1. General

Current equipment of the German Armed Forces is generally good, despite more than five years of war. Although some German equipment does not reach Allied standards, in the majority of categories it has been found to be as good as, or better than, comparable U.S. items.

2. Design

Much German equipment differs radically in design from Allied counterparts. This does not mean that the functioning of the equipment is in any way inferior; the solution of the problem has been approached from another angle.

3. Shortages

Although acute material shortages sometimes force the employment of substitutes, redesigned German equipment seldom shows impaired efficiency. This is attributable to careful, meticulous planning, and to the production of a surprisingly versatile industry which is controlled completely by the state.


1. General

In general, German military automotive equipment consists of adaptations of civilian types, and these in most cases do not reach the high standard of American or British vehicles either in reliability or performance. The German branches of Ford and General Motors appear to have been incapable of reproducing their prototypes with unimpaired efficiency. With half-tracked prime-movers and personnel-carriers, however, the Germans have excelled; in this class they have produced vehicles which have given excellent service and which are unrivaled for cross-country performance.

2. German Cars

a. LIGHT ARMY CAR (Volkswagen). (1) General. This four-seat vehicle was developed from the famous "People's Car", which in fact never came into the hands of the German people. The military version has a touring body with a folding top instead of the civilian sedan type body. The Volkswagen, the German equivalent of the American "Jeep", is inferior in every way except in the comfort of its seating accommodations.

(2) Chassis. The chassis consists of a central, welded-steel tube bifurcating at the rear to support the engine and transmission. The steel floor on both sides of the central member provides the means of supporting the body. The front axle consists of steel tubes which house the two torsion bars of the suspension. The body is of sheet steel.

(3) Power. The engine, mounted at the rear, develops 24.5 brake horsepower at 3,300 revolutions per minute. Its capacity is 985 cubic centimeters (60 cubic inches). It is air cooled and has four cylinders, horizontally opposed in pairs. The gasoline tank is below the instrument panel in front of the right seat. There are four forward speeds, and one reverse. The maximum speed in high gear is about 50 miles per hour. The Volkswagen is a four-wheeled vehicle with two-wheel drive.

(4) Amphibious version. An amphibious version, known as the Schwimmwagen or le.P.Kw. K.2s, has an engine of slightly increased capacity (1,131 cubic centimeters or 69 cubic inches). The crankshaft is extended to the rear of the


Figure 1.--Small personnel carrier, Volkswagen
Figure 1.--Small personnel carrier, Volkswagen.


Figure 2.--Amphibious Volkswagen, Schimmwagen.

body and engages with the propeller-shaft by means of a dog clutch. When traveling overland, the propeller and shaft fold over the back of the vehicle. The body, which resembles a civilian sports car, is of thin welded sheet metal.

b. STANDARD CHASSIS I FOR LIGHT ARMY CAR. (1) Chassis. This chassis is of normal type, with a frame of rectangular section, side, and cross members and bracing to support the engine, transmission, and body. The hood is hinged down the center and fastened on each side by two clips. This chassis is used for the four-seat light car (Kfz. 1) and for a variety of radio and other special purpose vehicles.

(2) Engines. The engine is mounted at the front and may be any of the following types:

(a) Hanomag 2-Liter (122 cubic inches) Type 20 B. This is a water-cooled, four-cylinder O.H.V. gasoline engine with dry sump lubrication. It generates 50 brake horsepower at 3,500 revolutions per minute. Water pump, fan, and dynamo are driven by one V-belt from the camshaft.

(b) BMW. 2-Liter (122 cubic inches) Type 325. This engine is a water-cooled, six-cylinder (in-line) O.H.V. gasoline engine with dry sump lubrication, generating 45 brake horsepower at 4,000 revolutions per minute.

(c) Stoewer Types R 180 W and AW 2. These are both water-cooled, four-cylinder O.H.V. gasoline engines with dry sump lubrication. The R 180 W is a 1,750 cubic centimeter (106.75 cubic inches) model generating 43 brake horsepower at 3,600 revolutions per minute, and the AW 2 is a 2-liter (122 cubic inches) engine giving 50 brake horsepower at the same speed.

(3) Power. The power train is geared to all four wheels. The vehicle also has four-wheel steering, but the rear wheel steering mechanism may be locked. The gears give five forward speeds and one reverse. Maximum speed is 50 miles per hour. Ignition is by a 12-volt battery and coil. The main gasoline tank (13.25 gallons) is mounted at the rear, and the reserve tank (2.4 gallons) is in the engine compartment.

c. STANDARD CHASSIS I TYPE 40 FOR LIGHT ARMY CAR. This chassis, used for light staff cars and various special purpose vehicles, is practically the same as the Standard Chassis I, but has front wheel steering only. The engine is the Stoewer 2-liter (122 cubic inches) AW 2. The vehicle has a maximum speed of about 50 miles per hour.

d. LIGHT CAR, MERCEDES BENZ TYPE 170 V. (1) Chassis. The chassis, used for light staff


Figure 3.--Medium personnel carrier
Figure 3.--Medium personnel carrier.

cars and specialized vehicles, is X-shaped and supports the engine at the front. The front wheels are independently sprung by two parallel, semi-elliptic springs crossing the front of the vehicle. The rear wheel suspension is by coil springs. The engine is fitted beneath the hood, which is of normal type.

(2) Engine. The engine is the water-cooled, four-cylinder, 1,700 cubic centimeters (103.7 cubic inches) Mercedes Benz Type M 136. This is a side-valve, gasoline engine with an L-shaped cylinder head, with the camshaft and valve gear on the right side. The engine develops about 38 brake horsepower at 3,400 revolutions per minute. The fuel tank, located in the engine compartment, contains 11.5 gallons.

e. STANDARD CHASSIS FOR MEDIUM CAR. (1) Chassis. This is a conventional chassis used for staff cars, radio vehicles, and other specialized types and consisting of two parallel side members and various cross members and brackets. The engine is fitted at the front, and the wheels are sprung independently by two coil springs with double-action, hydraulic shock absorbers

The spare wheels are carried one on each side of the chassis on stub axles to prevent bellying when traveling over rough ground.

(2) Engines. The engine may be either of two types: Horch V-8 Type 901 (a water-cooled, 3.5-liter (213.5 cubic inches) gasoline engine developing 82 brake horsepower at 3,600 revolutions per minute), or an Opel straight-six (a water-cooled, 3.6 liter (219.6 cubic inches) O.H.V. gasoline engine developing 68 brake horsepower at 2,800 revolutions per minute). There are two gasoline tanks. The main tank, holding 18.7 gallons, is suspended in the center of the chassis frame, and the reserve tank holding 10.8 gallons, is at the rear. The main gear box has four forward speeds and one reverse, with an auxiliary gear box giving two ratios: normal and cross-country. All four wheels are driving wheels.

f. STANDARD CHASSIS II FOR HEAVY CAR. (1) Chassis. There are actually three known models of this chassis, all being similar in general appearance. Model. EGa has stub axles carrying the spare wheels to assist in crossing rough ground, and four-wheel steering. The steering


Figure 4.--Medium Half-tracked prime mover (8-ton).

mechanism for the rear wheels can be locked. Model EGb has front wheel steering only. Model EGd has no anti-bellying support axles. The body usually fitted is a four-door touring type of clumsy appearance. The vehicle is used for a variety of purposes, including an artillery prime mover for light guns.

(2) Engine. The engine is the Ford 3.6-liter (219.6 cubic inches) V-8, developing 78 brake horsepower at 3,600 revolutions per minute. This is a side-valve model with L-type cylinder heads. There are five forward speeds and one reverse. The main (14.5 gallons) and subsidiary (17 gallons) gasoline tanks are supported within the chassis frame.

3. German Trucks

a. OPEL "BLITZ" 3-TON TRUCK TYPE 3.6-36 S. (1) Chassis. This vehicle, employed principally as a general purpose truck, has a variety of specialized bodies. There are actually three models: the 3.6-36 S, the original Chevrolet-type commercial vehicle; the 3.6-36 S (army model), which is modified to meet army specifications; and the 3.6-47 which is intended primarily for coaches and has a lengthened chassis. The vehicle has a normal rectangular type chassis, supporting the engine at the front.

(2) Power. The engine is a water-cooled, straight-six O.H.V. gasoline unit of 3.6 liters(219.6 cubic inches) capacity, developing about 68 brake horsepower. The gasoline tank (21.6 gallons) is situated under the driver's seat. The gear box gives five forward speeds and one reverse. The two rear wheels are the driving wheels.

b. OPEL "BLITZ" 3-TON TRUCK (TYPE 6700 A). This is essentially the four-wheel drive version of the type 3.6-36S. The drive is taken from the five-speed main gear box to a transfer case. The transfer gears have two positions: one for roads and one for cross-country travel.

c. FORD 3-TON TRUCK (TYPES G 917 T AND G 997 T). These are both commercial models with two-wheel drive, slightly modified to meet army specifications. Both are powered by V-8 water-cooled gasoline engines developing about 78 brake horsepower. In the model G 917 T the capacity is 3.6 liters (219.6 cubic inches), increased to 3.9 liters (237.9 cubic inches) in the G 997 T by enlarging the bore. The gear box gives four forward speeds and one reverse. There is also a type G 987 T, a purely commercial model but very similar to the two army models.

d. MERCEDES BENZ 3-TON TRUCK (TYPE LCF 3000). (1) Chassis. The chassis is of welded construction with pressed steel cross-members. The engine is mounted at the front beneath a hood of normal type. Both front and rear axles are supported by two longitudinal, semi-elliptic


Figure 5.--22-ton tank transport trailer.


springs, each of which has a two-way shock absorber.

(2) Power. The Diesel engine is a four-cylinder, O.H.V., water-cooled model of about 5 liters (305 cubic inches) capacity. The gear-box gives four forward speeds and one reverse. There is an auxiliary gear box for selecting road or cross-country gear ratio. The driving power is carried to only two of the four wheels. Similar vehicles of Mercedes Benz manufacture also exist up to the 10-ton class. Some of the smaller ones may be found with gasoline engines, but in all the larger sizes only Diesels are used.

e. BÜSSING-N.A.G. 41/2-TON DIESEL TRUCK. This is a conventional type of truck which performs satisfactorily under test. At the governed speed of 1,740 revolutions per minute, 93 brake horsepower was developed. Over a 100-mile road circuit with heavy traffic, the vehicle averaged 21.1 miles per hour, and the fuel consumption averaged 8.72 miles per gallon. The vehicle, during the test, carried a load of 63/4 tons without any difficulty.

f. HEAVY WHEELED PRIME MOVER Radschlepper Ost. (1) Description. This is a heavy prime mover with four large wheels, intended for use on the Russian front. This vehicle should not be confused with the Raupenschlepper Ost, a fully-tracked prime mover also intended for use on the Russian front.

(2) Specifications.

g. HALF-TRACKED PRIME MOVERS AND PERSONNEL CARRIERS. These vehicles form the most successful series produced by the Germans, and have multifarious uses. Figure 60 gives brief comparative details of each. The dates given in column 3 refer to the presumed date of introduction. In the same column, the initial letters in the manufacturer's type are the initials of the original manufacturer. Thus DB stands for Daimler Benz, Bn for Büssing N.A.G., HL for Hansa-Lloyd (Borgward), D for Demag, H for Hanomag, and F for Famo. The original manufacturer may not be the exclusive maker of a particular type of vehicle, for certain types may be manufactured by several firms.



Zg.Kw. TYPE Sd. Kfz. No. Manufacturer's type Maybach Engine type Gearbox type Braking system Suspension Clutch
1 ton 10 D7 (1938/9) NL 38 TRKM orHL 42 TRKM Maybach pre-selective semi-automatic SRG 102128H. ATE Hydraulic foot brakes. Hydraulic steering brakes. Handbrake works mechanically on the steering brakes. Full torsion-bar. (Idler not sprung, but fitted with shear-bolt safety device). Fichtel and Sachs Mecano type PF 220 K.
1 ton 10 D7 (1940) as above Maybach Variorex VG102128H as above as above as above
Light armored carrier on Zg.Kw. 1-ton chassis. 250 252 253 D7p (1940) HL 42 TRKM as above as above Note: One pair of bogies less than on Zg.Kw. 1-ton (SdKfz. 10). as above
3 ton 11 kl 6 (1938) NL 38 TUKR or HL 42 TUKRM Normal 4-speed type with auxiliary gearbox. Mechanical hand and steering brakes. Mechanical servo-assisted footbrake. Full torsion-bar. (Idler not sprung, but fitted with shear-bolt safety device). Fichtel and Sachs Mecano type PF 220.
Medium armored carrier on Zg.Kw. 3-ton chassis. 251 kl 6p (1938) NL 38 TUKRRM orHL 42 TUKRRM as above as above as above
as above 251 kl 6p (1940) HL 42 TUKRRM as above as above
as above 251 H kl 6p (1940) NL 38 TUKRRM orHL 42 TUKRRM as above as above Fichtel and Sachs Mecano type PF 220 K.
5 ton 6 BNL7 (1936) NL 38 Spezial. Zahnradfabrik Aphon gearbox type G.45 V. (non-synchromesh). Mechanical steering brakes. Bosch pneumatic hand and footbrakes. Bogies with leaf-springing in pairs. Idler sprung with 2 short torsion-bars, fixed in center of tube. as above
5 ton 6 BNL8 DBL8 (1938/39) NL 38 TUKorNL 38 TUKRM Mechanical hand and steering brakes. Bosch pneumatic footbrake. Full torsion bar. (Idler not sprung, but fitted with shear-bolt safety device). as above
Footnote at end of table.



Zg.Kw. type Sd. Kfz. No. Manufacturer's type Maybach Engine type Gearbox type Braking system Suspension Clutch
5 ton 6 BN 9 (ca. 1940) HL 54 TUKRM Bosch pneumatic foot brake. ATE hydraulic steering-brakes. Mechanical handbrake. as above as above
8 ton 7 KM m 8 (1935) HL 52 TU Zahnradfabrik ZG 55. Mechanical steering and hand-brakes. Knorr pneumatic foot-brakes. Bogies with leaf-springing in pairs. (Spiral springing on idler).
8 ton 7 KM m 11 HL m 11(ca. 1939) HL 62 TUK "Non-synchronized". Mechanical hand and steering brakes. Bosch pneumatic foot brake. Bogies with leaf-springing in pairs. (Torsion-bar springing on idler).
Note: This model was being made up to 1942, but some later models have full torsion-bar suspension.
Mecano type K 230 K.
12 ton 8 DBs 8 (1938) DSO/8 Bosch pneumatic foot brake. (Mechanical steering brakes). Bogies with leaf-springing in pairs. Torsion-bar springing on idler. Mecano type LA 80 H.
12 ton 8 DB 9 (1939) HL 85 TUKRM. Bosch pneumatic foot brakes. ATE hydraulic steering brakes. as above
12 ton 8 DB 10

HL 85 TUKRM Mechanical hand-brake. Bosch pneumatic foot-brake. Hydraulic steering brakes. Full torsion-bar. (Idler not sprung, but fitted with shear-bolt safety device). Mecano LA 65/80 B.
18 ton 9 F-2 (1938) HL 98 TUK Zahnradfabrik Type G 65 VL230. Mechanical hand and steering brakes. Bosch pneumatic foot brake. as above Mecano LA 65/80.
18 ton 9 F-3 (1939) HL 108 TUKRM as above as above as above Mecano LA 80.
Figure 60.



1. On-Carriage Fire Control Equipment

a. GENERAL. German on-carriage fire control devices for field artillery, antitank artillery, self-propelled artillery, and tanks, are generally similar for all pieces of each class. All are characterized by excellent workmanship and ease of operation.

b. FIELD ARTILLERY. (1) General. Field artillery on-carriage fire control equipment is designed for both direct and indirect laying. Eight mounts of azimuth compensating type automatically allow for trunnion cant when cross-leveled. The angle-of-site mechanism is graduated from 100 to 500 mils, 300 mils representing normal. The gun is laid at the quadrant elevation on the sight by matching two arms, one moving with the gun, the other with the sight bracket. Fire adjustment depends on the accuracy of this rather difficult pointer matching. Range drums, graduated to suit the particular pieces on which they are mounted, are operated by handwheels.

