Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Discussion of Greek texts that do not fall into the other categories, including texts in other dialects or texts from other periods.
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Stephen Hughes
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Wes Wood §2 - Feedback - ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 8th, 2014, 6:28 am

Wes Wood wrote:I don't think I would've gotten that friend/enemy part without the hint. I would not expect to see a naked dative there. The beginning is strange also but I think I have the sense.
Yeah, It only sort of flows when you work from the αὐτῷ back to the οὔτε φίλῳ οὔτε ἐχθρῷ. It is amazing how much of our language understanding is unthinkingly based in the word order, and that carries across when we try to deal with an even more inflectional language. I would have been helped if there were an ὡς in both cases οὔτε [ὡς] φίλῳ οὔτε [ὡς] ἐχθρῷ
Wes Wood wrote:The beginning is strange also but I think I have the sense.
The beginning is constructed in two parallel parts. If it were more "linear", it would have been easier.
Λυσίας, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου 24.2a wrote:καίτοι ὅστις τούτοις φθονεῖ οὓς οἱ ἄλλοι ἐλεοῦσι, τίνος ἂν ὑμῖν ὁ τοιοῦτος ἀποσχέσθαι δοκεῖ πονηρίας;

if the order were reversed, it wouldn't have been so tricky. Never-the-less, it provides a good syntactic parallel for:
1 Corinthians 5:1 wrote:Ὅλως ἀκούεται ἐν ὑμῖν πορνεία, καὶ τοιαύτη πορνεία, ἥτις οὐδὲ ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ὀνομάζεται, ὥστε γυναῖκά τινα τοῦ πατρὸς ἔχειν.
The rhetorical question is (marked as beginning) by καίτοι and then built up based on the τίνος ἂν ... πονηρίας; "What wickedness would a man of this caliber deem fit to restrain himself from, (somebody - such a man) who envies those, whom others pity?" You have based the question on the ὅστις, but that is a relative ", who", not an interrogative "who ... ?"
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Jordan Day
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§1 Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Jordan Day » June 8th, 2014, 7:45 am

Stephen wrote:²What does "have grace" mean in English?
I suppose "mercy"
Stephen wrote:⁶Did you notice the contrast brought out by the ... μὲν ... , ... δὲ ... construction?
Yes :)
Stephen wrote:Why do you feel it would be dative?
After looking at the entry "δέω (Β)" in LSJ i think I understand it a little bit better.
LSJ wrote:2. freq. in Att., πολλοῦ δέω I want much, i.e. am far from,
Ok, onto part 2...
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#2 Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Jordan Day » June 8th, 2014, 9:18 pm

Lysias wrote:καίτοι ὅστις τούτοις φθονεῖ οὓς οἱ ἄλλοι ἐλεοῦσι, τίνος ἂν ὑμῖν ὁ τοιοῦτος ἀποσχέσθαι δοκεῖ πονηρίας; εἰ μὲν γὰρ ἕνεκα χρημάτων με συκοφαντεῖ —— : εἰ δ᾽ ὡς ἐχθρὸν ἑαυτοῦ με τιμωρεῖται, ψεύδεται: διὰ γὰρ τὴν πονηρίαν αὐτοῦ οὔτε φίλῳ οὔτε ἐχθρῷ πώποτε ἐχρησάμην αὐτῷ
And yet, if someone envies such people on whom others have compassion, what sort of evil would such a person seem to you to possess? If indeed it was because of material possessions, he is blackmailing me! But if as an enemy, he is punishing me for himself! he is lying! For on account of his evil, I have never treated him as a friend nor as a foe.
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Re: Ἰορδάνης §1+ & §2 - Feedback - ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 9th, 2014, 2:48 am

