Wes Wood wrote:The last stretch just after "to heal" was difficult for me. I do not feel good about it. Also, I know the the last "have" and "live" are futures, but is it correct to translate them this way in this discourse? (Maybe I learned something yesterday or maybe I am conflating two different things.)
No problem, let's walk you through it a bit, then you can have another try at it. I would agree that this is more difficult Greek than the previous sections. There is two reasons for that. The first is that the part after "heal" is an implicit slur about the plaintiff that the defendant was insinuating. In effect, you need to read some words and understand a different meaning. The second is that this is not a Judeo-Christian document, so the understanding of some words is different. We are used to talking about body, soul and spirit, he makes a difference between body and soul.
You can see yourself from the fact that your English doesn't make sense that this is a work in progress. It is good to leave it that way, rather than "fudge" the translation into good English. I'll give you some pointers were you seem to need it, then you can struggle with this text again.
Λυσίας, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου 24.3 wrote:ἤδη τοίνυν, ¹ὦ βουλή¹, ²δῆλός ἐστι φθονῶν², ὅτι τοιαύτῃ ³κεχρημένος³ συμφορᾷ ⁴τούτου βελτίων⁴ ³εἰμὶ³ πολίτης. καὶ γὰρ οἶμαι δεῖν, ὦ βουλή, τὰ τοῦ σώματος δυστυχήματα τοῖς ⁵τῆς ψυχῆς⁵ ἐπιτηδεύμασιν ἰᾶσθαι, [καλῶς]. εἰ γὰρ ⁷ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ⁷ ⁸καὶ⁸ ⁶τὴν διάνοιαν ἕξω⁶ ⁸καὶ⁸ τὸν ἄλλον βίον ⁹διάξω⁹, τί τούτου διοίσω;
Wes Wood wrote:Already therefore, ¹O Council [would this be better than court?]¹, it is evident that this is because of envy, because whether he takes advantage of this misfortune [or not], I am a better citizen. For I think it is also necessary, O Council, to heal the misfortunes of the body with the pursuits of ⁵life⁵. For if the outside resembles [changed from my original "is equal to" per the hint] the misfortune and I have my mind and I live the rest [of my] life, how will I ¹⁰be different from¹⁰ this man?
¹ὦ βουλή - O Council [would this be better than court?] The main thing is you don't address them by name. Anonymity and impartiality / unapproachability. Yours is a literal translation, to translate into our modern understanding would be, "honourable gentlemen" (individuality) or "Mr. Speaker" (a legacy of monarchism). It is difficult to express the direct nature of Athenian democracy into our modern way of looking at courts and parliaments.
²δῆλός ἐστι φθονῶν - this phrase is third person masculine singular. There are two ways to understand φθονῶν; participle and genitive plural. Remember the δέω from section 1, I mentioned the difference between Attic and Koine is that Attic sometimes uses full verbs were Koine uses impersonals. This is another case. In the New Testament, δῆλον "it is clear" occurs a few times as an impersonal construction. In Attic, it is like it is here, adjective agreeing with the person + verb "to be" + participle.
³κεχρημένος - (I'm not so good on grammatical terms, but I think I remember that) this is a participle of attendant circumstance, anyway it has the sense of "I'm κεχρημένος-ing, and εἰμὶ still ...". It's a positive statement (without μή / οὐ) - I don't know why the gramar books would translate it as a negative "despite" or “although"??
⁴τούτου βελτίων - one of the places the genitive is used is after comparatives. These two words go together.
⁵τῆς ψυχῆς - in this mind set the human has two parts σῶμα and ψυχή. A later harmonisation view would explain this by saying that the πνεῦμα that we know in the Christian scriptures is implied in the pre-Christian word ψυχή. The way that you have understood ψυχή is later explained by saying that part of the soul dies with the body. You must have noticed that there are a number of ways that σῶμα, ψυχή and πνεῦμα. are understood in various texts in the New Testament. What we find in Lysias is yet another arrangement. Put aside for a moment the notion that ψυχή is inferior to πνεῦμα. In this work
, there is a two part distinction, with σῶμα differentiated from ψυχή.
⁶τὴν διάνοιαν ἕξω - this is a unit. Pay attention to the spiritus asper
on the verb.
⁷ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ - this is one unit. The συμφορά is a way of referring to his disability.
⁸καὶ ... καὶ ... - I find this strange because the first καὶ ... is apparently adverbial, but it is followed by another. I understand it as; "also ... and (also) ..."
⁹διάξω - "extrapolate", following on from that, consequently, being the logical outcome life-style arising from having that way of thinking, turning the steering wheel sets the car going in a certain direction.
¹⁰be different from - be better than.
Try having a look at that again. Group the words that go together, and the meaning will build itself up more clearly.