Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Other Greek writings of the New Testament era, including papyri and inscriptions
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Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby Louis L Sorenson » January 25th, 2012, 10:12 pm

I've been reading Harold Hoener's book Herod Antipas: A Contemporary of Jesus Christ. http://www.amazon.com/Herod-Antipas-Contemporary-Jesus-Christ/dp/0310422515/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1327541864&sr=1-1-fkmr0. I don't have the book currently in hand, but he talked about the time when Herod Antipas was in Rome and trying to resolve a crisis and retain his kingdom in response to Archelaus' recall and exile. Harold Hoener translates θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ as 'with much money'.

LSJ's entry for θεραπεία is as follows:

θερα^π-εία , Ion. θερα^π-ηΐη (θερα^π-είη Hp.Art.80,al.), ἡ,
A. service, attendance:
I. of persons, θ. τῶν θεῶν service paid to the gods, Pl. Euthphr.13d, cf. E.El.744 (lyr.); “θεῶν καὶ ἡρώων θεραπεῖαι” Pl.R.427b, etc.; “ἡ περὶ τοὺς θεοὺς θ.” Isoc.11.24; ἀγυιάτιδες θ. worship of Apollo Agyieus, E.Ion187; “τὴν θ. ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς θεοῖς” Arist.Pol.1329a32; “θ. τῆς μήνιδος” Jul.Or.5.159b: abs., “πᾶσαν θ. ὡς ἰσόθεος θεραπευόμενος” Pl.Phdr.255a, cf. Antipho 4.2.4; of parents, “γονέων θεραπείας καὶ τιμάς” Pl.Lg.886c, cf. Gorg.Fr.6 D.; of children, nurture, care, “μικροὺς παῖδας θεραπείας δεομένους” Lys.13.45; “θ. καὶ ἐσθής” X.Mem.3.11.4; θ. σώματος, ψυχῆς, Pl.Grg.464b, La.185e.
2. service done to gain favour, paying court, “θ. τοῦ κοινοῦ καὶ τῶν αἰεὶ προεστώτων” Th.3.11; “ἐν θεραπείᾳ ἔχειν πολλῇ” Id.1.55; “πάσῃ θεραπείᾳ θεραπεύειν τινά” X.HG 2.3.14; “θεραπείαις προσαγαγέσθαι” Isoc.3.22; “τῇ θ. ψυχαγωγούμενος” D.59.55.
II. medical or surgical treatment or cure, χειρός, ποδός, Hp.l.c.; αἱ ὑπὸ τῶν ἰατρῶν θ. αἱ διὰ καύσεων γιγνόμεναι cures by cautery, Pl.Prt.354a; ἡ ἐκ τῶν γραμμάτων θ. treatment secundum artem, Arist.Pol.1287a40, cf. Gal.1.400, etc.; “τῶν καμνόντων” Pl.Prt. 345a, cf. Th.2.51, Phld.Ir.p.21 W.; “τοῦ σώματος” Id.Lib.p.19 O., Vit.Philonid.p.9 C.; healing, “θεραπείας ἐπιτυχών” Sammelb.1537b: in pl., cures, “ἰατρὸς ποιεῖ -είας” POxy.1r.13.
III. of animals, care, tendance, Pl.Euthphr.13a, Arist.HA578a7 (pl.).
2. of plants, cultivation, Pl.Tht.149e, Thphr.HP2.2.12.
3. maintenance or repairs of temples, SIG1106.49 (Cos, iv/iii B.C.), 1102.8 (ii B.C.).
4. preparation of fat for medical use, Dsc.2.76.
IV. in collective sense, body of attendants, retinue, Hdt.1.199, 5.21, 7.184, LXXGe. 45.16; “σὺν ἱππικῇ θ.” X.Cyr.4.6.1; “ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς θ. τεταγμένος” Plb.4.87.5.

What I'm wondering is whether θεραπεία refers to money specifically or some general kind of 'humbling servitude = sucking up'....

The passages which Hoener cites are from Strabo and Dio Cassius. But here are all the passages which use the phrase θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ


Strabo Geogr., Geographica
Book 16, chapter 2, section 46, line 16

Καῖσαρ δὲ καὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς ἐτίμησε τοῦ Ἡρώ-
δου καὶ τὴν ἀδελφὴν Σαλώμην καὶ τὴν ταύτης θυγα-
τέρα Βερενίκην· οὐ μέντοι εὐτύχησαν οἱ παῖδες, ἀλλ'
ἐν αἰτίαις ἐγένοντο, καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐν φυγῇ διετέλει παρὰ
τοῖς Ἀλλόβριξι Γαλάταις λαβὼν οἴκησιν, οἱ δὲ θερα-
πείᾳ πολλῇ μόλις εὕροντο κάθοδον, τετραρχίας ἀπο-
δειχθείσης ἑκατέρῳ.