Jordan Day wrote:
Stephen Hughes wrote:²What does "have grace" mean in English?
I suppose "mercy"
LSJ [url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dxa%2Fris]χάρις[/url] II.2 wrote:more freq. on the part of the receiver, sense of favour received, thankfulness, gratitude
1 Timothy 1:12 wrote:Καὶ χάριν ἔχω τῷ ἐνδυναμώσαντί με Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ Κυρίῳ ἡμῶν, ὅτι πιστόν με ἡγήσατο, θέμενος εἰς διακονίαν,
Cf. εὐχαριστεῖν
Jordan Day wrote:
Stephen Hughes wrote:Why do you feel it would be dative?
After looking at the entry "δέω (Β)" in LSJ i think I understand it a little bit better.
LSJ wrote:2. freq. in Att., πολλοῦ δέω I want much, i.e. am far from,
That's an interesting addition to my understanding of Greek.
Lysias 24.2 wrote:καίτοι ὅστις τούτοις φθονεῖ οὓς οἱ ἄλλοι ἐλεοῦσι, τίνος ἂν ὑμῖν ὁ τοιοῦτος ¹ἀποσχέσθαι¹ ²δοκεῖ² πονηρίας; εἰ μὲν γὰρ ³ἕνεκα³ ⁴χρημάτων⁴ με συκοφαντεῖ —— : εἰ δ᾽ ὡς ἐχθρὸν ⁵ἑαυτοῦ⁵ με τιμωρεῖται, ψεύδεται: διὰ γὰρ τὴν πονηρίαν αὐτοῦ οὔτε φίλῳ οὔτε ἐχθρῷ πώποτε ⁶ἐχρησάμην⁶ αὐτῷ
Jordan Day wrote:And yet, if someone envies such people on whom others have compassion, what sort of evil would such a person ²seem to you | think fit² to ¹possess | abstain from¹? If indeed it was ³because of³ ⁴material possessions | money⁴, he is blackmailing | trying to blackmail me! But if as an ⁵his⁵ enemy, he is punishing me ⁵for himself! | , he is lying! For on account of his evil, I have never ⁶treated⁶ him as a friend nor as a foe.
¹ἀπέχεσθαι (+ ἀπό +gen. of something evil or bad) ≠ ἀπέχειν (+ acc.) "to have something that came from someone else" ≠ ἀπέχειν (+ ἀπό + genitive of place) - Cf. Acts 15:20 ἀλλὰ ἐπιστεῖλαι αὐτοῖς τοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν ἀλισγημάτων τῶν εἰδώλων καὶ τῆς πορνείας καὶ τοῦ πνικτοῦ καὶ τοῦ αἵματος. 1 Thessalonians 5:22 ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ ἀπέχεσθε. This seems to be one of the words which needs to be learnt along with its structures, not just a gloss.
²δοκεῖ (seem or think)- δοκεῖ is very common in Matthew in the question Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ; (Matthew 18:12 et passim in variations), in which case it is an impersonal, but here it is full verb with a subject like Luke 8:18 Βλέπετε οὖν πῶς ἀκούετε· ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν ἔχῃ, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ· καὶ ὃς ἐὰν μὴ ἔχῃ, καὶ ὃ δοκεῖ ἔχειν ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ. Or Acts 12:9 Καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἠκολούθει αὐτῷ· καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει ὅτι ἀληθές ἐστιν τὸ γινόμενον διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου, ἐδόκει δὲ ὅραμα βλέπειν. But in the sense of "think it (proper / good / expedient) to ..." more like Philippians 3:4 εἴ τις δοκεῖ ἄλλος πεποιθέναι ἐν σαρκί, ἐγὼ μᾶλλον· Rather than the external sense of Ξένων δαιμονίων δοκεῖ καταγγελεὺς εἶναι· (Acts 17:18)
³ἕνεκα what sense of "because of" do you understand? The pattern of usage in the New Testament seems to be ἕνεκα a good thing in a bad situation.
⁴Perhaps you are confusing κτήματα with χρήματα
⁵ἑαυτοῦ - theoretically, there are 3 possibilities with ἐχθρόν to say whose enemy the speaker is, with τιμωρεῖται as the reason for the vengeance, or adverbially.
⁶If by "threat" you mean in social interactions (have dealings with) then you have the sense, but if your "treat" means "consider him to be" then perhaps you could reconsider.

BTW and off the topic: ἀλίσγημα was a difficult word for me to memorise as a vocabulary item, because to my ear at least τὸ ἀλίσγημα sounds so different from τοῦ ἀλισγήματος.
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§3 - Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 9th, 2014, 6:19 am

I'm sure by now, you are beginning to get a first impression of the degree to which there are similarities and differences between this Greek and the Greek in the New Testament. To continue, let's move on to section 3.