Figure 7.--Panoramic Telescope M32
Figure 7.--Panoramic Telescope M32.

Figure 8.--Panoramic Telescope M32K
Figure 8.--Panoramic Telescope M32K.

(2) Panoramic telescope M.32. This is the standard German field artillery sight, and consists of the following:

(a) Stem. A stem fits into a tubular socket on the sight bracket of the gun.

(b) Rotating head. Main and slipping azimuth scales are attached to the rotating head. It can be rotated by operating a quick release, or, for finer adjustment, by micrometer heads.

(c) Azimuth scales. The main scale is fixed relative to the rotating head. It is graduated in hundreds of mils, numbered by twos, from zero to 6,400. The slipping scale follows every movement of the main scale, but can be rotated independently. It is graduated in hundreds of mils, numbered in twos from zero to 32 right and left. A micrometer drum, with fixed and movable scales, works in conjunction with main and slipping scales. Both are graduated in mils, numbered by tens. The index is on a fixed ring between the two scales.

(d) Elevation micrometer. Turning this micrometer head tilts the object glass, raising or



TYPE USED ON GUNS AND AMMUNITION Range Scales (Meters) Magnification (X) Field (Degrees) Overall length (less eye guard) (inches) Weight (pounds) Exit Pupil distance (mm.) Entrance Pupil

diameter (mm.)
T.Z.F.2 and 2X. Pz.Kpfw.I. Models A and B. 7.92 mm MG 13. 800 2.5 28 19 19 5.5 -- It is not known with what gun the T.Z.F.2 was used, nor in which vehicle. Monocular.
T.Z.F.3a. 4-wheeled armored car. Sd.Kfz.222 and semi-tracked A.C. Sd.Kfz. 250/9. 2 cm Kw.K. 38.

7.92 mm M.G 34.

1200 -- -- -- -- -- -- Little is known about this telescope. Monocular.
T.Z.F.4. Pz.Kpfw. II Models A to C. 2 cm Kw.K. 30.
7.92 mm M.G. 34
1200 2.5 25 22.5 20 7 17.5 First confirmed Leitz design. Monocular.
T.Z.F.4/36 and 4/38. Pz.Kpfw.II Model F. 2 cm Kw.K. 30.
7.92 mm M.G. 34
2.5 25 22.5 21 7 17.5 The range of 800 metres applies to T.Z.F. 4/36 and that of 1200 metres to T.Z.F. 4/38. Monocular.
T.Z.F. 5a. Pz.Kpfw. III Models A to D. 3.7 cm Kw.K. (AP and HE).
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
2.5 25 32.25 24 5 12.5 Monocular.
T.Z.F. 5a. (Vorl). 5 cm. Pz.Kpfw. III Model E, etc. (See Remarks). 5 cm Kw.K (AP and HE).
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
2.5 25 32.25 21.5 5 12.5 Monocular. Modified T.Z.F. 5a, superseded by T.Z.F. 5d.
T.Z.F. 5b. Pz.Kpfw. III with 7.5 cm. Kw.K. Models J to N. Pz.Kpfw. IV Models B to F. 7.5 cm Kw.K.
7.92 mm M.G. 34
2.4 23.5 32.25 21.5 5 12.5 Monocular.
5b/36. Pz.Kpfw. IV. Models B to F. 7.5 cm Kw.K.
7.92 mm M.G. 34
2.4 23.5 32.25 23 6 14.4 Monocular.
T.Z.F. 5d. Pz.Kpfw. III. Models F and J. 5 cm Kw.K. (APC and HE)
7.92 mm M.G. 34
2.4 25 31.8 20.13 5.5 13.2 Monocular.
T.Z.F. 5. Pz.Kpfw. III Models L and M. 5 cm Kw.K 39 AP or APCHE 7.92 mm M.G. 34. 1500
2.4 25 31.8 20.13 5.5 13.2 Monocular.
T.Z.F. 5f (Vorl) Pz.Kpfw. IV Models F2 to H. 7.5 cm KwK. 40 APCBC HE AP40
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
(See Remarks)
2.4 25 31.8 20.13 5.5 13.2 Monocular.

The HE scale serves for the machine gun also.
Figure 9.



TYPE USED ON GUNS AND AMMUNITION RangeScales (Meters) Magnification (X) Field (Degrees) Overall length(less eye guard)
Weight (pounds) Exit Pupil distance (mm.) Entrance Pupildiameter (mm.) REMARKS
T.Z.F. 5f. 1. Pz.Kpfw. IV Models G to K. 7.5 cm Kw.K. 40 APCBC HE AP 40
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
(See Remarks)
2.4 25 32 26 5.8 13.9 Monocular. The HE scale serves for the machine gun also.
T.Z.F. 6. 8-wheeled armored car and Pz. Sp. Wg. II (Luchs) Sd. Kfz. 123. 2 cm Kw K. 30 and 38, and 7.92 mm M.G. 34. 1200 2.4 22 28.4 21 5 12 Monocular.
T.Z.F. 6/38. 2 cm Kw.K. 38 and 7.92 mm M.G. 34. 1200 2.5 25 Little known about this telescope but known dimensions agree with those for the T.Z.F.6. Monocular.
T.Z.F. 9b. Pz.Kpfw. Tiger Model E. 8.8 cm Kw.K. 36.
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
2.4 26 32.5 37 6 15 Binocular. Adjustable interocular distance.
T.Z.F. 9d. Pz.Kpfw. Tiger Model B. 8.8 cm Kw.K. 43 APCBC HE
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
(See Remarks)
Monocular. The HE scale is believed to serve for the machine gun also.
T.Z.F. 12. Pz.Kpfw. Panther Model D. 7.5 cm Kw.K. 42 APCBC (L/70) HEAP 40.
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
(See Remarks)
2.5 29 45.1 63.88 6.2 15 Binocular. Light and dark filters fitted. The HE scale serves for the machine gun also.
T.Z.F. 12a. Pz.Kpfw. Panther Models A and G. As above. 3000
(See Remarks)
2.5 5 19 15 44.5 44 6.2 3.1 Monocular, dual magnification.


K.Z.F. 1. Early models of most tanks. 7.92 mm M.G. 34.
(gimbal mountings).
1.8 18  5  --- Cranked, monocular, moving-eyepiece type.
K.Z.F. 2. Pz.Kpfw. I, Commander's.
Pz.Kpfw. II, Flamethrower.
Pz.Kpfw. III, Commander's and Models F to J. Pz.Kpfw. IV, Tiger and Panther.
7.92 mm M.G. 34.
(gimbal and ball mountings).
1.75 18 14.13 7 5 --- Cranked, monocular, moving-eyepiece type.
Figure 10.


lowering the line of sight. The elevation scale is graduated in hundreds, from 100 mils to 500 mils, with 300 as normal. The micrometer is graduated in single mils numbered in tens.

(e) Eyepiece. This is at the end of an arm and can be turned in any direction. The reticle which may be illuminated has an interrupted vertical line with an inverted "V" for elevation. Late models of the M.32 as well as M.32 K sights have a horizontal scale added to the reticle.

(f) Characteristics, M.32 and M.32 K.

Figure 11.--Panoramic Telescope M16/18
Figure 11.--Panoramic Telescope M16/18.

(3) Panoramic Sight M. 16/18. (a) Description. The M.16/18 sight differs from the M.32 as follows:

It has no slipping scales.

When the azimuth scale is set at zero, the rotating head forms an angle of 90 degrees with the eye piece.

A cross-level vial assembly is secured to the shank. It is adjusted by turning an eccentric plug.

(b) Characteristics.

c. ANTITANK GUNS. (1) General. All German antitank-gun sight mounts have facilities for applying range, and most have a means for applying lateral deflection. Characteristics of various sights are:

(a) 2 cm S.Pz. B41. Open sights "U" and acorn. Graduations for range, but no mechanical arrangement for applying deflection. Telescope sight fits into a trigger housing on sight mount.

(b) 5 cm Pak 38. The sight incorporates lateral deflection gear and means for adjusting line and elevation. Range drum is graduated to 2,400 meters (HE) and 1,400 meters (AP).

(c) 7.5 cm Pak 40. As for 5 cm Pak 38 but graduated to 2,800 mils (HE) and 1,400 mils (AP).

(d) 7.62 cm Pak 36 (r). Rocking bar reciprocating; range indicator graduated to 6,000 meters (APCBC) and 2,000 meters (AP 40). Elevation indicator graduated in meters for three types of projectiles and in mils up to 800.

(e) 7.5/5.5 cm Pak 41. Range drum with five scales. The first is graduated in mils, the remaining four in meters with decreasing range limits; believed used as muzzle velocity decreases with rapid wear of the tapered bore. A deflection mechanism is located below the range setting handle.

(f) 8.8 cm Pak 43/41. There are two telescopic mounts side by side on the left. One, of rocking bar type, is for antitank use, and the other, similar to the sight mount of the 10.5 cm le. F.H.18 is for indirect laying.


Figure 12.--Sight mounts
Figure 12.--Sight mounts.
(Left) For 10.5 cm Howitzer on Pz. Kpfw. III chassis (Stu. H42).
(Right) For 7.5 cm Pak 40 on Czech (38t) tank chassis.

Figure 13.--Sight mounts
Figure 13.--Sight mounts.
(Left) For 75/55 mm Pak 41 Gun.
(Right) For 8.8 cm Pak 43/41 Gun.

Figure 14.--Sight mounts
Figure 14.--Sight mounts
(Left) For 7.5 cm (Stu. K40) Pz. Kpfw. III chassis.
(Right) For 7.5 cm on Pz. Kpfw. III w/o rotary cupola.

(2) Zielfernrohr, Z.F. 38/II S.v.o.4 This is the sight now used with all antitank guns. It has one main graduation with three secondary graduations on each side, and a vertical line between the conical reticles. The angle from conical to vertical reticle is 4 mils, giving a maximum lay-off of 24 mils on each side. The field of view is 8 degrees, and magnification three-fold.


Figure 15.--Sight mounts
Figure 15.--Sight mounts.
(Top) For 7.5 cm Howitzer.
(Center) For 10.5 cm LFH 18 Howitzer.
(Bottom) For 15 cm SIG 33 Howitzer.

(3) Aushilfsrichtmittel 38. This is the sight used for indirect laying of antitank guns. It consists of a tangent elevation drum, bearing ring, and telescopic sight with 10-degree field of view and 3-power magnification. The tangent elevation drum is graduated from zero to 1,300 mils by hundreds, and the bearing scale from zero to 6,400 mils in hundreds. Both have micrometer adjustments for zero to 100 mils.

d. SELF-PROPELLED ARTILLERY. Most German self-propelled assault and antitank guns of 75 mm or more caliber use the Sfl. Z.F. series of direct-laying telescopes. Excepting the Sfl. Z.F. 5, on the 8.8 cm Pak 43/3 (L/71) on Pz. Jag. Panther, they are mounted on a Zieleinrichtung 37 (Z.E. 37) sight bracket. This sight bracket has cross-levelling deflection and range adjustments. Since 1942 panoramic sights issued for self-propelled artillery have been reduced to one for each two guns.

e. TANK AND ARMORED CAR SIGHTS. (1) General. German tank and armored car sights are of articulated stationary eyepiece type, with vertically moving reticles. They are for direct laying, and consist of two main parts: objective tube and reticle box, which move with the gun; and the eyepiece tube, carrying the range control, which remains stationary. (Details of tank and armored car sights are given in Figure 9.)

(2) Range scales. Range scales (including an allowance for jump) consist of a series of small circles about the optical axis, graduated in hundreds of meters, and numbered every 200 meters. Those for various projectiles are marked accordingly. Ranges are read against a fixed translucent pointer at the top of the field of view.

(3) Reticle markings. Reticle markings consist of a large central triangle, or inverted V, with three smaller triangles on each side at 4-mil intervals. The center apex is the normal aiming point. Zeroing knobs for line ("Seite") and elevation ("Höhe") and reticle illumination are provided. The optical and mechanical joint is a dust proof, water-tight prism system, usually limited to -20 degrees depression and +30 degrees elevation.

(4) Machine-gun sights. Machine-gun sights on tanks and armored cars are fixed in gimbal or ball mounts, with the optical axis offset so that the line of sight is close to the machine gun when it passes through the ball. The reticle has no range or deflection settings. Zeroing adjustments are provided, however, as well as illumination.


Figure 16.--Aiming Circle, Rkr 31, with case and illuminating apparatus
Figure 16.--Aiming Circle, Rkr 31, with case and illuminating apparatus.

Figure 17.--Gunner's quadrant
Figure 17.--Gunner's quadrant.

2. Off-Carriage Fire Control Equipment


Like their other optical instruments, German off-carriage fire control equipment is superior in design and workmanship. Most instruments which are quite similar to our own could be used effectively by Allied troops.

b. Winkelmesser 35 (W.M. 35), GUNNER'S QUADRANT. (1) General. This gunner's quadrant is simple and well constructed. The frame contains an elevation arc with a scale graduated in ten-mil units from zero to 1,000 mils in black numerals, and from 600 to 1,600 mils in red. The quadrant arm carries a spirit level and is provided with coarse and fine screw-type adjustments.

(2) Characteristics:

c. Richtkreis 31 (Rkr. 31), AIMING CIRCLE. (1) General. Material, workmanship, and design of the Rkr. 31 are excellent, and no expense has been spared in its production. It is constructed


Figure 18.--70 cm Range Finder with adjusting lath and carrying case
Figure 18.--70 cm Range Finder with adjusting lath and carrying case.

in three major parts: the periscope, the telescope, and the angle-of-site mechanism. When assembled, these can be mounted on the spindle of a tripod. The instrument can be used to measure vertical and horizontal angles; by using the magnetic needle, magnetic bearings can be taken. When disassembled, part of the instrument can be used for plane table work.

(2) Description. The periscope is fitted to the aiming circle by means of a dovetailed slide. Its function is merely to raise the line of sight. It has no magnifying power. The telescope has an adjustable focussing eyepiece, with a leveling bubble on top. A lighting attachment is provided on the left side. To the left of the telescope is a spherical level by which the head can be leveled. The angle-of-sight mechanism can be rotated through a total of 1,400 mils, the horizontal being 300 mils. The smallest graduation is 1 mil. The traversing mechanism is graduated in mils from zero to 6,400. A quick release mechanism is provided.

The tripod is adjustable in height and has a traversing mechanism. A spindle projecting from the traversing head forms the support for the aiming circle. Two rings in which the spindle is mounted eccentrically control its vertical position, and by rotating these rings the spherical level can be centered.

d. RANGE FINDERS. (1) General. In general, German range finders are of the stereoscopic type, but a 70-cm base coincidence range finder, though no longer in production, is still in use. Range finders are known to exist in the following sizes:

70-cm base.
1-meter base.
1.5-meter base.
4-meter base.
6-meter base.
10-meter base.
12-meter base.


Figure 19.--4-meter Range Finder, Model Em 4m R40
Figure 19.--4-meter Range Finder, Model Em 4m R40.

Figure 20.--Range Finder, 1.5 meter-Base
Figure 20.--Range Finder, 1.5 meter-Base. (Top) Assembled view. (Bottom) Assembled ready for use.


(2) 70-cm Range Finders 14 and 34 (Entfernungsmesser 14 and 34). (a) General. The 70-cm (27.56 inches) coincidence range finder is used by German machine-gun and mortar units, and by airborne troops for obtaining the ranges of ground targets. It also is used with the M.G.34 for antiaircraft fire. For adjustment an artificial infinity is used. There is no adapter for mounting on a tripod.