Go to Context


Cassius Dio Hist., Historiae Romanae
Book 17, chapter 57, section 73, line 7

καὶ ὃς ἰδὼν αὐτὸν δεδεμένον οὐκ ἤνεγ-
κεν, ἀλλὰ τῆς τε παρ' αὐτῷ ξενίσεως μνημονεύσας, καὶ τὰ ἀνθρώ-
πεια παθήματα ἀναλογισάμενος, ὅτι τε βασιλέα δυνάμεως οὐ σμι-
κρᾶς καὶ ὅτι ἀξιοσπούδαστον καὶ ἑαυτῷ γενόμενον ἑώρα τότε οἰκ-
τρῶς οὕτως ἔχοντα, ἀνεπήδησε μὲν ἐκ τοῦ δίφρου, καὶ ἔλυσέ τε
αὐτὸν καὶ ἐδεξιώσατο καὶ ἐν θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ ἦγε.

Go to Context


Cassius Dio Hist., Historiae Romanae
Book 19, chapter 62, section 2, line 2

Bekk. Anecd. 166 1.
ὅτι Σέλευκος ὁ τοῦ Ἀντιόχου τὸν τοῦ Ἀφρικανοῦ υἱὸν δια-
πλέοντα ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος λαβὼν ἐν θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ ἐπεποίητο.

Go to Context


Cassius Dio Hist., Historiae Romanae
Book 20, chapter 66, section 4, line 4

V. 58 (p. 610).
ὅτι ὁ Περσεὺς ἐθελοντὴς εὑρέθη, καὶ αὐτὸν ἐς τὴν Ἀμφίπολιν
ἀχθέντα ὁ Παῦλος οὐδὲν οὔτε ἔργῳ οὔτε λόγῳ δεινὸν ἔδρασεν,
ἀλλὰ καὶ προσιόντι οἱ ὑπαναστὰς τά τε ἄλλα ἐδεξιώσατο καὶ ὁμό-
σιτον ἐποιήσατο, ἔν τε [ἐν] φυλακῇ ἀδέσμῳ καὶ ἐν θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ
ἦγε.

Go to Context


Achilles Tatius Scr. Erot., Leucippe et Clitophon
Book 5, chapter 17, section 1, line 2

οἰκία μεγάλη καὶ πρώτη τῶν ἐκεῖ· θεραπεία πολλὴ
καὶ ἡ ἄλλη παρασκευὴ πολυτελής.

Go to Context


Joannes Chrysostomus Scr. Eccl., De Lazaro (homiliae 1-7)
Vol 48, pg 1048, ln 47

Πάντα
γὰρ αὐτῷ ὥσπερ ἐκ πηγῶν ἐπέῤῥει, θεραπεία πολλὴ,
τρυφὴ ἄφατος, σώματος ὑγεία, χρημάτων περιουσία,
τιμὴ παρὰ τῶν πολλῶν, αἱ παρὰ τῶν κολάκων εὐφη-
μίαι, καὶ οὐδὲν ἦν αὐτῷ τέως τὸ λυποῦν.

Go to Context


Joannes Chrysostomus Scr. Eccl., Epistulae ad Olympiadem (epist. 1-17)
Epistle 9, section 1, line 27

Ἐρεῖ δέ
σοι καὶ ὁ καλὸς Πατρίκιος ὅπως διάγομεν ἐν εὐθυμίᾳ, ἐν
εὐφροσύνῃ, ἐν θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ, τό γε εἰς τὴν διατριβὴν τὴν
ἐνταῦθα ἧκον.

Go to Context


Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus Imperator Hist., De virtutibus et vitiis
Volume 2, page 255, line 26

καὶ ὃς ἰδὼν αὐτὸν δεδεμένον
οὐκ ἤνεγκεν, ἀλλὰ τῆς τε παρ' αὐτῷ ξενίσεως μνημονεύσας, καὶ
τὰ ἀνθρώπεια παθήματα ἀναλογισάμενος, ὅτι τε βασιλέα δυνά-
μεως οὐ σμικρᾶς καὶ ὅτι ἀξιοσπούδαστον καὶ ἑαυτῷ γενόμενον
ἑώρα τότε οἰκτρῶς οὕτως ἔχοντα, ἀνεπήδησε μὲν ἐκ τοῦ δίφρου,
καὶ ἔλυσέ τε αὐτὸν καὶ ἐδεξιώσατο καὶ ἐν θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ ἦγε·
51. Πλεῖστοι ὅσοι ἐστρατεύσαντο, ὥς που πολλὰ ἑκουσίως
πολλοὶ ὧν οὐδὲν ἀναγκαζόμενοι δράσειαν ποιοῦσι.