The speaker continues ad hominem with his character assassination.
Λυσίας, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου 24.3 wrote: ἤδη τοίνυν, ὦ βουλή, δῆλός ἐστι φθονῶν, ὅτι τοιαύτῃ κεχρημένος συμφορᾷ τούτου βελτίων εἰμὶ πολίτης. καὶ γὰρ οἶμαι δεῖν, ὦ βουλή, τὰ τοῦ σώματος δυστυχήματα τοῖς τῆς ψυχῆς ἐπιτηδεύμασιν ἰᾶσθαι, [καλῶς]. εἰ γὰρ ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ καὶ τὴν διάνοιαν ἕξω καὶ τὸν ἄλλον βίον διάξω, τί τούτου διοίσω;
Hints for §3: (You could look at these after working through it yourself)
  • τοίνυν - Cf. Luke 20:25 Ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἀπόδοτε τοίνυν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι, καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τῷ θεῷ.
  • φθονῶν - referring to the plaintiff (ἐστί)
  • κεχρημένος - now referring to the speaker (εἰμί) - LSJ C.III experience, suffer, be subject to, esp. external events or conditions
  • συμφορά - Don't be misled by the positive sense of the cognate συμφέρειν (+inf.) in the New Testament, συμφορά has a negative sense here.
  • βελτίων - older comparative of ἀγαθός. FYI: The word used once in the New Testament, but is common enough in the LXX, "better" is expressed by κρείττων (that is a double tau, not a pi!!) in the New Testament.
  • δυστύχημα - a pagan word < τύχη fortune, providence, fate. cf. τυγχάνω, which is a difficult word to learn idiom of.
  • ἐπιτηδεύματα - "pursuits" (things that one pursues). Perhaps the closest we come is τὰ ἐπιτήδεια "the necessary things" (clothes for warmth and food for the hunger) in James 2:16 εἴπῃ δέ τις αὐτοῖς ἐξ ὑμῶν, Ὑπάγετε ἐν εἰρήνῃ, θερμαίνεσθε καὶ χορτάζεσθε, μὴ δῶτε δὲ αὐτοῖς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τοῦ σώματος, τί τὸ ὄφελος;
  • καλῶς - this word seems out of place here
  • ἐξ ἴσου - (+ dative) "evenly", cf. John 5:18 Διὰ τοῦτο οὖν μᾶλλον ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀποκτεῖναι, ὅτι οὐ μόνον ἔλυεν τὸ σάββατον, ἀλλὰ καὶ πατέρα ἴδιον ἔλεγεν τὸν θεόν, ἴσον ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν τῷ θεῷ. which, from those speakers' point of view, comes closest to the meaning of resemble - equal is the most extreme case of resemble - resemble in every way. Note in the trial of Jesus in Mark 14:56 Πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν. Doesn't mean they were not word-for-word, but much further back on the range of similarity from identical, like, "Are they even talking about the same person?"
  • διάνοια - a play on the meanings of the word; (1) thought, intention, mental functioning, and (2) intellectual capacity, intellectual ability. Remember Matthew 22:37 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη αὐτῷ, Ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου, ἐν ὅλῃ καρδίᾳ σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ ψυχῇ σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου.If you really need it, the sense is: "I might be physically disabled, but this guy is mentally disabled and the rest of his life is disabled too." (But you still need to work out how that is expressed)
  • διάγειν - carry over to
  • διαφέρειν - intransitive differ from. LSJ III.4 to be different from a person: generally, in point of excess, surpass, excel him, τινός. Remember Luke 12:24 Κατανοήσατε τοὺς κόρακας, ὅτι οὐ σπείρουσιν, οὐδὲ θερίζουσιν, οἷς οὐκ ἔστιν ταμεῖον οὐδὲ ἀποθήκη, καὶ ὁ θεὸς τρέφει αὐτούς· πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὑμεῖς διαφέρετε τῶν πετεινῶν;
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#3 Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Wes Wood » June 9th, 2014, 12:25 pm

The last stretch just after "to heal" was difficult for me. I do not feel good about it. Also, I know the the last "have" and "live" are futures, but is it correct to translate them this way in this discourse? (Maybe I learned something yesterday or maybe I am conflating two different things.)

Already therefore, O Council [would this be better than court?], it is evident that this is because of envy, because whether he takes advantage of this misfortune [or not], I am a better citizen. For I think it is also necessary, O Council, to heal the misfortunes of the body with the pursuits of life. For if the outside resembles [changed from my original "is equal to" per the hint] the misfortune and I have my mind and I live the rest [of my] life, how will I be different from this man?
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Wes Wood §3- (Preliminary) Feedback - ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 10th, 2014, 1:15 am

Wes Wood wrote:The last stretch just after "to heal" was difficult for me. I do not feel good about it. Also, I know the the last "have" and "live" are futures, but is it correct to translate them this way in this discourse? (Maybe I learned something yesterday or maybe I am conflating two different things.)
No problem, let's walk you through it a bit, then you can have another try at it. I would agree that this is more difficult Greek than the previous sections. There is two reasons for that. The first is that the part after "heal" is an implicit slur about the plaintiff that the defendant was insinuating. In effect, you need to read some words and understand a different meaning. The second is that this is not a Judeo-Christian document, so the understanding of some words is different. We are used to talking about body, soul and spirit, he makes a difference between body and soul.