(b) Characteristics.

(3) 1-Meter (39.37 inches) Stereoscopic Range Finders. (a) General. These portable 1-meter base range finders are used largely by light antiaircraft units manning 20-mm and 37-mm guns.

(b) Characteristics.

(4) 1.5-Meter (59.06 inches) Stereoscopic Range Finder (Em.R.1.5 m). (a) General. This range finder is provided with a tripod and is only used against fixed targets.

(b) Characteristics.

(5) 4-Meter (157.48 inches) Range Finder (Em.R. 4 m). (a) General. This is the standard instrument for use with heavy antiaircraft guns. It may be employed either as an independent range finder, or incorporated into an antiaircraft detector. As a range finder it is served by a crew of four: rangetaker, layer for line, layer for elevation, and reader.

(b) Characteristics.

(6) 6-, 10-, and 12-Meter Range Finders. These instruments are used for range measurement for seacoast artillery.


1. Constructional Features

a. GENERAL. Two features stand out in the construction of Germany Army communications equipment: the unit construction methods employed and the material from which the units are made.

b. UNIT CONSTRUCTION METHODS. Practically every piece of radio equipment is constructed in units, which are secured to panels and to each other, electrical connections being made by plug and socket strips or by screwing tags or soldering wires to a terminal strip. In most cases this permits quick dismantling for servicing and repair.

c. MATERIALS USED (1) General. The metal from which radio sets are made is almost universally an alloy of about 90 per cent magnesium; 8 per cent aluminum; and 2 per cent zinc, copper, and other metals. Each unit consists of a die-casting of this alloy. Not only is the main sub-chassis cast, but also the screening plates, bosses, and recesses for mounting components. The castings are accurately made, requiring little machining, thus establishing excellent mechanical rigidity and improved electrical performance.

(2) Tuning condensers. Main tuning condensers are made from the standard alloy. Both rotors and stators are machined from a block casting. Thus, there can be no deterioration in performance due to corrosion between individual plates and their mountings.

(3) Insulation. Extensive use is made of ceramic materials for insulating; they are used for tag strips, tube holders, tube bases, coil formers, and almost universally as the main bearing for ganged condensers. Where coil formers are not made from ceramics, porcelain or pressed bakelised paper is used.

(4) Condensers. Trimmer condensers are usually either small, air-spaced ones, or of the silvered ceramic-disc type (Philips), which are used to some extent in British and American equipment. Small, fixed condensers are the tubular ceramic type or flat mica type in a bakelite shroud. Except in older versions of the 100 W.S., mica is used sparingly. Larger condensers are paper-dielectric Mansbridge type. No color coding is used, the values being printed on the condenser in mF, pF, or centimeters.


(5) Resistors. Resistors are usually of the noninductive carbon type, although a few wire-wound ones are employed purely for direct current purposes, such as voltage dividers. No color coding is used, the values being printed on the resistor in ohms.

(6) Coils. Low frequency coils and chokes are wound with single-strand, enamel-insulated wire, or with silk-covered liztendraht wire. High frequency coils usually are wound with bare copper or copper strip. Alternatively, the coil former has a helical groove in which a thin layer of copper is deposited, apparently by electrolysis. The inductance of most high frequency coils can be varied within small limits by adjustment of a co-axial iron dust core, or copper ring. Intermediate frequency transformers not only have iron dust cores, but are in many cases completely enclosed in an iron dust shrouding.

(7) Tubes. German radio receivers of modern design have only one type of tube throughout, usually a pentode. These tubes are not always used in an orthodox fashion--for instance a pentode may be used as a diode--but the method considerably facilitates the supply of spares.

2. Power Supplies

Power supplies vary according to the purpose for which the piece of equipment is used. Vehicle sets employ separate rotary converters driven from the 12-volt vehicle storage batteries. These converters are of heavy rugged construction, and therefore remain serviceable for long periods without attention. Ground stations employ storage batteries and dry batteries, pedal operated generators, or small gasoline electric sets. Pack sets employ storage batteries with dry batteries or synchronous vibrators.

3. Simplification

a. CONDENSERS. Great pains are taken to make the working of the sets as simple and reliable as possible. Tuning condensers are driven through a chain of precision gearing, using fiber and spring-loaded metallic wheels to remove backlash.

b. DIALS. The dials are of a large size, with calibration spaced over 300 degrees or more. They are accurately marked out, permitting the frequency to be set to very close limits without the use of a wavemeter. Most dials are marked with one or more check points, allowing initial calibration to be accurately set or checked by means of an external or internal crystal oscillator or by means of an internal "glow crystal" (leuchtquarz).

c. NUMBERING. As an aid to both construction and servicing, each component in a set has a number, and in many cases the wiring is numbered also. Any two points bearing the same number are directly connected.

4. Armored Vehicle Radio Sets

a. GENERAL. Complete sets in armored vehicles include transmitter, receiver, power units, and accessories, referred to by the designation Fu., followed by a number. An exception is the voice transmitting set Fu. Spr.f. used in self-propelled field and medium artillery vehicles and certain armored cars. This set has no Fu. number. Transmitters and receivers individually are referred to by a description and a letter, such as 10 watt transmitter "c".

b. RADIO SETS USED. The following tabulation shows what complete radio sets are likely to be installed in various types of armored and self-propelled artillery vehicles. Details on these sets will be found in the accompanying tables.

Vehicle Radio
Commander's tank Fu.8 and Fu.5;
or Fu.7 and Fu.5.
Fighting tanks, all types Fu.5 and Fu.2;
or Fu.5 only.
Assault guns (in armored formations) Fu.5 and Fu.2;
or Fu.5 only.
Armored OP vehicles (artillery) Fu.8 and Fu.4;
or Fu.8, Fu.4, and Fu.Spr.f.
Assault guns (artillery) Fu.8, Fu.16, and Fu. 15;
or Fu.16 and Fu.15; or Fu.16 only.
Self-propelled antitank
(light and medium chassis)
Fu.8 and Fu.5;
or Fu.5 only.
Self-propelled antitank
(heavy chassis)
Fu.8 and Fu.5;
or Fu.7 and Fu.5; or Fu.5 and Fu.2.
Antitank-assault guns Fu.8 and Fu.5;
or Fu.5 only.
Lynx (reconnaissance) Fu.12 and Fu.Spr.f.
or Fu.Spr.f. only.
Antiaircraft tanks (Flak panzer) Fu.5 or Fu.2 only.
Self-propelled heavy infantry gun Fu.16 only.
Wasp and Bumble Bee Fu.Spr.f. only.
Armored cars (except eight-wheeled vehicle)
and semi-tracked vehicles with armament.
Fu.Spr.f. only.
Armored cars Fm.22 and Fu.Spr.f.
Eight-wheeled armored Fu.12 and Fu.Spr.f.
or Fu.Spr.f. only.


Figure 21.--Short Wave Receiver Kw.E.a.
Figure 21.--Short Wave Receiver Kw.E.a.

Figure 22.--Radio TFuG. k
Figure 22.--Radio TFuG. k.


Figure 23.--Relaiskasten T39 Teletype Repeater
Figure 23.--Relaiskasten T39 Teletype Repeater.

Figure 24.--Transmitter 15 W.S.E.b.
Figure 24.--Transmitter 15 W.S.E.b.


Figure 25.--Transmitter 5 W.S.c.
Figure 25.--Transmitter 5 W.S.c.


Figure 26.--Feldverstarker with battery case
Figure 26.--Feldverstarker with battery case.

Figure 27.--Transmitter 100 W.
Figure 27.--Transmitter 100 W.


Figure 28.--Attenuator Meter Dampfrugmesser39.
Figure 28.--Attenuator Meter Dampfrugmesser39.

Figure 29.--Feldfernschreiber.
Figure 29.--Feldfernschreiber.


Figure 30.--Transmitter/Receiver(Torn.Fu. bl) with case for battery and accessories.

Figure 31.--Dynamotor U5al.
Figure 31.--Dynamotor U5al.

Figure 32.--Fixed emplacement walltelephone.


Figure 33.--10-Line switchboard
Figure 33.--10-Line switchboard.

Figure 34.--Teleprinter terminal unit
Figure 34.--Teleprinter terminal unit.

Figure 35.--TFb 1 carrier frequency unit
Figure 35.--TFb 1 carrier frequency unit.


Figure 36.--'Spiral-Four' field telephone cable assembly
Figure 36.--"Spiral-Four" field telephone cable assembly.

Figure 37.--Torn. Fu. g.
Figure 37.--Torn. Fu. g.

Figure 38.-Direction finding receiver E.P.2a.
Figure 38.-Direction finding receiver E.P.2a.


Figure 39.--"Spiral-Four"field telephone cable unassembled.

Figure 40.--30W. S. a.
Figure 40.--30W. S. a.


Figure 41.--Field telephone central (10 lines)
Figure 41.--Field telephone central (10 lines).

Figure 42.--Vibrator power supply EW.E
Figure 42.--Vibrator power supply EW.E.

Figure 43.--Walkie Talkie Feldfu.f
Figure 43.--Walkie Talkie Feldfu.f.


Figure 44.--Fortress emergency transmitter
Figure 44.--Fortress emergency transmitter.

Figure 45.--Receiver Ukw. E.e. Transmitter 10 WS.c
Figure 45.--Receiver Ukw. E.e. Transmitter 10 WS.c.


Figure 46.--Leitungsabschluss Kastenline terminal equipment
Figure 46.--Leitungsabschluss Kastenline terminal equipment.

Figure 47.--Two-man packTrans/Receiver (Torn.Fu. d2)
Figure 47.--Two-man packTrans/Receiver (Torn.Fu. d2).



NUMBER TYPE CATHODE TYPE AND RATING USE AND APPLICATION Plate Voltage *Maximum Grid Voltage *Maximum Screen Voltage *Maximum Plate Current at Plate Voltage Indicated Screen Current at Screen Voltage Indicated Plate Resistance Transconductance Amplification Factor Allowable Plate Dissipation Allowable Screen Dissipation Load Output Maximum Grid-Plate Capacity
AB2 Telefunken
AB2 Valvo
4D1 Loewe
Duo-Diode Receiver Tube Ind. 4 A.C. 0.65 H.F. Rectifier
AC2 Telefunken
AC2 Valvo
AC2 Tungsram
Triode Receiver Tube Ind. 4 A.C. 0.65 Audio and H.F. Tube Oscillator L.F. Amplifier 250* -5.5 6 12,000 2,500 30 2.0 1.7
AF3 Telefunken Variable mu Pentode Receiver Tube Ind. 4 A.C. 0.65   250* -3 100 8 1.2M 1,800 2,200 2.0 0.003
AF3 Valvo
AF3 Tungsram
4H2 Loewe
Variable mu H.F. Tube 250* -55 100 .015 10M 2
AF7 Telefunken Pentode Receiver Tube Ind. 4 A.C. 0.65 H.F. Tube 300* -2 100 3 20M 2,100 4,000 1.0 0.003
AF7 Valvo
AF7 Tungsram
Audio Frequency Amplifier (Resistance Coupling) 0.9
4H1 Loewe Audio Tube
AL4 Telefunken
AL4 Valvo
4EI Loewe
Pentode Ind. 4 A.C. 1.75 Output Pentode 250 -6 250 36 5 50,000 9,500 9 7,000
AZ1 Telefunken
AZ1 Valvo
TAZI Tungsram
A21 Phillips
VG5007 Hoges
Duo-Diode Rectifier Tube 4 1 Full Wave Rectifier Maximum A.C. Input 500 Volts per Plate
300 Volts per Plate
Maximum D.C.Output 60 M A
100 MA
DAF11 Variable mu Pentode Diode 1.2 D.C. 0.05 Variable mu Pentode
Low Frequency Amplifier H.F. Rectifier
150* 0 120 0.29 .9M 0.6 -----
DCH11 Triode Hexode 1.4 D.C. 0.075 Oscillator Convertor
Variable mu
DDD11 Duplex Triode 1.2 D.C. 0.1 Output Tube 120150* -4.5 6 per Plate 14,000
Figure 48.



NUMBER TYPE CATHODE TYPE AND RATING USE AND APPLICATION Plate Voltage *Maximum Grid Voltage *Maximum Screen Voltage *Maximum Plate Current at Plate Voltage Indicated Screen Current at Screen Voltage Indicated Plate Resistance Transconductance Amplification Factor Allowable Plate Dissipation Allowable Screen Dissipation Load Output Maximum Grid-Plate Capacity
DF11 Variable muPentode 1.4D.C. 0.025 H.F. Tube 150* 120 0-3.5 120 1M 10M 700 7 105
G407 Tungsram Refer to RE074
H406D Valvo
RES094 Telefunken
S406 Tungsram
Dir. 4D.C. 0.062 H.F. Tube 200* -2 80 4 4M 700 280 0.02
HL2/0.5 a Ballast Tube
LD 1 Triode H.F. Tube
LD2 Triode (Transmitting) H.F. Tube I.F. Stages
LG 1 Diode H.F. Tube
LS50 Pentode (Transmitting) H.F. Tube 2,100
RE074 Telefunken
G407 Tungsram
H406 Valvo
Triode Receiver Tube Dir. 4 D.C. 0.06 Audio and H.F. Tube Low Frequency Amplifier (Transformer Coupling) 150* -9 3.5 11,000 900 10 4
RE084 Telefunken
LD408 Tungsram
A408 Valvo
Triode Receiver Tube Dir. 4 D.C. 0.08 Audio Tube Low Frequency Amplifier 150* -4 4 10,000 1,500 15 4.5
RE084K Triode Dir. 4 0.08 Audio Tube Low Frequency Amplifier (Transformer Coupling) 120 11,000 1.200 13.5 3
RE134 Telefunken
L414 Tungsram
L413 Valvo
Triode Output Tube Dir. 4 D.C. 0.15 Output Triode 250 -17 12* 12 2,000 3 12,000
REN904 Telefunken
AG495 Tungsram
A4110 Valvo
LA203 Loewe
Triode Receiver Tube Ind. 4 A.C. 1.0 Audio and H.F. Tube Low Frequency Amplifier 150* -9 3.5 11,000 900 10 1.5 2
Figure 48 (Continued).


NUMBER TYPE CATHODE TYPE AND RATING USE AND APPLICATION Plate Voltage *Maximum Grid Voltage *Maximum Screen Voltage *Maximum Plate Current at Plate Voltage Indicated Screen Current at Screen Voltage Indicated Plate Resistance Transconductance Amplification Factor Allowable Plate Dissipation Allowable Screen Dissipation Load Output Maximum Grid-Plate Capacity
RENS1264 Telefunken
AS4120 Tungsram
H4111D Valvo
Screen Tetrode Receiver Ind. 4 A.C. 1.0 Audio and H.F. Tube Low Frequency Amplifier (Resistance Coupling) 200* -2 100 3 45M 2,000 900 1.0 0.006
RES094 Refer to H406D
RES164 Telefunken
PP416 Tungsram
L416D Valvo
LAP513 Loewe
Pentode Dir. 4 D.C. 0.15 Output Tube 250 -11.5 80 12 1.9 60,000 14.000 3 10,000
RGN2004 Telefunken
PV4200 Tungstram
G2004 Valvo
VG3512 Hoges
1561 Philips
VG420 Sator
Duo-Diode Dir. 4 2.0 Full Wave Rectifier Maximum A.C. input 300 Volts Per Plate -- Maximum D.C. Output 160 M.A.
RL2P3 Telefunken Pentode Dir. 19 D.C. 0.28 H.F. Tube Oscillator 200* 150* 75,000 1.000 75 2.0 0.1
RL 2.4P2
RL2T2 Telefunken Triode Dir. 1.9 0.30 150* 5,000 2,400 12 2.0 2.85
RL 2.4T1
RL 12P10
RL 12T15
RL12P35 Telefunken Pentode (Transmitting) 12.6
RS 241V 3.8
RS242 -------
RS337 Telefunken Pentode (Transmitting) 12
Figure 48 (Continued).