Go to Context


Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus Imperator Hist., De virtutibus et vitiis
Volume 2, page 256, line 5

53. Ὅτι Σέλευκος ὁ τοῦ Ἀντιόχου τὸν τοῦ Ἀφρικανοῦ υἱὸν
διαπλέοντα ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος λαβὼν ἐν θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ ἐπεποί-
ητο.

Go to Context


Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus Imperator Hist., De virtutibus et vitiis
Volume 2, page 258, line 7

59. Ὅτι ὁ Περσεὺς ἐθελοντὴς εὑρέθη, καὶ αὐτὸν ἐς τὴν Ἀμ-
φίπολιν ἀχθέντα ὁ Παῦλος οὐδὲν οὔτε ἔργῳ οὔτε λόγῳ δεινὸν
ἔδρασεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ προσιόντι οἱ ὑπαναστὰς τά τε ἄλλα ἐδεξιώ-
σατο καὶ ὁμόσιτον ἐποιήσατο, ἔν τε [ἐν] φυλακῇ ἀδέσμῳ καὶ ἐν
θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ ἦγε.

Go to Context
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby Stephen Hughes » August 19th, 2013, 2:08 pm

Louis L Sorenson wrote:I've been reading Harold Hoener's book Herod Antipas: A Contemporary of Jesus Christ. http://www.amazon.com/Herod-Antipas-Con ... =1-1-fkmr0. I don't have the book currently in hand, but he talked about the time when Herod Antipas was in Rome and trying to resolve a crisis and retain his kingdom in response to Archelaus' recall and exile. Harold Hoener translates θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ as 'with much money'.
...
What I'm wondering is whether θεραπεία refers to money specifically or some general kind of 'humbling servitude = sucking up'....


This is an old question, but given the inherent asynchronisity of the forum it is still a current one, upon which I would like to comment.

While in most cases the Greek is a guide to our understanding, perhaps in this case because it is pushing the envelope of the available reference material, we can feel justified in considering human nature and the social dynamic in a patronage society as a way to arrive at an understanding of the word's meaning. While I realise that giving gifts in exchange for position is sensitive topic, and while realising that I'm not an expert in dealing with it, perhaps I could contribute a few observations and thoughts.

At the personal level of an individual in society, to a larger or lesser degree, money is what is used to get things done and to realise dreams in this life. Giving that money to another to get things done for us is an externalisation of the donor's personal hopes and ambitions. Now that a portion of the donor's wealth has been invested in a leader, the patron - and the donor's heart following their money - there is a great loyalty between them which can be capitalised on to get things done.

Then at a social level, the person to whom the donation (bribe) is made will in turn use the money to stay in power or win favour with others, and this will lead to a predictablitiy and therefore a stability. The money is not just accumulated for individual wealth (as in the way that much of the bribery and corruption of our age seems to characterised as resulting in), but is moved on into building works, or public service to sure up the position of the person who recieved the donation, and so the society goes on in a more or less stable fashion. The leader who has recieved a large portion of money will be confident of the unfailing support of the person who has made the donation, so they will more willingly give a position of power or responsibility to someone they can trust and rely on.

While holding to our own scruples, and being confident that the legal situation where any form of bribery, or anything else other than merit-based promotion in the work place or the granting of degrees in academia is reprehensible, we can't translate our modern viewpoint wholesale into the society of another age. In a schoarly and impartial way we need to step back from our own point of view and consider how things worked in the Roman empire.

To state the obvious, the Greek doesn't say "a lot of money", because giving money is no more than a "tool" or a "means". That is not say that money is not a very real part of the process, it is none-the-less is just a part of the process, the θεραπεία with loyalty (in both directions being the ultimate goal and more important than the means of achieving it).

