those men who arrived from the (b) king to him, causing them to be well-disposed to himself, he was sending them away so that they would be greater friends for him than the (c) king.
- a. τῶν: substantivizes παρὰ βασιλέως
- b. βασιλέως: idiosyncratic definiteness
- c. βασιλεῖ: idiosyncratic definiteness

9. And he took care (a) of the barbarians from him so that they would be able to make war and be well disposed to him.
- a. τῶν...βαρβάρων: class

10. And he was gathering (a) his Greek force as secretly as he was able, so that he might take (b) the king as most unprepared.
- a. τήν: possession...I think
- b. βασιλέα: idiosyncratic definiteness

11. So this is how he did (a) his gathering of troops. He had as many guards as he could in (b) the cities tell each of (c) their garrison commanders to gather as many and the best (d) Peloponnesian men, on the grounds of Tissaphernes plotting for (e) the cities.
- a. τὴν: unemphatic possession
- b. ταῖς πόλεσι: just to make definite, as in certain cities?
- c. τοῖς: possession
- d. ἄνδρας: anarthrous because it isn't pointing to definite men
- e. ταῖς πόλεσι (2nd time): same as previous, except now could be articular to point to previous mention
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Jason Hare
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Re: Dickey, Composition: Ch 1, Analysis

Post by Jason Hare » August 16th, 2019, 6:47 pm

  1. Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος· ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι.
    [Ἀρταξέρξης and Κῦρος: first mention of each is anarthrous; τοῦ βίου: possessive, “of his life”; τὼ παῖδε: possessive, “his two sons”]
    Darius and Parysatis had two sons: Artaxerxes the elder, and Cyrus the younger. Now when Darius had become weak and suspected the end of his life, he wished both of his sons to be present.
  2. μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε· Κῦρον δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται.
    [ὁ… προσβύτερος: definite, referring to the one mentioned previously; τῆς ἀρχῆς: definite, the specific country/realm under discussion]
    So, whereas the elder (Artaxerxes) happened to be present, he (Darius) summoned Cyrus from the realm over which he had made him satrap and also appointed him commander of all who were gathered in the field of Castolus.
  3. ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παρράσιον.
    [τῶν Ἑλλήνων: a people group that should be familiar to the reader; ὁπλίτας: an indefinite group of hoplites]
    So, Cyrus went up, taking Tissaphernes as an ally, and he went up having three hundred hoplites of the Greeks, and their ruler Xenias Passarius.
  4. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ.
    [τὴν βασιλείαν: possessive; τὸν Κῦρον: the same Cyrus in discussion; τὸν ἀδελφόν: possessive]
    But when Darius had died and Artaxerxes had settled into his kingdom, Tissaphernes accused Cyrus to his brother that he was plotting against him.
  5. δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν· δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν.
    [ὁ δέ: Rule 4b, picking up ἀδελφός as αὐτῷ in the dative case; ἡ... μήτηρ: possessive; τὴν ἀρχήν: possessive]
    He (Artaxerxes) was convinced and arrested Cyrus in order to kill (him); but his mother begged (him) off and sent him (Cyrus) back to his realm.
  6. δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου.
    [ὁ δέ: Rule 4b, picking up αὐτόν from the previous sentence; τῷ ἀδελφῷ: previous mention and possessive]
    But when he had gone away, having gone through danger and having been dishonored, he took council how he might no longer be under his brother’s power, but, if possible, he might rule in his (Artaxerxes’s) stead.
  7. Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.
    [ἡ μήτηρ: previous mention, possessive; τῷ Κύρῳ: previous mention, dative of advantage; τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην: previous mention]
    Indeed, Parysatis their mother took Cyrus’s side, loving him more than the reigning Artaxerxes.
  8. ὅστις δ᾽ ἀφικνεῖτο τῶν παρὰ βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας οὕτω διατιθεὶς ἀπεπέμπετο ὥστε αὐτῷ μᾶλλον φίλους εἶναι ἢ βασιλεῖ.
    [τῶν παρὰ βασιλέως: substantivized; βασιλέως: idiosyncratic (no article = Persian king; article = Greek king); βασιλεῖ: idiosyncratic]
    Whoever arrived of those [who came] from the king, he handled all them such that they preferred to be allies to him rather than to the king.
  9. καὶ τῶν παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ δὲ βαρβάρων ἐπεμελεῖτο ὡς πολεμεῖν τε ἱκανοὶ εἴησαν καὶ εὐνοϊκῶς ἔχοιεν αὐτῷ.
    [τῶν παρ᾿ ἑαυτῷ βαρβάρων: specific group]
    And he managed those barbaians with him so that they might be worthy to make war and might think favorably of him.
  10. τὴν δὲ Ἑλληνικὴν δύναμιν ἥθροιζεν ὡς μάλιστα ἐδύνατο ἐπικρυπτόμενος, ὅπως ὅτι ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα.
    [τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν δύναμιν: specific power; βασιλέα: idiosyncratic]
    He gathered the Greek power as best he could being concealed, so that he might take the king as unprepared as possible.
  11. ὧδε οὖν ἐποιεῖτο τὴν συλλογήν. ὁπόσας εἶχε φυλακὰς ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι παρήγγειλε τοῖς φρουράρχοις ἑκάστοις λαμβάνειν ἄνδρας Πελοποννησίους ὅτι πλείστους καὶ βελτίστους, ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοντος Τισσαφέρνους ταῖς πόλεσι.
    [τὴν συλλογήν: possessive; ταῖς πόλεσι: specific cities; τοῖς φρουράρχοις: specific group of commanders; ἄνδρας: non-specific group; ταῖς πόλεσι: specific group of cities]
    So, thus he made his gathering. As many guards as he had in the cities, he gave orders to all the commanders to take Peloponnesian men that [were] the greatest and most excellent, given Tissaphernes plotting against the cities.
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Jason A. Hare
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Jason Hare
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Re: Dickey, Composition: Ch 1, Analysis