NUMBER TYPE CATHODE TYPE AND RATING USE AND APPLICATION Plate Voltage *Maximum Grid Voltage *Maximum Screen Voltage *Maximum Plate Current at Plate Voltage Indicated Screen Current at Screen Voltage Indicated Plate Resistance Transconductance Amplification Factor Allowable Plate Dissipation Allowable Screen Dissipation Load Output Maximum Grid-Plate Capacity
RV2P700 Telefunken Pentode Dir. 1.9 0.09 Audio and H.F. Tube Short Wave Tube 200* 120* 1.2M 900 850 1.0 0.01
RV2P800 Telefunken Pentode Dir. 1 9 0. 18 Audio and H.F. Tube 200* 150* 1M 900 800 1.5 0.01
RV12P2000 Telefunken Pentode Ind. 12 6 0.065 Audio and H.F. Tube Short Wave "Universal" Receiving Output Pentode 220* 140* 1.5M 1,500 2,000 1.0 0.005
RV12P4000 Telefunken Pentode Ind. 12 6 0.2 Audio and H.F. Tube "Universal" Receiving 200* 125* 1.8M 2.300 4,000 15 0.004
STV150/40Z Voltage Regulator
Figure 48 (Continued).



From Consumption Revolutions per minute High voltage Low voltage
Volts Amperes Watts* Volts Amperes Watts Volts Amperes (max) Watts*
Dynamotors U. 1500 3-phase motor 380λ
9,100 2,900 3,000
1000 w. s.
1500 W. S.
U. 100 or U. 100a 12-volt storage battery 12 33/40 3,000 1,000 0.24 240 12 7.3 87.6 100 W. S.
U. 80a 35 420 2,600 800/-300 0.3/0.005 240 80 W. S. a
U. 30 16.5 195 3,200 330 0.35 115 12 3
39.6 30 W. S./24b-120
U. 30b 12 144 4,000 400 0.175 70 30 W. S. a
U. 20a
U. 20a2
U. 20a3
10 120 2,800 370 0.16 60 12 2.75 33 20 W. S. c
20 W. S. d
U. 20alS 20 W. S. b
U. 15a 14.6 175 5,500 320 0.19 60 4.8 2.6 12.5 15 W. S. E. a
15 W. S. E. b
U. 10 and
U. 10al
6.7 80 3,500 350 0.115 40 10 W. S. c
10 W. S. h
U. 5a1 7.5 90 4,000 330 0.140 46 5 1.2 6 5 W. S./24b-104
E. U. a1, a2, a3 2.3 26 4,000 130 0.026 3.4 12 U. Kw. E. d. U. Kw. E. e
S. E. U. a 5.2 62 8.000 300 0.070 21 12 Radiotelephone sets a. d. f
Vibrator units

(Consumption figures include receiver, low-voltage)

E W b 2-volt storage battery 2 1.5 3 100 0.010 1 2 0.75 1.5 Torn. E. b
EWc 12-volt storage battery 12 1 12
EWd 2.5 30 0.014
Lw. E. a
Kw. E. a
E W e 1 12
0.010 1 2.4 0.6 1.44 15 W. S. E.
(Receiver only)
EWf 2.4-volt storage battery 2.4
Footnotes at end of table.
Figure 49.



From Consumption Revolutions per minute High voltage Low voltage
Volts Amperes Watts* Volts Amperes Watts Volts Amperes (max) Watts*
Pedal generators T5 + Foot driven 65 330 0.140 46 5 1.2 6 5 W. S./24b-104.
T15 + SE469A
T20 + 70 26 W. S. c 20 W. S. d
Engine generator sets
(H. G. N. 100)
Heavy engine generator set a. 4-stroke gasoline engine, 4 cyl, 26 hp. Gasoline/oil 1,500 220
3-phase a-c
40 23 15 kva 1,500 and 1,000 watt transmitters and workshop machines.
Light engine generator set C100. 2-stroke gasoline engine, 1 cyl, 1.8 hp. 13/4 pints per hour (oil/gasoline1/25) 3,000 1,000 a-c 0.3 300 12,8 7 90 100 w. s.
Light engine generator set C30 (H. G. N. 20a1). 350 105 15 105 Special sound ranging equipment.
Light engine generator set C20 (H. G. N. 20a).
Engine generator set F (WG3000). 4-stroke gasoline engine, 2 cyl, 9 hp. 1,500 220 a-c 13.6 3,000
Engine generator set (WG570a). 2-stroke gasoline engine, 1 cyl, 1.8 hp. 13/4 pints per hour (oil/gasoline 1/25). 3,000 2.6 572
Charging set C (LG650). 15/50
650 Storage battery charging with charging board C.
Engine generator charging sets Charging set D (LG3000). 2-stroke gasoline engine 1 cyl, 6.5 hp. 51/4 pints per hour (oil/gasoline) 2,000 65 46 3,000 Storage battery charging (storage battery charging vehicle (Kfz.42).
Charging set E (LG800). 2-stroke gasoline engine, 1 cyl, 1.8 hp. 13/4 pints per hour (oil/gasoline1/25) 3,000 15 53 800 Float charging of radio storage battery while set is working (with charging board C).
Engine generator (GG400). 2-stroke gasoline engine, 1 cyl 0.9 hp. 13/4 pints per hour (oil/gasoline1/25) 4,800 12 16 33.5 25 400
Engine generator (GG600). 12
25-50 600
Footnotes at end of table.
Figure 49 (Continued)



From Consumption Revolutions per minute High voltage Low voltage
Volts Amperes Watts* Volts Amperes Watts Volts Amperes (max) Watts*
Hand charging sets HLSa Hand driven ------ 82 4 4 16 Charging 2- and 2.4-volt radio storage batteries
Charging rectifiers (with metal rectification) T 506b+ A-c mains 110/125 155/220 10/9/7/5 12/24 36/48 10 560 Storage battery charging
T200† 3.6/3.2 2.6/1.8 3.5 200
T48† 1/0.9/0.7/0.5 1 48
Transmitter rectifiers (with metal rectification) T 1500† 3-phase a-c mains 220/380 22/12.7 *150 440/1,000/3,000 d-c 2/0.5/0.9 4,100 24 36 864 1000 w. s.
1500 W. S.
T/100† A-c mains 110/125 155/220 8.8/7.8 6.3/4.4 1,000 0.3 300 12 7.5 90 100 w. s.
T5/10/20/30† 3.2/2.8 2.3/1.6 330 0.3 100 5 12 1.2 1.5 6 18 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-watt transmitters
Receiver rectifier N A 6 110/150
100 0.045 4.5 2-2.4 2.5-8 4 Long- and short-wave receivers
Lead-acid storage batteries 12 B 150 Charged by engine generator charging sets or charging rectifiers 12 15 12 15 *120 For vehicle or radio use
12 B 105 10 *105 10 *180
12 B 100 *100 120
12 B 60 6 *60 6 *72
12 B 75 *75
4 B 25 4 3.5 *25 4 3.5 *14 Obsolete radio storage battery
2 B 38 2 8 *38 2 8 *16 For pack wireless sets
2 B 19 2 *19 2 *4 For modulated-light speech equipment
Footnotes at end of table.
Figure 49 (Continued)



From Consumption Revolutions per minute High voltage Low voltage
Volts Amperes Watts* Volts Amperes Watts Volts Amperes (max) Watts*
Nickel-cadmium storage batteries. 4.8 NC 10 Charged by engine generator charging sets or charging rectifiers 4.8 3.5 *10 4.8 2.5 *12 For pack wireless sets, field telephony sets, RDF and intercept sets
4.8 NC 5 1.5 *5 1 *5
2.4 NC 58 2.4 12 *58 12 *30
2.4 NC 28 6 *28 6 *15
2.4 NC 20 2 *20 2 *5
B batteries 90-volt
DIN/VDE 1600 30-volt
90 0.021 2 Pack wireless sets and receivers
30 0.5 Long and medium wave RDF sets
Field cells Wet cell
EL 1.5 KZF 30
1.5 0.3 *0.5 Field telephones and switchboards
*For watts column, items marked with an asterisk (*) indicate ampere hours, and are for batteries only. † Letter T designates German word "TRAGFAHIGKEIT," meaning carrying capacity.
Figure 49 (Continued)



This is the standard tank equipment.
Equipment No. Designation of sets Frequency range (kilocycles) Aerial Range
Kilometers (Miles)
Key Voice
Fu. 1 Pack receiver "b" (Torn.E.b.) 100-6970 Receiver only.
Fu. 2 Ultra short wave receiver "e" (Ukw.E.e) 27200-33300 Receiver only.
Fu. 3 Ultra short wave receiver "dl" (UKw.E.dl) 42100-47800 Receiver only.
Fu. 4 Medium wave receiver "c" (MW.E.C) 835-3000 Receiver only.
Fu. 5 10 watt transmitter (10 W.S.c.) 27200-33300 2-Meter Rod (Stationary) 6(3.7) 4(2.5)
Ultra short wave receiver "e" (UKw.E.e) (On the move) 4(2.5) 2(1.3)
Fu. 6 20 Watt transmitter (20 W.S.c) 27200-33300 2-Meter Rod (Stationary) 10(6.2) 8(5)
Ultra short wave receiver "e" (UKw.E.e) (On the move) 8(5) 6(3.7) This equipment may sometimes be found in Commander's tanks in stead of Fu. 5, where extra range is required. The 20-watt transmitter "c" is no longer issued.
Fu. 7 20 watt transmitter (20 W.S.d) 2-Meter Rod 50(31) 50(31) This is standard ground-air cooperation equipment.
Ultra short wave receiver "dl" (UKw.E.dl) 42100-47800
Fu. 8 30 watt transmitter "a" (30 W.S.a) 1120-3000 Roof aerial (Stationary) 50(31) 15(9.3) With 8-meter winch mast and star aerial the range increased to approximately 93 miles (key), 31 miles (voice).
(On the move) 40 (24.8) 10 (6.2)
Medium wave receiver "c"
Fu. 11 100 watt transmitter (100 W.S.) 200-1200 Roof aerial (Stationary) 80(49.6) 20(12.4) With 9-meter winch mast and umbrella aerial range can be increased to approximately 124 miles (key), 43 miles (voice).
(On the move) 50(31) 10(6.2)
Pack receiver "b" (Torn.E.b) 100-6970
Fu. 12 80 watt transmitter (80 W.S.a) 1120-3000 Roof aerial (Stationary) 80(49.6) 25 (15.5) With 8-meter winch mast and star aerial range is approximately 124 miles (key), 43 miles (voice)
Medium wave receiver "c" (Mw.E.c) 835-3000
Fu. 13 20 watt transmitter (20 W.S.c) 27200-33300 2-Meter Rod (Stationary) 10(6.2) 8(5) Fu. 13 is the same as Fu 6. extra receiver "c". See remarks under Fu. 6.
(On the move) 8(5)
Fu. 15 Ultra short wave receiver "h" (UKw.E.h) 23000-24950 Receiver only.
Fu. 16 10 watt transmitter "h" (10 W.S.h) 2-Meter Rod 4(2.5) 2(1.3) This equipment is similar to Fu. 5 with different frequency range.
Ultra short wave receiver "h" (UKw.E.h) 23000-24950
Fu. 17 Pack set (transmitter/receiver) "h" (Torn. Fu. h) 23000-24950 Rod 6(3.7) 21/2(1.5) Voice only portable set, not fitted in the vehicle.
Fu. 19 15 watt transmitter/receiver "a" (15 W.S.E.a) 3000-7500 Roof aerial Range given as 19 miles (key), 16 miles (voice), but these figures probably only hold good when using rod aerial fixed at top of high mast (7 meters) (stationary).
Fu.Spr.f. Transmitter/receiver Fusprech. "f" 19997.5-21472.5 1.4 or 2 Meter Rod (Stationary) -- 5(3.1) Voice only. Equipment includes loud speaker.
(On the move) 2(1.3)
Figure 50.



Field Telephone 33 8.5"x11x4"--12 lbs This general purpose telephone for local battery operation only, with magneto system for calling, is equipped with magneto system. Provision is made for extra plug in headphones and testing of line and bell circuits, and two jacks connected in parallel with line circuit for connection as exchange. It can be connected to a post office exchange by a special adaptor. The power supply is 1.5 volts; either inert or dry cells may be used. The instrument case is a bakelite moulding approximately 0.2 inch thick. The lid has a self locking fastener which is pressed to open. The shoulder strap has a hook on it from which the telephone head set can be hung if required operation of the instrument is conventional.
The German Wall Telephone for Field Emplacements. 15"x71/4"x51/2" A telephone of extremely sturdy construction and used apparently where moisture and vibration are excessive. These telephones are local battery operated, mounted on concrete walls, and interconnected through ducts.

The telephone is of heavy waterproof construction and the handset is connected to the main assembly by a heavy rubber-covered waterproof cord. The receiver is covered with a rubber earpiece. Both the main assembly case and the handset frame cover plate is fastened by means of 4 bolts with triangular shaped heads recessed in each corner of the face. This case plate is attached to the body by chains to prevent its falling off when loosened.

The ringing generator of this set is the same type as that employed in the field telephone 33; may be employed by Allied troops in locations where its qualities are desirable.
Endverstarker (f. Feldfernsprecher 33) (Terminal Amplifier for Field Telephone 33) 9"x73/4"x41/4" A.C. Set
81/2"x61/2"x31/2" Battery Set
AC powered unit: This is an audio-frequency amplifier employing one triode tube, type RE 084. The receiver circuit of the field telephone 33 is opened and the incoming signal is fed to the grid of the amplifier. The amplified signal is returned to the earphone receiver. Power is supplied through a transformer, having high and low voltage windings for plate and filament supplies. The plate supply is rectified (half-wave) by rectifier GLo and the filament supply by a full wave rectifier GL1.

Battery operated unit: The principle of operation is very nearly the same.

This piece of equipment is an audio-frequency amplifier to increase the range operation of field telephone 33. They may be either powered by AC or by batteries. These sets are employed in place of, or in conjunction with field repeaters. When using the AC set, the handset of the field telephone 33 is used, but with the battery set there is already one provided.
Line Intercept Receiver LE. 35. 171/2"x 131/2"x11"--78 lbs. Provision for tapping to several telephone or telegraph lines and monitoring any one required. No Contact need be made as a loop brought to within a foot of the line may be sufficient. The equipment can be used to pick up earth currents between two earthed lines.

The amplifier consists of a three-stage resistance capacity coupled circuit using three pentodes, all RV2 P800's. The amplifier has a gain of 72 db.

Three fillers are incorporated in the set:

  1. Storsieb: a special filter for alternating the odd harmonics of 50 cycles where main interference reduces intelligibility.
  2. A band-pass filter normally in circuit.
  3. Additional filter sections which reduce the band filter to 400 c/s-2200 c/s.
A portable line intercept amplifier, complete with batteries; may be either manpack or vehicle.
10-Line Exchange 8"x14"x6"--20 lbs. The exchange will take up to 10 single or double line circuits. In case of mixed circuits (double and single lines to exchange) where the double lines are numerically superior, the single wire circuits should be connected via a cordless transformer, or vice versa if single lines preponderate.

Subscribers lines may be connected either direct to the terminals 1 a.b. to 10 a.b. on top of the exchange or through a connection rack; or via 30-way plug and line system to a line terminal unit.

The exchange is roughly comparable with the British 10-line U.C. switchboard, although it is smaller and more compact.
Figure 51.



German 10 Line Cordless Exchange (Exact German Nomenclature unknown) 91/2"x171/2"x71/2"-- This set was designed for common battery operation, the line terminals being marked negative and positive, but may be used for local battery operation.

It accommodates 9 lines besides operator's phone and can handle only two conversations at one time. Provision for night alarm circuit has also been made.