You can see yourself from the fact that your English doesn't make sense that this is a work in progress. It is good to leave it that way, rather than "fudge" the translation into good English. I'll give you some pointers were you seem to need it, then you can struggle with this text again.
Λυσίας, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου 24.3 wrote:ἤδη τοίνυν, ¹ὦ βουλή¹, ²δῆλός ἐστι φθονῶν², ὅτι τοιαύτῃ ³κεχρημένος³ συμφορᾷ ⁴τούτου βελτίων⁴ ³εἰμὶ³ πολίτης. καὶ γὰρ οἶμαι δεῖν, ὦ βουλή, τὰ τοῦ σώματος δυστυχήματα τοῖς ⁵τῆς ψυχῆς⁵ ἐπιτηδεύμασιν ἰᾶσθαι, [καλῶς]. εἰ γὰρ ⁷ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ⁷ ⁸καὶ⁸ ⁶τὴν διάνοιαν ἕξω⁶ ⁸καὶ⁸ τὸν ἄλλον βίον ⁹διάξω⁹, τί τούτου διοίσω;
Wes Wood wrote:Already therefore, ¹O Council [would this be better than court?]¹, it is evident that this is because of envy, because whether he takes advantage of this misfortune [or not], I am a better citizen. For I think it is also necessary, O Council, to heal the misfortunes of the body with the pursuits of ⁵life⁵. For if the outside resembles [changed from my original "is equal to" per the hint] the misfortune and I have my mind and I live the rest [of my] life, how will I ¹⁰be different from¹⁰ this man?
¹ὦ βουλή - O Council [would this be better than court?] The main thing is you don't address them by name. Anonymity and impartiality / unapproachability. Yours is a literal translation, to translate into our modern understanding would be, "honourable gentlemen" (individuality) or "Mr. Speaker" (a legacy of monarchism). It is difficult to express the direct nature of Athenian democracy into our modern way of looking at courts and parliaments.
²δῆλός ἐστι φθονῶν - this phrase is third person masculine singular. There are two ways to understand φθονῶν; participle and genitive plural. Remember the δέω from section 1, I mentioned the difference between Attic and Koine is that Attic sometimes uses full verbs were Koine uses impersonals. This is another case. In the New Testament, δῆλον "it is clear" occurs a few times as an impersonal construction. In Attic, it is like it is here, adjective agreeing with the person + verb "to be" + participle.
³κεχρημένος - (I'm not so good on grammatical terms, but I think I remember that) this is a participle of attendant circumstance, anyway it has the sense of "I'm κεχρημένος-ing, and εἰμὶ still ...". It's a positive statement (without μή / οὐ) - I don't know why the gramar books would translate it as a negative "despite" or “although"??
⁴τούτου βελτίων - one of the places the genitive is used is after comparatives. These two words go together.
⁵τῆς ψυχῆς - in this mind set the human has two parts σῶμα and ψυχή. A later harmonisation view would explain this by saying that the πνεῦμα that we know in the Christian scriptures is implied in the pre-Christian word ψυχή. The way that you have understood ψυχή is later explained by saying that part of the soul dies with the body. You must have noticed that there are a number of ways that σῶμα, ψυχή and πνεῦμα. are understood in various texts in the New Testament. What we find in Lysias is yet another arrangement. Put aside for a moment the notion that ψυχή is inferior to πνεῦμα. In this work, there is a two part distinction, with σῶμα differentiated from ψυχή.
⁶τὴν διάνοιαν ἕξω - this is a unit. Pay attention to the spiritus asper on the verb.
⁷ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ - this is one unit. The συμφορά is a way of referring to his disability.
⁸καὶ ... καὶ ... - I find this strange because the first καὶ ... is apparently adverbial, but it is followed by another. I understand it as; "also ... and (also) ..."
⁹διάξω - "extrapolate", following on from that, consequently, being the logical outcome life-style arising from having that way of thinking, turning the steering wheel sets the car going in a certain direction.
¹⁰be different from - be better than.

Try having a look at that again. Group the words that go together, and the meaning will build itself up more clearly.
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Wes Wood
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Re: Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Wes Wood » June 10th, 2014, 11:44 pm

Already therefore, O council, it is evident that he is jealous because even while enduring such great misfortune I am a better citizen than this man. For I think it is also necessary to heal the misfortunes of the body with the pursuits of the soul. For if of like misfortune I will have the mind and lead another type of life, how will I be better than this man?