Perhaps if you wanted to widen your search around the meaning, not just the word, you might like to search for τιμή in the sense of honours (kickbacks) given to leaders.
Stephen Hughes
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(Attributed to Albert Einstein)
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby MAubrey » August 19th, 2013, 6:44 pm

You've just described how the political system in the United States works...
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby Stephen Hughes » August 21st, 2013, 1:35 am

MAubrey wrote:You've just described how the political system in the United States works...
Well... I've never been overtly interested in political systems or structures per se, and even less in those outside the Commonwealth. For the 5 years before leaving Australia, I was basically living in the Egyptology Collection (Brunner) room at Macquarie University (to work on my MA) or visiting one of the theological college libraries in Sydney to try to get through my BTh. My major social contacts for that time were librarians, fellow students, family and the people from church - none of whom had an interest in discussing political systems. Now, for the past decade I've been living away from home in a non-English speaking environment in which I am functional but only semi-literate, so, I have to rely on even more partial second-hand information about the world beyond my own borders, than I did when I used to be able to read newspapers or watch the TV for myself. The only really popular topic that got as far as me, in that time, was that one of the presidential selections had been openly influenced by someone's brother, while I don't recall the details, I do remember how happy everyone was that the United States was not so different after all. Those things having been said, (and apologising to SLS for wandering from his original topic to which I will return shortly), I would like to comment on that popular sentiment and your (MA's) statement.

In contries where there is the rule of law, rather than honour, there is often a big difference between the conditions in which political power is established and the way that society functions once it is established. In a society or country where honour (and force) are a basic part of every day life, individuals need to be good at speaking to get things done and need to be able to judge the mood of those around them when making accusations or giving praise. The things that you are used to seeing in the periods of (peaceful) governmental transition in countries where mob power is contained by direct voting. Potential leaders still need to judge the mood of the people that they are trying to win over, but not in the same direct way. Whereas in an honour system, in which things are decided on a situation by situation basis, in a system where honour is controlled and regulated by law, there is a stability and certainty of life. Whereas honour means killing, violence or arguementation to establish what is acceptable or right in a given situation. Under the rule of law, however the right to use violence or force is pushed to a lesser or greater degree into the hands of professional bodies (controlled by the ruling elite). Law is written on paper, but only has effect by violence by the legislative system or the potential to use of violence.

While not being too familiar with the system in the United States, I would guess that once the process of selecting a ruling elite has been accomplished, the overall running of the country is quite stable and works in predictable (ideally "fair") ways. But in other places, there is an unpredictability about life on a day-to-day basis.

Returning to the Herod's money and loyalty question, I would guess that Herod (and other adminstrators for Rome in the east) was a guy between two systems, and as with any leader, has to work outside the system to allow the system to continue. That is to say that law only extends as far as honour allows it to, and when dealing with a situation outside the established rule of law, a country's leadership must do things that would not normally be acceptable or thought of inside that system either against those within or without the country, such as incarceration, execution or going to war. The Roman system where life was governed by law (appeal to Caesar, fixed taxation to give to Caesar), where power was determined by intrigue (monetary honour and service), family connections, donations for influence, and the honour based system where the mob could call for a crucifiction and expect it to be done - "I find nothing worthy of death (in the law)" and "they shouted all the more". The Roman army not being allowed inside the Capital, so as not to influence political life, was sent into the mob a few times in the Acts to deal with unrest. The Jews were not given the freedom to carry out capital punishment according to their law, so in effect the rule of Roman law controlled their lives to a greater or lesser degree, but they still worked in an honour system for many of the day to day things. As citizens we don't need to be concerned about those things, but as leaders, even the highpriests had to deal with such power issues that were not part of their sacerdotal duties.

I think that the honour system is the basis of the rule of law system, and that perhaps it is more overtly visible in political selection system the United States, but it is none-the-less present in all places, and I think that understanding the tension between the honour system and the legal system helps our reading of the NT (and especially Acts) become three dimensional.
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby MAubrey » August 21st, 2013, 10:20 am

Nah...the two systems aren't as different as you want them to be. You want a cultural gap to exist so that you can explain it. But most of the issues here come down to being human rather than being "modern" or "ancient."

Granted, then you don't get to write as much...and where's the fun in that?
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby cwconrad » August 21st, 2013, 11:07 am

This hardly seems to be the appropriate forum for this sort of difference of opinion, but strong statements about differences can lead to reactions that are also at odds: "Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose!" and "Vive la différence!" In the U.S. at this moment a lot of people are deeply concerned about N.S.A. surveillance of our supposedly private communications, but I doubt that we can, from our safe vantage point, appreciate what it is like today in Egypt to feel indignant and helpless against the brutality of an authoritarian régime. While I am very fond myself of the argument that human beings in all times and places react similarly to similar stimuli, the similarities too can be overstated. There's a nice perspective on reductionism/oversimplification on James McGrath's blog today: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/exploringo ... -love.html
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby Stephen Hughes » August 21st, 2013, 11:10 am

MAubrey wrote:Nah...the two systems aren't as different as you want them to be. You want a cultural gap to exist so that you can explain it. But most of the issues here come down to being human rather than being "modern" or "ancient."
I see a difference now living in an honour based society with people who have little regard for law or authority from my life I used to live in a society based on the rule of law. In an honour based society, human nature is more "in the raw".