Toggle switches for cross connection of the subscribers are utilized in conjunction with line drops which are located about the keys. May be paralleled with similar type of exchange.

Is well made, easy to use and maintain, but has the disadvantage of being unable to accommodate more than two calls at one time, though ideal for conference calls.
Small telephone exchange Box (Vermittlungskästchen) 4"x4"x11/2" One line switchboard unit with an attachable visual indicator used with other such units to serve from two to ten or more telephone subscribers. The set is well built and sturdy. Its simplicity and portability are outstanding characteristics.
The small fortress switchboard OB 36 (Kleine Festungsvermittlung) 48"x39"x8"-- The switchboard is extremely heavy and housed in a cast iron box; brackets are provided at the back of the box for fastening the switchboard on a wall. Can accommodate 30 lines and 12 interconnections are possible.

Provision has been made for connecting ten of the 30 lines on the OB 36 to common battery trunks. (Lines 21 to 30 being fitted with a 4 mfd condenser).

Because of its weight and size obviously could only be used in fixed installations. Is very similar to the OB 37 with the exception of two principle differences in circuit.
Large Field Switchboard for 60 lines This is made up of three types of standard sections combined in multiple until desired size is reached. Is designed for local battery operation with ground return or metallic circuit. By adding a commercial adapter, connections may be established with civil exchanges using C.B. or automatic dial system. Is made up of 4 sections: (1) assembly "A" including plug cord holders and conference jack panel, (2) answering jack panel unit (ten jacks), (3) conference call panel, (4) adapter for use with automatic dial exchange. With the use of multiple jack field this board can be built up to 300 lines. Knowing this, whether the term 60-line switchboard is applicable as a separate piece of equipment is a matter for further consideration.
Figure 51 (Continued).



10-300 Line Switchboard Operating Unit
   91/2"x13"x211/2"--52 lbs.
10 Line Unit
   41/2"x13"x7" --11 lbs.
50 Line Unit
   151/2"x13"x7" --37 lbs.
100 Line Unit
   151/2"x13"x7" --31 lbs.
150 Line Unit
   151/2"x13"x7" --27 lbs.
Bunching Unit
   21/2"x13"x7" -- 5 lbs.
Dialing Unit
   7"x13"x7" --12 lbs.
Superimposing Unit
   71/2"x13"x7" --21 lbs.
The apparatus consists of several units built up to form the whole exchange: the operating unit, 10-line answering unit, 50-line answering unit, 100-line multiple unit, 150-line multiple unit, 10-jack bunching unit, dialing unit, and superimposing unit.

Line connections are made at the rear of each unit by a 30-way connector with a 30-pin plug at each end.

The drop-flap indicators are automatically restored when the associated jack has a plug inserted. A night alarm is also provided.

Very neat, light and compact, probably used in line of communication formations.
Teleprinter Terminal Unit Incorporating Single Channel V.F. Equipment. (Springschreibanscklussgerat) 24"x21"x91/2"--93 lbs. The terminal unit and teleprinter are operated from 110-220 volts AC (total consumption 150 watts). Provides for single and double current working (simplex or duplex) and remote control operation. (VF working.) Intercommunication between teleprinter and similar equipment over a line or radio link. Used in line of communication companies.
Teleprinter Terminal Unit Incorporating Single Channel V. F. Equipment. (Springschreibanschlussgerat) 24"x21"x91/2"--96 lbs. This is for simple working only and operates on the same type of power supply as above. Both types can be worked with American and British teleprinter with the inclusion of their respective T.T. Units. For line of communication purposes.
Telewriter Tbs/24a-32 171/2"x151/2"x91/2"-57 lbs. Sends figures 1 to 9 and 0, the characters+, -, /, ?. and the 26 letters of the alphabet. Works directly into a telephone line. Field telephone can be plugged in for speech working. A 900-cycles filter can be switched in to reduce interference. When the interference is too great, 900/c/s morse code can be sent and received on headphones. 12-pt socket on panel is for connection to radio set through an intermediate unit. Tube system 900 c/s sender oscillator--Rec amplifier--Rec rectifier speed control. All tubes are type RV12P400.

Power supply 12-volt storage battery to motor, coupled to dynamo for H.T. for tube.

The mechanism of the set is simple but precision made, and the keyboard is continental type.
Telewriter Tbs/T 36 L.O. (Tape Teleprinter) Fernschreiber</td> 20"x161/2"x12"--631/2 lbs. The receiving and transmitting mechanisms are similar to those in the American Teletype machine described in detail in the Teletype Manual No. 11.

All cables are permanently attached to the teleprinter. Schematic and wiring diagrams will be found mounted on the meter base plate.

Associated equipment T.T.U., e.g. (Springsckreibarschussgerat).
Speech Scrambler 9K III b. 17"x13"x9" (approx.) --70 lbs. These are used to provide two-way security on a wire or radio-telephone circuit. It is powered by a 2-volt storage battery and one, 90-volt dry battery. The set is compactly built and is very sturdy in construction. The individual circuit components are separated according to their functions and completely screened. 3RV2P800 are used. Two of these are used as audio amplifiers, one on each side of the two-way circuit. The other is used as a 2000-cycle audio-oscillator. If not required the scrambler circuit may be switched on and the input and output circuits directly connected. Use for security purposes over telephone lines. Is portable and can be carried by 1 man.
Figure 52.



Tonschreiber Models b and b1 Both models with the exception of one employing a synchronous speed control system are identical. They are divided physically into two sub units known respectively as the Lanfwerke and the Verstarker. It offers the facility of recording an audio signal on a magnetic ribbon. During the recording process, the quality and ware of the signal impressed on the tape may be monitored. Provision has also been made for playback and for rewinding and wiping the tape used. This recording tape is made of paper; one side of it has been covered with a coating of material having high magnetic properties.

The apparatus was designed to be supplied from AC mains. DC cannot be used. While the voltage may vary from 110 to 250 volts the permissible frequency variation is not known.

High speed recording apparatus.

The Germans have designed and manufactured a series of magnetic tape recorders. There are in existence 2 other models known; they are: the Tonschreiber c which is a spring-driven recorder for rough field use; and the AEG Type K4, which is a studio type device.

German Teleprinter SWBD (T39) Vetmitttungssckrank 21"x181/2"x83/4"--50 lbs. This teletypewriter switchboard is housed in a metal cabinet with folding tubular legs. It has four pairs of cords for handling simultaneous complete circuits and provisions for terminating one to ten teletypewriters. The construction is rugged and will withstand considerable abuse, although it is not moisture proof; the wiring is neat and sturdy. The answering and calling cords are each coiled on an individual wound reel. This method of storing excess cord lengths is same as that employed on the German 20-line, local battery telephone switchboard. Line of communication companies.
German SWBD. 20 line.
German Relaiskasten T39. Teletype Repeater.
Leitungsabschlusskasten (Line Terminal Equipment)
Figure 52 (Continued)



RANGE (mcs)
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  3. Crystal
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  1. 3-5
  2. 3-6.7
C.W. 25
R/T 10
  1. MO-PA
  2. RV2 P800-RL2P3
  3. RF-M-LO-IF-DET-AF 6RV2 P800
  1. 2-volt storage battery
  2. 130-volt H.T. dry battery.
12-ft. (max.) rod or 50-ft. horizontal wire and counterpoise. 18"x151/2"x8" --43 lbs. Short range communication by all arms except infantry. This set is identical with the Torn. Fu. f. except for frequency range of sender.
Transceiver Torn.Fu.a2.
  1. 33.8-38
  2. 33.8-38
  1. MO-B-PA-MOD to PA grid 2.RV2P8000.-RL2T2 (Mod is rec. AF Tube).
  2. RF-M-LO-IF-REAC: DET-AF 6RV2 P800
  1. 2-volt storage battery and 130-volt H.T. dry battery.
6-ft. rod (sectional) or wire on masts. 141/2"x121/2"x41/2" --37 lbs. Communication from infantry regt. (brigade) to battalion, and from battalion to corps.
Transceiver Torn.Fu.f.
  1. 4.5-6.7
Same as for Communications from field artillery troops to their observation posts.
Transceiver SE 469A.
  1. 3-5
R/T :20
  1. MO-PA (2 tubes in parallel) RS242-RE084.
  2. RF-Fc-2,IF-DET-AF 4,RES094-,2 RE084.
Pedal generator, or 12-volt storage battery and dynamotor. (6-volt battery and 150-volt H.T. battery for receiver only). Inverted L, 40-ft. long, 10-ft high with two 20-ft. counterpoise cables. 191/2"x16"x81/2"--44 lbs. For fire control in artillery units.
Transceiver Feldfu.b.
  1. 90-110
  2. 90-110
R/T: 3/4
  1. MO-PA
  2. RF-DET-AF (Super-regenerative).
  3. RV2.4 P700-RL2.4T1-RL2. 4P2.
  1. Storage battery type 2.4
  2. NC28 driving an internal vibrato pack.
32"-vertical rod; later models have laminated steel tape. 14"x131/2"x7"--28 lbs. Short range patrol set, used by infantry in forward areas. This set is a modern packset. The tubes used are of small dimensions and the whole set is compactly constructed. The Feldfu c. is a similar set covering a different frequency range. They are distinguished by a color code, the "b" having red markings and the "c" green.
Figure 53.



RANGE (mcs)
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  3. Crystal
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  1. Send
  2. Receive
Transceiver Fusprech a.
  1. 24.1-25
R/T -2
  1. MO (Rec osc) -PA (Rec output (Grid MOD (Rec 1st AF) to PA.
  2. b: M-OSC-2,IF-DET-2,AF-
  1. 12-volt storage battery to
  2. dynamotor SEUa. 12 volts @ .5 amps.
61/2-ft. rod connected via feeder. 11"x8" x6"--15 lbs. Inter-communication between armored reconnaissance cars
Transceiver SEG2T
  1. 454-508
R/T 125.
  1. MO-Anode Modulator DS310 (acorn) RL2T2.
  2. Quench-DET-AF RL2T2-DS310 (acorn) RV2P800.
40-60 m/W.
  1. 2-volt storage battery, and two 90-volt H.T. dry batteries, tapped at 9, 60, 90, 130, and 180 volts.
Saw tooth reflective aerial. 131/2"x81/4"x81/4" --24 lbs. For quasi optical point to point working. Not known which troops use it.
Transceiver Torn.Fu.g.
  1. 2.5-3.5
  2. 2.5-3.5
C.W: 15
R/T: 8
  1. MO-PA. 2,RL24P3.
  2. RF-FC-IF-DET-AF 5,RV2,4P700
  1. 2.4-volt storage battery and built in vibrator.
On move whip aerial 5-ft. long with loading coil at base. 15"x13"x7" As a pack set on the move or as a ground station. This set is provided with "Break" in working.
Transceiver Feldfu.f.
  1. 28-33
  2. 28-33
Same as for Feldfu b. 4-ft. rod. By troops supporting armored fighting vehicles. Main features distinguishing this set from the Feldfu.b. are: (1) tuning is continuous, not in fixed channels; (2) aerial base is tilted so that aerial is 40° out of vertical; (3) a large white spot.
  1. 120-156
  2. 120-156
R/T 11 .15 watts
  1. 2-volt storage battery, type 2B19.
  2. and 90-volt H.T. battery
Rod: short, 2 ft.; long, 6 ft. 14"x13"x43/4"--261/2 lbs. By infantry. The name of this set is also abbreviated to Fusp al.
Transceiver Fusprech.f.
  1. 19.9975-21.4725.
R/T: 2 Same as for Fusprech.a. 4'7"-vertical rod. Intercommunication between self-propelled guns. This set is practically identical with the Fusprech.a. except that the Fusprech.a. has a receiver fire control.
Transceiver Fusprech.d.
  1. 23.11-24.01
Transceiver Torn.Fu.c.
    b. 1.5-2.3
    b. 1.5-2.3
C.W.: 15
R/T: 7
Same as for and Fu.f. For artillery observation.
Figure 53 (Continued).



RANGE (mcs)
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  3. Crystal
  1. Send
  2. Receive
  1. Send
  2. Receive
Transceiver S.E.a.2/24b-202.
  1. 3-6.67
  2. 3-6.67
M.C.W.: 15
R/T.: 5
  1. MO-PA.
  2. (3.RE084K-.2RE134,-1.4406D or 1.RES094.)
  1. 2-volt storage battery (NC-10).
  2. Two 90-volt dry batteries.
Rod or wire. 18"x14"x8"--35 lbs. Used in defensive positions. This is an old Lorenz commercial set designed before the war.
Tansmitter-Receiver 15. W.S.E.a.
  1. 3-7.5
  2. (2 Bands).
  1. 3,RL4.8P15-1,RV2.4P700
  2. 8.RV2.4P700.
  1. Pedal generator type
  2. 15A and rectifier with storage battery 2.4NC58: 12-volt storage battery in vehicle with convertor type 15A and rectifier.
High rod antennae with counterpoise or vehicle roof antennae. 391/2 lbs. From artillery division down to lower formations.
  1. 500-600
  2. 500-600
  1. 220 volts AC supply or
  2. 220-volt, 50-cycle, gasoline driven alternator.
Two broad-band directional arrays, 1 for Xsmtter, 1 for Rec. DMG4K. 3 rows of dipoles. Rack--
  • 46" x201/2"x121/2" Base--
  • 251/2"x26"x20" Cases for antennae
  • 66x51x10. Total
  • weight 900 lbs.
  • These sets are used for multichannel communication over limited distances.
    Tansceiver Form.Fu.G.k.
    1. 4.5-6.7
    2. 3-6.7
    1. C.W.:15
      R/T: 7
    2. (C.W.M.C.W. R/T.)
    1. MO-PA (2 tubes in parallel)
    2. RF-M-LO-IF-DET-AF 6,RV2.4P700 (IF amplifier used for transmitter modulation).
    1. Two nickel iron 2.4-volt
    2. storage batteries (type N.C.58a) and vibrator-power pack SEWg.
    12 -ft. vertical rod or horizontal 33-ft. wire. 17.2"x131/2" x71/2"--45.5 lbs. Is replacing in artillery units. Very similar to Fu. bl. except for frequency range and transmitter conconstruction.
    Transmitter 120.
    1. 42.1-54
    120 70-ft. mast with vertical stub aerial on top. Army corps and Hq.
    Transmitter AS-59.
    1. MO-B-PA (Push-Pull) RLT15-RS391-2.RS391.
    25"x21" xl83/4"--100 lbs. Not known.
    Tansceiver PH1.1.UK43
    1. 37.5-462.2
    1. 2.K.D.D.-2,DF25.
    1. Three 4.5 volt batteries in parallel.
    2. One 150-volt H.T. batteries.
      .3 amps. @ 4.5 volt.
      40 m/a @ 150 volt.
    1/4 wave pole (1.75 meters)
    1/2 wave pole (2.40 meters)
    113/4"x153/4"x14" (approx.) 33 lbs. Not known.
    Figure 53 (Continued).