Post by Jason Hare » August 16th, 2019, 7:03 pm

The whole text from this chapter:

Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος· ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι. ὁ μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε· Κῦρον δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται. ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παῤῥάσιον. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ. ὁ δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. ὁ δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου. Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ ἡ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην. ὅστις δ᾽ ἀφικνεῖτο τῶν παρὰ βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας οὕτω διατιθεὶς ἀπεπέμπετο ὥστε αὐτῷ μᾶλλον φίλους εἶναι ἢ βασιλεῖ. καὶ τῶν παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ δὲ βαρβάρων ἐπεμελεῖτο ὡς πολεμεῖν τε ἱκανοὶ εἴησαν καὶ εὐνοϊκῶς ἔχοιεν αὐτῷ. τὴν δὲ Ἑλληνικὴν δύναμιν ἥθροιζεν ὡς μάλιστα ἐδύνατο ἐπικρυπτόμενος, ὅπως ὅτι ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα. ὧδε οὖν ἐποιεῖτο τὴν συλλογήν. ὁπόσας εἶχε φυλακὰς ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι παρήγγειλε τοῖς φρουράρχοις ἑκάστοις λαμβάνειν ἄνδρας Πελοποννησίους ὅτι πλείστους καὶ βελτίστους, ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοντος Τισσαφέρνους ταῖς πόλεσι.

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Jason A. Hare
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Jason Hare
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Re: Dickey, Composition: Ch 1, Analysis

Post by Jason Hare » August 17th, 2019, 9:36 am

Sorry that I'm taking my time. I just want to work through one at a time as I go here. This is the furthest I've ever worked into the Anabasis. It's kinda exciting!
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Jason A. Hare
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Jason Hare
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Re: Dickey, Composition: Ch 1, Analysis

Post by Jason Hare » August 17th, 2019, 4:27 pm

What is the purpose of the ὅτι in the phrase ὅπως ὅτι ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα? Wouldn't it be exactly the same without it (ὅπως [...] ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα)?
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EricSowell
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Re: Dickey, Composition: Ch 1, Analysis

Post by EricSowell » August 17th, 2019, 5:51 pm

Jason Hare wrote:
August 17th, 2019, 4:27 pm
What is the purpose of the ὅτι in the phrase ὅπως ὅτι ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα? Wouldn't it be exactly the same without it (ὅπως [...] ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα)?
Steadman's reader, Mather and Hewitt's commentary, and Crosby's Lexicon on the Anabasis all say that ὅτι + superlative mean as much as possible here. Montanari doesn't list this as a possibility but LSJ does, though it cites a different passage from Herodutus (and others) as examples.

I wasn't aware of this usage until I read it here either.
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Jason Hare
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Re: Dickey, Composition: Ch 1, Analysis

Post by Jason Hare » August 17th, 2019, 6:02 pm

EricSowell wrote:
August 17th, 2019, 5:51 pm
Jason Hare wrote:
August 17th, 2019, 4:27 pm
What is the purpose of the ὅτι in the phrase ὅπως ὅτι ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα? Wouldn't it be exactly the same without it (ὅπως [...] ἀπαρασκευότατον λάβοι βασιλέα)?
Steadman's reader, Mather and Hewitt's commentary, and Crosby's Lexicon on the Anabasis all say that ὅτι + superlative mean as much as possible here. Montanari doesn't list this as a possibility but LSJ does, though it cites a different passage from Herodutus (and others) as examples.

I wasn't aware of this usage until I read it here either.
Brilliant.
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Jason A. Hare
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