Are you suggesting that culture doesn't exist? I think there are cultural differences between the "Latins" I have met and northern Europeans. If you go away from the tourist areas of Macao, you will find work-a-day people enjoying a big half-cooked steak with bread and red wine, while just few kilometres over the border there will be work-a-day people with rice and chopsticks on the table, and so also with those that I've met from Cape Verde. I realise it is a flight of fancy, but I was just thinking as I was writing the previous post about how the Romans (assuming that they were something like the modern Latins that I have mixed with) would react to society that they were faced with governing in the Levant.

MAubrey wrote:Granted, then you don't get to write as much...and where's the fun in that?
More fun is better. I hope that sometimes you could not limit your fun by only stating concise opinions, but rather multiply fun by sharing reasons and example so as to give your thoughts a happy context to exist in. ;)
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby MAubrey » August 21st, 2013, 11:57 am

Stephen Hughes wrote:I see a difference now living in an honour based society with people who have little regard for law or authority from my life I used to live in a society based on the rule of law. In an honour based society, human nature is more "in the raw".

Sure they're differences, but they're much smaller than you imagine them to be. Growing up in one culture and then experiencing another encourages that exaggeration of distinctions that otherwise should have been recognized as far more subtle.
Stephen Hughes wrote:Are you suggesting that culture doesn't exist?

Certainly not. See above.
Stephen Hughes wrote:I think there are cultural differences between the "Latins" I have met and northern Europeans. If you go away from the tourist areas of Macao, you will find work-a-day people enjoying a big half-cooked steak with bread and red wine, while just few kilometres over the border there will be work-a-day people with rice and chopsticks on the table, and so also with those that I've met from Cape Verde. I realise it is a flight of fancy, but I was just thinking as I was writing the previous post about how the Romans (assuming that they were something like the modern Latins that I have mixed with) would react to society that they were faced with governing in the Levant.

Differences in custom and material culture are easier to talk about than the subtle distinctions that involve more internal presuppositions. Moreover, the latter tends to encourage the exaggeration of the former. And its only been in the past decade or two that the field cultural anthropology has even begun to correct itself from making overreaching claims about different cultures.
Stephen Hughes wrote:More fun is better. I hope that sometimes you could not limit your fun by only stating concise opinions, but rather multiply fun by sharing reasons and example so as to give your thoughts a happy context to exist in. ;)

The internet is a funny place. The problem with text is that its so incredibly open to misinterpretation. When a person write large sections of prose, they're more easy to misunderstand and few issues can be questioned without complication. I might write five paragraphs that produce ten questions for you, each of which would require another five paragraphs which then produce another ten questions. And because of space, I might disregard the questions I view as insignificant and focus on the (from my perspective) important ones. But in doing so, I might unknowingly avoid answering the very question you view as central...which then you might interpret as avoidance or disregard. That's hardy efficient an efficient model for communication. Incidentally, this is precisely the problem Stephen Carlson and I are having with regard to the Greek Perfect...but that's another issue entirely.

So no...Writing less is better. It allows for more precise questioning and interaction that can then be expanded as the conversation continues. The easiest way to find out the reasons for my views is to ask questions...like you might in face to face conversation. Those tend to (ideally) involve something like this:

Speaker A: Short absolutist-sounding statement
Speaker B: Question
Speaker A: Explanation
Speaker B: Response
Speaker A: Question
Speaker B: Explanation
...
Resolution (either agreement on the topic or agreement to disagree)
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Re: Meaning of: θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ

Postby Stephen Carlson » August 21st, 2013, 1:44 pm

Well, I think there has to be a balance between overly terse and rambling. It's a balance we all need to work on, though it gets easier as we get to understand each other better..
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!!! CAUTION !!!

Postby Jonathan Robie » August 21st, 2013, 1:48 pm

:!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!:

Careful here ...

Please don't take this into American politics, and keep discussion strictly
relevant to understanding the phrase θεραπείᾳ πολλῇ.

I'm OK with us wandering just a LITTLE past our relatively strict boundaries,
because we've all been acting like adults for a long time here, but one of the
things that keeps B-Greek both irenic and relevant is that we stay fairly
strictly away from things outside of the scope of the forum per se.

Please read what you post carefully, make sure it's on topic, and think about
how it might be misread by someone so inclined. That will keep me from having
to step in and moderate.

:!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!: :!:
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;
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