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Transmitter 5WS/24b-104
    1. .95-3.15
    R/T: 10
    1. MO-PA 2, RS 241
    1. Pedal generator. Storage battery and dynamotor U.S.A.L., or gasoline motor generator. 3.8 Volts @ 1.2 amps. 300-330 volt @ .14 amps.
    Horizontal wire, vehicular rod. Counterpoise 50 ft. long. 18"x141/8"x75/8"--52 lbs. Regimental and Divisional nets may be employed for vehicular or ground use. A general medium frequency low power transmitter.
    Transmitter 10W.S.c.
    1. 27.2-33.3
    1. MO-MOD-PA RL 12, P.55-RV 12, P.4000-RV 12.P. 35.
    6.5 (10 Max.)
    1. 12-volt storage battery and dynamo U-10AL 12 volts @ 2 amps. 350 volts @ 100 m/a.
    61/2-ft. rod on move. Mast sections and gear provided for ground use. 71/2"x121/2"x7"--22 lbs. Armored vehicles. Generally tank units. Usually in Commander's tank. This is similar to the 10W.S.b. but for calibration and frequency range 10W.5.6. frequency range is 23-24.95 mcs.
    Transmitter 8W.S.
    1. 1-3
    C.W. R/T
    1. MO-PA 2, R1 12 T15
    8 (Can be reduced to1/4 power)
    1. Pedal generator, engine generator or 12 volt storage battery and dynamo-tor. 12 volts @ 1.25 amps. 350 volts @ 75 m/a.
    66-ft. "L" type or 33-ft. T type. 20"x12"x11"--481/2 lbs. Regimental command and reconnaissance nets.
    Transmitter 20W.S.C.
    1. 27.2-33.3
    M.C.W. -3
    R/T -2
    1. MO-D-MOD-PA; (PA-Push pull) 5, RL 12 T15
    1. 12-volt storage battery and dynamotor U-20A, U-20A2 or U-20A3. 12 volts @ 2.75 amps. 370 volts @ 130 m/a.
    41/2-ft.--61/2-ft. whip type. 19"x81/2"x10"--30 lbs. Tank formations generally. A similar set is the 20W.SA. but which has a frequency range of 42.1-47.8.
    Transmitter 20W.S.b.
    1. 25-27
    R/T 20
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamotor U-20A3.
    8-ft. vertical rod via feeder. 191/4"x83/4"x91/4"--35 lbs. By sound ranges in artillery units. Very similar to 20.W.S.c. except for modulator control and indicator.
    Transmitter AKS 25.
    1. 3-6
    C.W.: 50
    R/T: 15
    1. MO-D-MOD-PA; (PA-Push pull). 5 RL 12 TI5.
    1. Engine driven or pedal driven generator. 12.5 volts @ 2.5 amps. 350 volts @ 250 m/a.
    33-ft. wire on one 33-ft. mast with 4-33-ft. counterpoise. 171/2"x12"x141/2"--60 lbs. In infantry divisions and artillery regiments.
    Transmitter 30W.S.a.
    1. 1.1-3.01 (3 Bands)
    C.W.: 50
    R/T: 16
    1. MO-MOD-PA (2 tubes in parallel) (Mod: 2 tubes in parallel) 2 RL 12, P 35-2, RV 12 P.20001.RL12TI5.
    1. 12 volt storage battery to dynamotor U-30 b.
    Vehicular rod or roof antennae. Open wire antennae. 19"x93/4"x91/4"--42 lbs. Small signal units and signal troops in armored corps. Medium powered field transmitter. This set is identical with the 80W.S.a. as regards its circuit.
    Figure 54.



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Transmitter 30W.S./24b-120
    1. .95-1.68
    R/T: 10
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamotor U-30A.
    19"x113/4"x11"--56 lbs. Armored cars and other, vehicles and reconnaissance nets of division troops.
    Transmitter 70W.S.
    1. 3-16.667
    C.W. 36 70
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamo U-30A.
    Rod, or 25-40-ft. single wire. 211/4"x113/4"x19 1/3"--78 lbs. Used by all reconnaissance units within command nets.
    Transmitter 80W.S.a.
    1. 1.12-3.0 (3 Bands)
    C.W. 125
    R/T 45
    1. MO-MOD-PA (PA-2, tubes in parallel) MOD 2, tubes in parallel (3RL 12. P.36, 2 RV 12 P2000.)
    80 (or 10)
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamo U-80A.
    8-meter vertical mast vehicular rod or roof aerial. 181/2"x113/24"x10"--48 lbs. In tank division to tank brigade sets.
    Transmitter 100W.S.
    1. 0.2-1.2
    R/T: 70
    1. MO-MOD-PA RS-237-RS 241-RS 237.
    (or 10)
    1. Storage battery to dynamotor U-100 or U-100A 12 volts @ 30.8 amps. Field gasoline division D-C generator.
    12 volts @ 7.3 amps.
    1000 volts @ 240-300 m/a.
    1-33-ft. mast with 4-spoke antennae(medium frequency) or one 20-ft. sectional mast with 3-spoke umbrella (higher frequency) 181/2"x18"x10"--76 lbs. Administrative control set for large areas. Can be used in vehicle or as a fixed station. A commercial design adapted for military use. Provision made for local or remote control and picture transmitter. High-low power switch for C.W.
    Transmitter 1000W.S.b.
    1. 1.090-6.7 (4 Bands)
    C.W. -700
    1. MO-B-PA MO and Buffer RS 282.
    PA. RS 329G Keying Section 2, RS 282 and 3 RGN 2004 Amp. Section 2, RS282 and 3RE 084K.
    1. Dynamotor U-1000 to AC line, or M.G. gas engine set.
    (2) Two 80-ft. masts supporting single wire antennae 83-ft. for medium frequency and 33-ft. long for high frequency. 5'2"x3'4"x6'3/4"--1630 lbs. Army and corps staffs, also used for liaison as ground set to Luftwaffe.
    Figure 54 (Continued).



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Transmitter 1500W.S.a.
    1. 0.1-66 (4 Bands)
    C.W.: 725
    1. As for 1000 W.S. b. Except that P.A. tubes are RS 239.
    1. Dynamotor to V-1500 AC line or M.G. gas engine set.
    80-ft. mast with 6- or 12-ft. spoke "umbrellas." 5'2"x3'3"x6'3/4"--1430 lbs. For communication between corps ground headquarters, and army staff. A 3-stage transmitter for installation in motor cars and fixed stations. It is divided into several components for speedy removal assembly and replacement.
    Transmitter 60W (Jamming)
    1. 18.75-61.25
    Freq. Mod.
    1. MO/D-PA (Freq. Mod.) 3, PE 06/40-(EL 2)
    60 AC single phase, 50 cycle, 110 volts. 20"x121/2"x121/2" A special type of transmitter designed for jamming.
    Transmitter 600H. (S.W. Jamming)
    1. (a) 1775-17.85
      (b) 15.1-15.35
      (c) 11.7-11.9
      (d) 9.5-9.7
      (e) 7.2-7.3
      (f) 6.-6.2
    Freq. Mod.
    1. MO/D-(Freq. MOD/PA) 2, PE 06/40-PB 3/1000
    1. AC three phase, 50 cycle, 180/200 volts.
    75"x27" x27"--880 lbs. This special S.W. jamming apparatus is made in 6 models corresponding to the 6 models as shown in column 2. Each band has a variable frequency.
    Figure 54 (Continued).



    Nomenclature or Designation No. of Channels Frequency Range Kcs. Carrier Frequencies Kc. Ringing Frequency Max. Line Attenuation, db. and Nepers 2mm C. Open Wire Ranges (Km. and Miles) 3 mm Cu Open Wire Field Cable (FFK)
    T.f. a 1 3.4-8.2 5.8 500/20 4.0 np. 400 Km. 520 Km. 25-60 Km.
    34.76 db. 250 Miles 325 Miles 16-37 Miles
    T.f. b1. 1 3.5-7.5 5.5 500 3.6 np. 400 Km. 500 Km. 25-50 Km.
    31.28 db. 250 Miles 325 Miles 16-31 Miles
    T.f. b2. 1 9.0-13.0 11.0 500 3.6 np. 320 Km. 400 Km. 15-30 Km.
    31.28 db. 200 Miles 250 Miles 9-19 Miles
    T.f. b3. 1 16.5-20.5 18.5 500 3.6 np. 220 Km. 280 Km.
    31.28 db. 137 Miles 175 Miles
    T.f. b4. 1 22.0-26.0 24.0 500 3.6 np. 160 Km. 200 Km.
    31.28 db. 100 Miles 125 Miles
    E. 1. Same as for T.f. a.
    E. 2. 1 3.4-8.2 5.8 500/20 2.0 np. 230 Km. 290 Km. 10-30 Km.
    17.38 db. 144 Miles 181 Miles 6-19 Miles
    E. 3. 1 3.7-10.0 6.4; 10.3. 500 3.75 np 350 Km. 450 Km. 18-45 Km.
    32.49 db. 219 Miles 281 Miles 11-28 Miles
    T. 1. 3 6.6-28.2 6.3; 9.4; 12.9 500/20 4.0 np. 270 Km. 350 Km.
    20.7; 24.4; 28.5 34.76 db. 169 Miles 219 Miles
    T. 3 3 8.8-30.4 7.7; 10.9; 14.3 500/20 4.0 np. 270 Km. 350 Km.
    19.8; 23.7; 27.7 34.76 db. 169 Miles 219 Miles
    T.f.R. (Rundf)
    1 34.0-42.8 42.8
    MEK 8 6.0-60.0 6:9:12:15:18 4.0 np. 250 Km.
    21:27:36:39: 34.76 db. 156 Miles
    LINE EQUIPMENT--German Carrier Equipment (Army and Commercial)

    The German carrier equipment, both commercial and army is listed above. It is similar to the American in design, channel frequencies, and use.

    Within the German army the most common are apparently more recent additions. sets for field use are the Tragerfrequenzgerat a (Tf.a.) and the Tragerfrequenzgerat b (T.f.b), including b1, b2, b3, and b4. Other sets n use by the Germans are: Mehrfach (MEK) MG, MK, T1, T3, E1, E2, and E3; the MG and MEK carrier systems are apparently more recent additions.

    The "L" and "U"carrier systems for cable, are used by the German PO. The "L" system is installed on lightly loaded cable, and the "U" or non-loaded cable. The German broadcasting carrier system is the Tragerfrequenzgerat Rundfunk (TfR)--"Carries Broadcasting.".

    Differentiation is made with multiple Tf (carrier) systems between single channel systems (transmission channels for EW and WE traffic lie directly next to one another, as in the case of sets T.f.a. and T.f.b.) and group systems (the channels for each carrier direction are adjacent and they form therefore, two separate groups, e.g. sets MEDK and MG).

    Abbreviations and Nomenclature:--

    1. Carries Equipment:--

      1. T.f. (a or b), Tragerfrequenzgerat, Carrier Frequency Set.
      2. MEK., Mehrfach-Einzelkanal, Multiple Channel.
      3. T.f.R., Tragerfrequenz Rundfunk, Carrier Frequency Broadcasting.
      4. E (1, 2, 3); T (1, 3); MG; M (1-7); MK EK; L; U:--Meanings not known.

        On the chart above, kilometers are converted to miles and nepers (standard German power level unit) to decibels.

          1 neper equals.     8.6858 decibels.
          1 decibel equals.     0.11513 nepers

        Figure 55.



    Nomenclature or Designation No. of Channels Frequency Range Kcs. Carrier Frequencies Kc. Ringing Frequency Max. Line Attenuation, db. and Nepers 2mm C. Open Wire Ranges (Km. and Miles) 3 mm Cu Open Wire Field Cable (FFK)
    MG 15. 48-156 500/20 4 0 np. 34.76 db. 100 Km. 62 Miles
    M 1 3 5.8-38.4
    M 2 (M3) 4 5.2-39.7
    M 4 (MS) 3 12.2-29.7
    M 6 (M7) 4 8.7-43.7
    MK (K 1) 5 57.6-142.4 60:68:76:84:92:
    4.0 np. 34.76 db.
    MK (K 2) 5 53.6-138.4 56:64:72:80:88
    4.0 np. 34.76 db.
    MEF 5 10.3-57.6 10:20:30:40:50 15:25:35:45:55
    EK 1 41.5-54.5 44:52.
    (12 Kanal)
    12 49.3-154.4
    1 3.3-5.8 6
    12 12.3-60.0
    Figure 55 (Continued).



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Receiver Fu.HE.c.
    1. 3.0-25.8 (4 bands)
    1. 2.RF- M-LO-3, IF-DET-OBFO-AF 10, RV 2P800
    1. 2-volt storage battery and 90-volt H.T. dry battery.
      2-volts @ 1.7 amps.
      90-volts @ 12 m/a.
    18"x14"x10"--56 lbs. Intercept service. Monitoring for security. It is very difficult to service. Is one of a series of four intercept receivers.
    Receiver K.w.E.a.
    1. .98-10.2
    C.W. R/T
    1. 2RF-M-LO-3,
      1F-DET-BFO-AVC-AF. 11, RV 2P800
    1. 2-volt storage battery and 90-volt H.T. dry battery, or Convertor unit EU.d. or main unit NA6.
    27"x101/2"x131/2"--91 lbs. For stationary or semi-mobile services. All arms.
    Receiver UKw.E.f.
    1. 42-48
    M.C.W. R/T
    1. RF-FC-IF-DET-AF. 5, RV2-4P700
    1. 2.4-volt storage battery for internal H.T. vibrator.
    61/2-ft. vertical rod when used as pack set. 14"x121/2"x61/2"--17 lbs. The associated sender is the 20 W.S.d. When used alone the aerial base and rod are mounted on top of the case.
    Receiver Torm Eb.
    1. .096-7.095 (8 bands)
    1. 2, RF-DET-AF. 4, RV 2P800
    1. 2-volt storage battery and 90-volt H.T. battery, or 12-volt storage battery and vibrator unit E.W.c.
      2-volts @ 0.75 amps.
      12-volts @ 1 amp.
    91/2"x141/4"x83/4"--29 lbs. General purpose receiver.
    Receiver L.M.W. H.E./24b-316
    1. .075-3.333 (5 bands)
    1. RF-M-LO-IF-DET-AF. (RF-M-IF-RES 094) (LO-DET-AF RE 084K)
    1. 4.8-volt storage battery; four 30-volt or 90-volt plus one 30-volt H.T. batteries. 4.8-volt @ .45 amps. 100 volt @ 18 m/a.
    Open wire and counterpoise. 181/2"x151/2"x9"--44 lbs. Intercept receiver. This set is an old design and is being replaced by intercept receivers Fu.H.E.a. and b.
    Receiver Fu.H.E.d.
    1. 25-60 (4 bands)
    1. 2, RF-M-LO-3, IF-DET-BFO-2,AF All RV2 P800
    1. 2-volt storage battery and 90-volt H.T. dry battery. (2.4-volt storage battery may be used after internal adjustment to set.)
    15-ft. open wire on sectional masts and counterpoise. 18"x14"x10"--56 lbs. Intercept receiver for U.H.F. signals. This receiver is similar in every respect to the Fu.H.E.c. except in frequency range and number of tubes.
    Receiver WR1P.
    1. .15-15.5
    M.C.W. R/T
    1. FC-2.1F-DET/AF-
      Driver Class 'B' Output DCH 25-2.DF25-DAC25-DC25-DDD25 DF26
    1. AC or DC mains supply 90-250. Volts (voltage need not be known), or, two 1.25 dry cells ENL DIN VDE. 1210 plus 90-volt A.T. battery from mains 0.25 amps.
    191/2"x16"x111/2"--57 lbs. For broadcast reception. With the aid of a microphone it can be used for oral transmission of orders. Can be used as a microphone amplifier.
    Receiver UKW.E.e.
    1. 27.2-33.3
    M.C.W. R/T
    1. RF-M-LO-2, IF-DET-AF 7 RV 12 P4000.
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamotor EUa2.
    61/2-ft. vertical rod. 121/2"x8"x7"--22 lbs. Communication throughout a tank battalion.
    Figure 56.



