Stephen Hughes wrote:
Section 18 is a bit more contorted in its thinking.
Lysias 24.18 wrote:καὶ τοῖς μὲν ἰσχυροῖς ἐγχωρεῖ μηδὲν αὐτοῖς πάσχουσιν, οὓς ἂν βουληθῶσιν, ὑβρίζειν, τοῖς δὲ ἀσθενέσιν οὐκ ἔστιν οὔτε ὑβριζομένοις ἀμύνεσθαι τοὺς ὑπάρξαντας οὔτε ὑβρίζειν βουλομένοις περιγίγνεσθαι τῶν ἀδικουμένων. ὥστε μοι δοκεῖ ὁ κατήγορος εἰπεῖν περὶ τῆς ἐμῆς ὕβρεως οὐ σπουδάζων, ἀλλὰ παίζων, οὐδ᾽ ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι βουλόμενος ὡς εἰμὶ τοιοῦτος, ἀλλ᾽ ἐμὲ κωμῳδεῖν βουλόμενος, ὥσπερ τι καλὸν ποιῶν.
Hints for §18: (Here are a few things that I guess might be useful for me to mention to help you get the most out of this reading.)
- τοῖς ... ἰσχυροῖς ... πάσχουσιν - these three datives go together with ἐγχωρεῖ
- μηδὲν αὐτοῖς - dative of respect
- ἐγχωρεῖ ... ὑβρίζειν - ἐγχωρεῖ (+inf.)
- οὓς - for αὐτοὺς οὓς
- τοῖς ... ἀσθενέσιν ... ὑβριζομένοις - the datives go together.
- ἀμύνεσθαι - to ward (off)
- οὐ σπουδάζων - in a way that he doesn't seem to be serious
- κωμῳδεῖν - something like "to lampoon", "describe a character in a skit"
First of all, let me say that I think everything Stephen has offered as a hint is on target. What makes this passage complicated is that, for all its powerful rhetorical arrangement, it has a strong colloquial ring to it. In a certain sense the "cripple" is making fun of his accuser in the very way that he accuses his accuser of making fun of him. This is a sort of rhetorical tour de force
Here's my take on this snippet:
1. Note the contrast between τοῖς μὲν ἰσχυροῖς ἐγχωρεῖ and τοῖς δὲ ἀσθενέσιν οὐκ ἔστιν; it tells us what able-bodied people can readily do and what crippled people don’t have the opportunity or ability to do.
2. What can the able-bodied do? ἐγχωρεῖ (αὐτοῖς), μηδὲν αὐτοῖς πάσχουσιν (with impunity!), (ἐκείνους) οὓς ἂν βουληθῶσιν (ὑβρίζειν), ὑβρίζειν.
3. What are cripples NOT enabled to do? οὐκ ἔστιν (αὐτοῖς)
(1) οὔτε ὑβριζομένοις ἀμύνεσθαι τοὺς ὑπάρξαντας
—ἀμύνεσθαι: ward off; defend oneself against
—τοὺς ὑπάρξαντας: the ones who started (roughhousing)
(2) οὔτε ὑβρίζειν βουλομένοις περιγίγνεσθαι τῶν ἀδικουμένων
—ὑβρίζειν βουλομένοις = ἐὰν ὑβρίζειν βούλωνται
—περιγίγνεσθαι: survive, come out better off (than)
—τῶν ἀδικουμένων (gen. of comparison) = ἐκείνων οὒς ἠδίκησαν αὐτοί
4. ὥστε μοι δοκεῖ ὁ κατήγορος = “So I think my accuser …”
—εἰπεῖν περὶ τῆς ἐμῆς ὕβρεως “speaks of my violence”
—οὐ σπουδάζων, ἀλλὰ παίζων: “not seriously, but in jest …”
—οὐδ᾽ ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι βουλόμενος … ἀλλ᾽ ἐμὲ κωμῳδεῖν βουλόμενος: “not meaning to make you believe him … but intending to mock”
—ὡς εἰμὶ τοιοῦτος: that I (really) am that sort (a ruffian)
—ὥσπερ τι καλὸν ποιῶν = ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ ἐποίει καλόν τι: “just as if he were doing something ‘cool’ (when it’s obvious that he isn’t!)