Still don't like it. Edited once: hopefully improved the end a little more.
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Wes Wood §3- Feedback - ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 11th, 2014, 2:20 am

Lysias 24.3 wrote:εἰ γὰρ ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ καὶ τὴν διάνοιαν ἕξω καὶ τὸν ἄλλον βίον διάξω, τί τούτου διοίσω;
Wes Wood wrote:Already therefore, O council, it is evident that he is jealous because even while enduring such great misfortune I am a better citizen than this man. For I think it is also necessary to heal the misfortunes of the body with the pursuits of the soul. For if of like misfortune I will have the mind and lead another type of life, how will I be better than this man?
The first part is very good, the latter part has most of the elements, but not the arrangement. Perhaps I should have spelt out more clearly that συμφορά is misfortune, yes, but it is a way of referring to his disability indirectly.

Let's mechanically construct an English sentence using hints from the Greek... If you don't know where to go, follow the form that you're familiar with (i.e. English) and move forward from there.

"For if" is okay, leave that. What do most English sentences start with? - The subject. Then? - A verb and object. Then? - It depends...

Subject - "I"
Verb&object - "will have (my) mind" (either outlook / way of thinking OR IQ)
THEN DO IT AGAIN
"and (if)" is okay
Subject - "I"
Verb&object - will lead my life (based on that thinking)
1 Timothy 2:2 wrote:ὑπὲρ βασιλέων καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ ὄντων, ἵνα ἤρεμον καὶ ἡσύχιον βίον διάγωμεν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ σεμνότητι.
There are a few senses of ἄλλους, not only the sense of another = "not the current one"
Matthew 4:21 wrote:Καὶ προβὰς ἐκεῖθεν, εἶδεν ἄλλους δύο ἀδελφούς, Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ μετὰ Ζεβεδαίου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν, καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα αὐτῶν· καὶ ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς.
Additional to the earlier ones, as well, besides, recognise a new example of the same pattern - two brothers.
Matthew 25:22 wrote:Προσελθὼν δὲ καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα λαβὼν εἶπεν, Κύριε, δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας· ἴδε, ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς
An additional 100 plus kilogrammes more silver.

THEN PUT THE ADVERB
ἐξ ἴσου τῇ συμφορᾷ at the same level as my misfortune, = without rising above my circumstances, having my mentality locked inside my disability.

If my mind and the way I lived my life besides the thinking were at the level equal to my misfortune (pointing at his limbs etc.) (a euphemistic or indirect way of saying he is physically disabled after some accident or illness). In regard to what (either mentality, outlook & ability OR the way I conduct my life with others) would I be different / better than this bloke?! :evil:

If my mind and life in general were as disabled as misfortune has left my body, then I suppose I'd be the same mean-spirited, non civic-minded individual as you see the plaintiff. :twisted:

[Sorry about the rambling post]

Do you see his point now?
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Stephen Hughes
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Re: §4 - Lysias' Λόγος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου

Post by Stephen Hughes » June 11th, 2014, 4:10 am

Less hints needed in Section 4. The structure of the passage is more familiar too.

The speaker summarises his accusers claims:
Λυσίας, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου 24.4 wrote:περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθω: ὑπὲρ ὧν δέ μοι προσήκει λέγειν, ὡς ἂν οἷόν τε διὰ βραχυτάτων ἐρῶ. φησὶ γὰρ ὁ κατήγορος οὐ δικαίως με λαμβάνειν τὸ παρὰ τῆς πόλεως ἀργύριον: καὶ γὰρ τῷ σώματι δύνασθαι καὶ οὐκ εἶναι τῶν ἀδυνάτων, καὶ τέχνην ἐπίστασθαι τοιαύτην ὥστε καὶ ἄνευ τοῦ διδομένου τούτου ζῆν.
Hints for §4: (You could look at these after working through it yourself)
  • προσήκει - c. dat. pers. et inf., it belongs to, beseems LSJ II.2b
  • ὡς οἷόν τε - as ... as it is possible (abs. construction without infinitive) LSJ οἷος III.3
  • φησὶ - Everything after this is in indirect speech.
  • με - Its sense is carried right through to the end.
  • ἐπίστασθαι - "am acquainted with" cf. Acts 19:15 Ἀποκριθὲν δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ πονηρὸν εἶπεν, Τὸν Ἰησοῦν γινώσκω, καὶ τὸν Παῦλον ἐπίσταμαι· ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνες ἐστέ;
  • ὥστε - with the infinitive
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

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