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Receiver M.W.E.C.
    1. .835-3
    1. RF-M-LO-2, 1F-BFO/ Calibrator DET-AF (2 tubes in push pull) ALL RV12 P200
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamotor EUa.1, 2, or 3. 12-volts @ 4-5 amperes.
    Open wire or roof aerial. 121/2"x8"x7"-24 lbs. Communication receiver for medium waveband.
    Receiver Fh.H.E.u.
    1. .5-25 (5 bands)
    1. 1 9-tube superhetrodyne.
    1. As for Fu.H.E.c.
    17"x131/2"x10"--56 lbs. Intercept services. Very similar to Fu.H.E.c. but for frequency range and circuit.
    Receiver L.W.E.e.
    1. .072-1.525 (5 bands)
    1. RF-M-LO-2, IF-DET-BFO-AF 8, RV2 P 800
    1. 2-volt storage battery and 90-volt dry H.T. battery or convertor unit E.U.a. or mains unit NA6.
    27"x131/2"x101/2"--87 lbs. Long range communication at army and command hq. Similar in construction to K.W.E.a. except that the K.W.E.a. has fewer stages and no A.V.C.
    Receiver Spez.445b.
    1. .1-6.7
    1. RF-REG DET-2.AF 4, REO 74
    1. 4.8-volt nickel-iron storage battery and 90-volt H.T. dry battery.
    Long wire or rod. 18"x14"x81/2"--55 lbs. General purpose receiver.
    Receiver UKW.E.d 1.
    1. 42.1-47.8
    1. RF-M-LO-3,
      IF-2nd DET-AVC-AF 9 RV12 P2000
    1. Dynamotor E.U.a.2 or 130-volt dry H.T. batteries and 12-volt storage battery.
    61/2-ft. rod connected via feeder. 151/2"x10"x8"--19 lbs. By signal and armored troops for ground-air cooperation. Very accessible for servicing.
    Receiver UKW.E.h.
    1. 23-24.95
    1. RF-M-LO-2, IF-DET-AF 7, RV12 P4000
    1. 12-volt storage battery to dynamotor E.U.a.1, 2, or 3.
    61/2-ft. rod. 121/2"x8"x61/2"-221/2 lbs. Armored troops in cars and assault guns, model G. Very similar to the U.KW.e. except for frequency range.
    Receiver D/F Ground L.M.W.P./240-315.
    1. .075-3.333 (5 bands)
    1. RF-M-LO-IF-DET-BFO-AF 2,RES094,-RE084K-RES094,-2,RE084K respectively.
    1. 4.8-volt storage battery (NC-10); four 30-volt or one 90-volt plus one 30-volt H.T. dry battery.
      4.8-volts @ .45 amps.
      100-volts @ 18 m/a.
    Goniometer loops, about 1 square meter each, and auxiliary aerial (1-meter rod or 3-meter horizontal wire). 21"x141/2"x8 5/8"--51 lbs. Used by subsection of intercept company. The circuit is the same as the intercept receiver L.Mw. HE/246-316.
    Receiver (Radio Controlled Tank) Set B4Fu.E6.
    1. 24.6
      c. Crystal
    1. FC-IF-IF,AVC, DET-AF-AF ECH11-EF 13-EBF11-2, EF12.
    1. Dynamotor with 12-volt storage battery.
    4-ft. flexible rod. 7.1"x10.6"x3.1" For radio controlled tank in conjunction with an audio filler unit which is not listed here.
    Figure 56 (Continued).



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G3. (Airborne)
    1. .3-.6 and
    2. 3- 6
    1. 3, RS31-3.R2074 & 1,R.2134.
    100 (High) 20 (Low)
    1. Air driven generator (G3)
    2. Two 90-volt batteries, one 4-volt Edison.
    Both fixed and trailing Bomber aircraft; found in some but not all specimens of the following types of aircraft: Ju 52, FW 58, HE 114, DO 11, 13, & 17E & F; AR 66, AR96, W 33 and 34. Similar sets Fu.G3 A. and Fu.G3 AU.

    Both the above sets are still in use in transport aircraft, flying boats, and second-line obsolescent aircraft generally.

    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G7, 7a, 7c. (Airborne)
    1. 2.5-3.75
    1. C.W./RT -15
    2. M.C.W. R/T
    1. 2, REN 904,-2, RENS 1664
    2. 5, RENS 1264.
    1. Dynamotor U4A/24.
    Fixed antennae in fighter aircraft: In dive bombers a trailing antennae manually reeled.
    1. 14"x9"x8"--20 lbs.
    2. 14"x9"x8"--25 lbs.
    In fighter aircraft and dive bombers. Prior to 1943, 7A was fitted in ME 109, ME 109 F,FW 190. It is still fitted in JU 87 and HS 129. Was replaced by Fu. G16Z. Is still used, however, in twin seater aircraft particularly the JU 87.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G8. (Airborne)
    1. S.W. 3-6: L.W.
    2. .3-.6
    1. (L.W:C.W.)
      (SW:CW.R/T) b. (C.W.M.C.W., R/T)
    1. 9, RS 242
    2. 4, NF 2 and 3NF3
    20 (S.W.) 40 (L.W.)
    1. Dynamotor (U5)
    2. Dynamotor (U6)
    Common T and R. Fixed or trailing antennae may be used. Air-to-air-to-ground (intercommunication). Intended originally for bomber aircraft but was superseded by Fu.G10.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G10. (Airborne)
    1. As for Fu.G8
    1. C.W.-R/T. 300-500
    1. 6, RL 12P35-25, RV12 P2000
    40 (S.W.) 70 (L.W.)
    1. Dynamotor U-10/S
    2. Dynamotor U-10/E
    Both fixed and trailing. Aerial tuning units, AAAG-2 and AAAG-3 are provided.
    1. 9"x83/4"x8"--161/2 lbs.
    2. 71/4"x83/4"x8"--16 lbs.
    Current equipment for all first line multiple engine aircraft.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G16. (Airborne)
    1. 38-42.5
    1. R/T. 20-100 b.
      20 ground level 100 in the air
    1. 2, RL12P35-11,RV12 P2000
    1. Dynamotor U-17
    Fixed single wire 6'11" long
    1. 15"x81/4"x8"--261/2 lbs.
    All bombers. Air-to-air and ground liaison. Is fitted in large aircraft in addition to the Fu.G10.<.i> The design was taken from the Fu.G17.
    Figure 57.



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G16 Z,ZE. (Airborne)
    1. As for Fu.G16
    1. M.C.W.
    2. R/T.
      20 ground level
      100 in the air
    1. 2, RL 12P35 b.9, RV 12P2000 7, RV 12P2000 in navigational aid equipment.
    As above
    1. Dynamotor U-17
    Fixed single wire 6'11" long. Matching units AAG16-2 and AAG-16-3 permit use of leading edge of the tail fin as antennae 8" single loop is used for D/F homing.
    1. 15"x81/4"x8"--261/2 lbs.
    Used in all single seater fighters. Also incorporates D/F homing apparatus.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G17 17E and Z. (Airborne)
    1. 42.1-47.9
    1. M.C.W.
    2. R/T.
      30 at ground level
      185 in the air
    1. 2 RL 12P35,-13,RV12 P2000
    As above
    1. Dynamotor U-17
    Vertical rod about 39" long terminating in matching unit AAG7. In twin seater, close supporting aircraft. Air-to-air-to-ground liaison. Fu.G17 was the original design from which Fu.GJ6 was copied. Fu.G72 is used alternatively with D/F homing apparatus.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G1 and G2. (Airborne)
    1. .6-1.667
    1. CW.
    2. CW. M.C.W. R/T.
    1. 3, RS-31G-3,R2074-
    2. 1 R 2134
    1. Air driven generator
    2. Batteries
    Fixed. For bombers.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G6, 6A (Airborne) As for Fu.G7 Interrogation and command. Air-to-air-to-ground.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G10 K-1 (Airborne)
    1. 5.3-10
    1. R/T.
    2. M.C.W.-R/T.
    1. 2, RL 12P35-11 RV 12P2000
    1. Dynamotor U-17
    Single wire 6'11" long. Command liaison set.
    Figure 57 (Continued).



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G10 K-2 (Airborne)
    1. 6-12
    Command and liaison set. Used in small aircraft.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G10K-2 (Airborne)
    1. 6-18
    Voice communication air-to-air-to-ground.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G21. (Airborne)
    1. .3-.9
    1. M.C.W.-R/T.
    1. 3,RS 241-1.RES094-2, RES074
    10 Communication (general) for flying boats and seaplanes.
    Transmitter-Receiver Fu.G25 a.
    1. 152.2-161
    2. 123-128
    1. L550
    2. 6. RV12P2000.-2.LD1.
    1. Dynamotor
    14" Stub, common to Trans.-Receiver. (Antennae tuning unit AAG25 a). 14"x8" x8"--33 lbs.
    Transmitter NS2. ("Not-sender") (2a, 2b)
    1. 0.5.
    M.C.W.: 250 at sea,
    120 overland
    1. AL5N-RE13A.
    1. Hand generator
    Steel antennae wire 235 feet long with ground wire and sender raised by box kite or hydrogen filled balloon. 11"x10"x71/2"--15 lbs. Emergency transmitter for dinghy use. Carried loose in aircraft. Forerunner of N.S.2.
    Transmitter NS4. ("Not-sender")
    1. 53.5-61.0
    C.W. at 200 feet to aircraft 9, at 1000 feet is 14, 40,000 feet 40.
    1. 2, LS 1 and LS2
    1. 11 midget storage cells--3 used in parallel for 2-volt filament, 8 used in series parallel for 8-volt vibrator supply.
    Strip of copper plate steel tape 3'5* long and 1' in diameter tapering to 3/16" at end. 61/4"x61/4"x3"--31/2 lbs. Emergency transmitter for dinghy use. Replaces the N.S.2. Standard equipment on all twin engine and larger aircraft.
    Figure 57 (Continued).



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    D/F Receiver Peil: 4.
    1. 0.25-0.4
    R/T 150 (approx.)
    1. 8 Tube superhetrodyne 8 RV 12 P200
    1. Dynamotor U-8 and aircraft battery.
    Fixed loop 13" long and 31/2" in diameter, carries 13 turns of Litz wire crosswound in series.
    1. 11"x91/2"x6"--221/2 lbs.
    Homing receiver used in single seater fighters prior to introduction of FUG 16Z.
    D/F Receiver Peil: 5.
    1. .165-1
    R/T 250
    1. 6 Tube superhetrodyne 6 NF 2
    1. Dynamotor U-8 and aircraft battery.
    Oval loop with powder Ironb. cone: 8 turns of Litz wire connected in series. 24"x10"x8"--24 lbs. D/F and homing receiver in twin engine and larger aircraft for above purpose. A pre-war commercial set.
    D/F Receiver Peil: 6
    1. .15-1.2
    1. 6 Tube superhetrodyne 6 RV 12 P2000
    1. Dynamotor U-11A
    Oval loop: sense antenna is metal paint on loop housing.
    1. 91/2"x81/2"x7"--20 lbs.
    Used in bombers. May be used as a separate receiver in FUG 10. One of the few German sets that uses crystals.
    D/F Receiver Peil: 7.
    1. .15-1.2
    1. Dynamotor U-11A
    Same as above.
    Navigation Receiver FU 1 EB1.
    1. 28.5-35
    R/T 250
    1. 2NF2 TRF
    1. Dynamotor U-8
    39-ft. vertical rod. Carried loose is aircraft for blind landings.
    Navigation Receiver FU 2H.
    1. 30-33.3
    1. 7 Tube superhet: 7RV12 P4000
    1. Dynamotor U-8
    39-ft. vertical rod. For blind landings.
    Figure 58.



    RANGE (mcs)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    3. Crystal
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    POWER OUTPUT (watts)
    1. Send
    2. Receive
    Navigation Receiver FU 2 EB12.
    1. 38
    1. 5NF 2 TRF
    1. Dynamotor U-8
    Dipole under fuselage. For blind landings.
    X Gerät
    1. 66.5-75
      (2 on the same range)
    Dot-Dash left-right beams.
    1. 7 Tube superhetrodyne 20 RV12 P4000
    1. Dynamotor
    Two vertical1/4 wave rods in streamlined housing. Bomber aircraft. A special blind bombing device operating on three main beams: one for pilot and two for observers. (Believed to be obsolete.)
    Y Ger&aumml;t (with FUG 17E and FUG 28A.
    1. 42.1-47.9
    R/T 250
    1. 2 RL P35,-13,RV12
    2. P4000
    1. Dynamotor U-17
    Vertical rod above and retractable antennae below fuselage. Bomber aircraft. A later development than the X-Ger&aumml;t employing one instead of three beams.
    Radio-Altimeter FUG101-101A. a.351-389
    b.(Operating Frequency) 370
    F.M.C.W. 0-150 meters 100-1500 meters
    1. 1, LD 2-1, RV 12 P2001
    2. 1, LV5-6, RV12 P2001
    1. Dynamotor U-101
    Two separate wave dipoles horizontally polarized: one each for transmitter and receiver. Multi-engined aircraft for height finding.
    Radio Altimeters FUG 103.
    1. 370
    An improvement on FUG 101 and 101A. Does not interfere with other wireless equipment on board.
    Figure 58 (Continued).



    Description Conductor Strands Insulation Material Outside Diameter Estimated Talking Range (Mis.) Weight (Lbs. per 1,000 Feet) Tensile Strength (Lbs.) Insulation Abrasion Resistance D-C Resistance Single Conductor per 1,000 Feet Attenuation at 1,000 CPS. db. per Mile
    Two-conductor cable with black rubber jacket applied over one white and one black rubber-insulated conductor. 0.024-inch solid copper. Rubber type. 0.115-inch
    Dry. 16.3;
    wet, 10.1.
    20.5 275 High. 25.9 Dry, 1.84;
    wet, 2.97.
    Twisted-pair field wire, each conductor of which has a black braid over a white rubber insulation. 6, 0.013-inch steel;
    2, 0.013-inch copper;
    1, 0.021-inch copper.
    Rubber type. 0.128-inch. 10.3 (2-wire
    12.9 400 Very high. 11.6 2.91
    Single-conductor field wire with a stiff red synthetic insulation over 8 steel and 1 copper strands. 8, 0.015-inch steel;
    1, 0.028-inch copper.
    Polyvinyl, Chloride
    0.135-inch. 400 Very high. 11.6
    Single-conductor field wire with a wax-impregnated cotton braid over a black rubber insulation. The conductor consisting of 8 steel, and 1 copper, strands. 8, 0.015-inch steel;
    1, 0.028-inch copper.
    Rubber type. 0.128-inch. 8.5 (2-wire metallic circuit). 11.8 400 Very high. 16.9 3.53
    Single-conductor field wire with a stiff red synthetic insulation and a conductor consisting of 8 steel and 1 aluminum strands. 8, 0.015-inch steel;
    1, 0.028-inch aluminum.
    Polyvinyl, Chloride type. 0.130-inch. 4.9 (2-wire metallic circuit). 9.2 High. 51.4 6.12
    Single-conductor assault wire with a yellow synthetic insulation over a conductor consisting of 7 aluminum strands. 7, 0.016-inch aluminum. Polyvinyl, Chloride type. 0.055-inch. 2.5 83.5
    Single-conductor assault wire with a cotton braid over a blue cellophane insulation. The conductor has 6 steel and 1 copper strands. 6, 0.008-inch steel;
    1, 0.010-inch copper.
    Cellophane type material. 0.425-inch. Dry, 25.6;
    wet, 25.6
    (not loaded). Voice frequency.
    127 510 3.52 Dry, 1.17;
    wet, 1.17.
    Long range field cable having four rubber-insulated conductors spirally twisted about a rubber-covered synthetic core. Over this quad is placed a tinsel shielding tape and a black rubber jacket. 19, 0.0125-inch copper. Rubber type insulation and jacket.
    108-conductor cable composed of 12 tinned copper strands. Insulation of cotton covered with impregnated cotton tape andrubber outer jacket. 12 copper 0.875-inch. 525
    Figure 59.



    Wavemeter Fremes a. 171/2"x14"x10"--46 lbs. Frequency range: --30 kcs --30 mcs in 20 switched bands. Facilities: will emit modulated or unmodulated signal. (Loose or tight coupling to receiver.)

    Circuit as receiver: RF-oscillating detector--2AF RES 094. RE134W: RE. 134

    Circuit as sender: oscillator--anode modulator.

    Power supply: 4-volt storage battery. 3-volt grid bias, 150-volt H.T. batteries.

    The outstanding feature in the construction of the wave-meter is the massive turret for waveband switching, which takes up most of the space inside the case.
    Frequency Tester F. pruf. dl. --29 lbs. Frequency range --120 --156 mc (26 fixed frequencies).

    Power supply: storage battery 2 N/9 and one 90-volt H.T. Battery.

    For frequency calibration of fixed sets within its range.
    Field Test Set 18 (Das Feldmesskastchen) 6.3"x4.7"x2.9"--23/4 lbs. A field test set similar to the U.S. army's EE65. A general purpose field Test Set.
    Attenuation Meter.--39 (Dampfungsmesser 39) Is capable of measuring the amplification (in nepers) of 2 and 4 wire repeaters and the attenuation at 300 cycles over any type of line. Can measure crosstalk attenuation between the lines.

    Is powered with 90-volt H.T. battery and a 2-volt 2B19 storage battery.

    Used in conjunction with telephone repeaters in testing and adjusting input and output levels.
    German Tube Checker (Rohrenprufgerat RPG4) 16"x15"x9"--30 lbs. Will test all European and a small number of American tubes. It may be used as a milliammeter, ohmeter, and capacity meter. Can only be used for DC voltages and currents.
    German Exploring Coil This apparatus can be used to locate grounds, shorts, crosses and wet spots in cables. (However, it will not locate "opens" in cable pairs.)
    German Frequency Test Set F. prufg. f. --25 lbs. Crystal controlled oscillator fundamental output frequency of 26 mcs.

    Power supply: 2.4-volt storage battery for vibrator, one tube RL2 4T1.

    Consumption: 2.42 @ 6 amperes.

    A field pack servicing and calibration unit for the Feldfu. b and c.
    Figure 60.



    1. Instruments

    a. GENERAL. In general the instruments used in the field by the engineers of the German Army are identical with our own, particularly their transits, theodolites, and surveyor's levels. The main differences occur in compasses and gap-measuring instruments.

    b. GERMAN FIELD COMPASS (Marschkompass). (1) Description. The German field compass is a black, pocket-sized instrument. The housing is of aluminum-like metal. A brass outer ring is attached with a carrying handle. A hinged, linear, centimeter scale unfolds from the base of the compass housing. The letters MKZ(KZ) are marked on the body of the compass.

    (2) Operation. The swinging of the magnetic needle can be stopped by pressing the damper button. When the destination is visible, open the cover and raise the mirror half way, so the magnetic needle can be seen clearly. Sight the point through the rear V sight and the front aperture at the base of the mirror. Hold steady until the point is in line with the eye, then with the free hand turn the azimuth circle until the magnetic needle falls on the magnetic declination mark. Read the azimuth from the dial. The German compass is numbered counter-clockwise, and the graduations are in mils. To simplify compass reading, the dial has been abbreviated so the last two zeros have been omitted; thus, 6,000 mils is shown as 60. The markings for directions are the same as our own, with the exception of East which is marked "O" for Ost. The adjustments for magnetic declination are marked directly on the azimuth dial; two luminous dots indicate 150 mils East and West.

    c. NEW TYPE FIELD COMPASS (Marschkompass "A"). It is now known that a new type compass is in use in the German Army. This compass is numbered clockwise in mils.

    d. GAP-MEASURING INSTRUMENT. This is a simple device to measure the width of streams and similar gaps. It is designed on the principle of similar right-angled triangles and consists of two parts: a fixed mirror and a measuring mirror.

    2. German Demolition Equipment

    a. SAFETY FUZE BLASTING CAP AND ACCESSORIES (Sprengkapsel No. 8). (1) Description. This blasting cap is similar to the U.S. and British types. It is designed to fit over the safety fuze and be initiated by it. The initiator of the cap consists of lead azide and lead styphnate.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Bakelite Holder (Zünderhälter). This holder serves the double purpose of connecting the cap and fuze and permitting the cap to be screwed into the charge. It consists of a tube which covers the junction of the cap and fuze, and is enclosed in a bakelite cover. At one end of this cover is an externally threaded sleeve; the other end is covered by a bakelite cap with a central hole for passage of the fuze.

    (4) Blasting Cap Igniter Set (Sprengkapselzünder). This is a prepared set with a cap in a bakelite holder, with a 3- to 6-foot safety fuze attached, and a safety fuze igniter. This provides a convenient short-delay demolition igniter.

    b. SAFETY FUZE (Zeitzündschnur). The black powder train of this fuze is enclosed in strands of jute-like fibre and white cotton-like fibre alternately, the whole being covered with a bituminous paint, over which goes the black rubber outer covering. This safety fuze burns in air or under water at the rate of approximately 2 feet a minute. It can be initiated in the same way as U.S. and British safety fuzes.

    c. ELECTRIC BLASTING CAPS. (1) Glühzünder 28. This consists of a cap, with twin leads of copper or iron, and a wire bridge. The whole fits into a standard bakelite cap holder. The copper leads have a resistance of 2 ohms; iron, 3 ohms.

    (2) Delay Electric Blasting Cap (Glühzünder mit Verzögerung). These electric caps, which fire with a delay of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 seconds after electrical initiation, are similar to ordinary electric caps except that there is a pyrotechnic delay pellet between the wire bridge and the cap proper. These caps have the number of seconds delay marked on a disc attached to the leads.

    (3) Spark Gap Electric Blasting Cap (Spaltzünder) In these caps, the wire bridge has been replaced by a spark gap.

    d. INSTANTANEOUS FUZE (Knallzündschur). This fuze has a soft, pliable, green, outer covering with a waterproof varnish finish, surrounding an explosive core. It will detonate under water, initiated by a cap, but the ends must be waterproofed.


    e. 100-GRAM CARTRIDGE (Bohrpatrone 28). There are two types of this cartridge; one in waxed paper, and one in compressed paper. Both cartridges may be marked Bohr-Patr. 28, identifying the cartridge, and Fp.02 or Grf.88, identifying the explosive as TNT or picric acid.

    f. 200-GRAM SLAB (Sprengkoerper 38). This slab is provided in two forms: in waxed paper and in a bakelite case. The waxed paper slab may contain either TNT or picric acid. Pressed picric acid is contained in the casing of two bakelite mouldings. The bakelite slab actually weighs 250 grams or 83/4 ounces.

    g. 1-KILOGRAM (2.2 POUNDS) SLAB (Sprengbüchse 24). (1) Description. This slab may be made either of TNT or picric acid, in a pressure-resisting zinc container which permits it to be used at any depth of water. There are three sockets for standard caps and holders, or igniters --one on each face of the slab, excluding the base. Each socket is covered with a paper disc marked Sprengbüchse 24 and either Fp.02 (TNT) or Grf.88 (picric acid).

    (2) Characteristics.

    h. 3-KILOGRAM (6.6 POUNDS) SLAB (Geballte Ladung 3 Kg.). (1) Description. This slab, in a zinc container with a carrying handle at one end, has either three or five sockets for standard caps and holders or igniters. The container is pressure-resisting, and the slab may be used under any depth of water. This slab is often used with igniters for improvised mines. It is marked 3 Kg. on the side.

    (2) Characteristics.

    i. 3-KILOGRAM BALL CHARGE. (1) Description. The spherical body of the charge is constructed in two hemispherical sections of pressed mild steel, seamed together by a rolled joint. The securing lugs are welded to the top half of the body, and to them are attached the two ends of a canvas carrying strap. The charge has the standard threaded igniter socket and is marked 3. Kg.

    (2) Characteristics.

    j. HOLLOW DEMOLITION CHARGE (400 GRAMS OR 14 OUNCES). This charge is a cup-shaped, aluminum case, painted field gray, with the standard threaded cap socket in the top. A plate is recessed into the base. The central part of this plate forms a hemispherical wall surrounding the hollow space in the base of the charge. The main filling is penthrite.

    k. 12.5-KILOGRAM HOLLOW CHARGE (Hohlladung). (1) Description. This charge is designed to blast holes in steel plates in permanent fortifications or for special tasks. It is enclosed in a sheet iron cover with a carrying handle. In the base of the charge is a hemispherical cavity, and in the top is a standard threaded cap socket. This charge is usually part of the equipment of airborne troops.

    (2) Characteristics.

    l. 13.5-KILOGRAM HOLLOW CHARGE (Hohlladung). (1) Description. This hollow charge rests on three telescopic legs, which ensure proper "stand-off". The charge is provided with a pellet contained in a standard detonator socket.

    (2) Characteristics.

    Figure 61.--Hohlladung 12.5-kg Demolition Charge
    Figure 61.--Hohlladung 12.5-kg Demolition Charge.

    m. 50-Kilogram Hollow Charge (Hohlladung). (1) Description. For convenience in


    transport, this charge is made in two parts. The lower part, which is provided with a separate carrying handle, contains a hemispherical cavity. The upper part contains both an explosive charge and a standard cap socket. This charge is part of the equipment of airborne troops.

    (2) Characteristics.

    Figure 62.--Hohlladung 13.5-kg Demolition Charge
    Figure 62.--Hohlladung 13.5-kg Demolition Charge
    (Top: showing hemispherical cavity and stand-off legs in collapsed position.
    Bottom: in firing position).

    n. HOLLOW RING CHARGES (Hohlringladung). (1) Description. These charges, used principally for the destruction of gun barrels, contain TNT, in a thin annular metal casing which is slipped over the gun barrel and fired by a cap. There is an annular, hollow space of semi-circular cross section on the inside of the ring designed to increase the cutting effect. The flag-mentation effect of these charges is negligible, which makes them suitable for use by raiding parties and patrols.

    (2) Characteristics. Hollow ring charge for antitank and machine-gun barrels:

    Hollow ring charge for field guns:

    Figure 63.--Shaped Demolition Charge (50 kg)
    Figure 63.--Shaped Demolition Charge (50 kg).

    o. BANGALORE TORPEDO (Gestreckte Ladung).

    This torpedo is made up of units of 16-gauge steel pipe lengths, with a sleeve welded to one end to form a socket for the adjoining unit. Units are packed with blasting gelatine or other suitable explosives. Detonating fuzes run the lengths of the tubes. The torpedo is initiated at one end by two independent caps, using a cap igniter set


    for one and a length of safety fuze and match for the other. Other sections carry a cap fitted to the end of the tube. When assembling sections, the free end of the fuze at the socket end of one section is tied to the cap at the spigot end of the next section.

    Figure 64.--Bangalore torpedo.
    Figure 64.--Bangalore torpedo.

    p. GERMAN FIELD EXPLODERS. (1) Exploder 1942, six-barrelled (Nebelwerfer). This exploder is 6 inches high and has two sockets in the core. One socket is for winding, and the other for a seven-pin plug providing six circuits with a common central return. On the outside of each of the six outer plug holes are six numbered windows which glow in turn as their circuit is completed. The exploder thus can fire six circuits rapidly, one after another; the operator can see the glow lamps recording the firing in succession. Since this exploder has a low capacity, with 20 detonators the maximum number it will handle, its use for demolitions is restricted.

    (2) Small Exploder 1940 (Glühzündapparat 40). This exploder forms part of the portable demolition kit (Zündgerät 40). It is 5.3 inches high and has an oval-shaped top, mounting the firing terminals and the winding socket. It will fire through 90 ohms external resistance, and the generator is turned directly by the handle in the winding socket. Only when the maximum current is generated is the circuit closed; for firing, the handle must be turned as fast as possible to the "stop". The exploder has an internal resistance of 30 ohms and generates a current of 1 ampere at 80 volts. Before using the exploder, it must be tested with a special neon test tube, which not only tests the exploder but also excites the magnetism in the generator.

    Figure 65.--Exploder 43 (6-barreled)
    Figure 65.--Exploder 43 (6-barreled).


    Figure 66 -- Exploder 39 (Glühzündapparat 39)
    Figure 66 -- Exploder 39 (Glühzündapparat 39).

    (3) Field Exploder 1939 (Glühzündapparat 39). This exploder is packed in a leather carrying case. It fires through a maximum resistance of 300 ohms and has an internal resistance of 40 ohms. The winding key is kept in the carrying case, which also holds the test resistance, a spare spring, and a screw driver. On the top of the exploder are the winding socket, the spring socket, and the spring terminals.

    (4) Field Exploder 1937 (Glühzündapparat 37). This exploder generates 300 volts and fires through a maximum resistance of 300 ohms. The internal resistance is 43 ohms. The exploder has a winding key kept in the carrying case, which also holds the test resistance. On top of the exploder is a winding socket marked Aufziehen and a firing socket marked Zünden. The firing terminals are on an insulated step below the level of the cover. The spring driving the generator cannot be released unless it has been fully wound. To use the exploder, wind the spring clockwise until the "stop" is reached. To fire, turn the socket marked "Zünden" with the key.

    Figure 67.--Exploder 37 (Glühzündapparat 37)
    Figure 67.--Exploder 37 (Glühzündapparat 37).


    Figure 68.--Exploder 26 (Glühzündapparat 26)
    Figure 68.--Exploder 26 (Glühzündapparat 26).

    (5) Field Exploder 1926. This exploder weighs 14.5 pounds and is packed in a leather case. The exploder is of the low tension type (hot wire as opposed to spark) with an internal resistance of 45 ohms. Maximum resistance through which it will fire is 255 ohms.

    q. PORTABLE DEMOLITION KIT 1940. This is a pack containing everything needed to fire charges electrically. It weighs 51 pounds, and can be carried by a handle or by shoulder straps on the back. It contains a small exploder (1940) and neon test tube, a continuity tester (galvanometer) (1926), 40 electric detonators, two spools of single cable and two drums of double cable, metal sleeve for crimping over electrical joints, a notched pocket knife, crimpers, and insulating tape.

    r. CONTINUITY TEST (GALVANOMETER) 1926. This tester not only tests continuity but also measures resistance of circuits and detonators. It contains an ohmeter, resistance, and battery (1.5 volts). The battery is housed in a cylinder 4.7 inches high with the ohmeter on top. Adjusting screws for setting the ohmeter needle to zero and infinity are midway between the testing terminals. A built-in resistance protects caps from being initiated while being tested for continuity.

    s. TEST RESISTANCE AND NEON LAMPS. The resistance is for testing the Field Exploder 1926 for firing through 250 ohms resistance. The neon lamp, designed for testing the Field Exploder 1937 and 1939, has a screw head which may be set to test for firing either 50 or 100 detonators. There is another neon lamp for testing the small Exploder 1940. It is part of portable Demolition Kit 1940.

    t. MAGNETIC DEMOLITION CHARGE ANTITANK (Panzerhandmine). This charge is spherical and completely covered by pressed cardboard. This cardboard casing, held in shape by two metal bands, extends 4 inches below the base of the explosive. Primarily designed as a demolition charge, it also can be used against tanks. The explosive filler is 1 pound 12 ounces of cyclonie and TNT. The booster consists of two pellets of cyclonite and wax in which there is a fitting for a standard igniter of the BZ type.

    Figure 69.--Resistance and neon test lamp
    Figure 69.--Resistance and neon test lamp.


    u. GERMAN ANTITANK MAGNETIC HOLLOW CHARGE. This charge is painted field gray. The three attached magnets are strong enough to hold the charge against a vertical surface. The main filling is in a pressed metal container, conical in shape, with an elongated apex to act as a hand grip and to accommodate the detonator. The igniter has a delay of only seconds. However, a new type igniter with a yellow head and a 71/2-second delay has been introduced.

    3. Booby Traps

    a. MATERIALS. The following standard materials have been used in German booby traps:

    b. METHODS OF SETTING. The booby traps are set ordinarily in the following ways:

    c. EMPLOYMENT IN BUILDINGS. Pull igniters inserted in prepared charges, grenades, and standard mines commonly are used as booby traps in buildings. The friction igniter ZDSCHN.ANZ.29, attached to a prepared detonator, also is used with a pull cord. The trip or pull wires may be laid across entrances and doorways, across stairways, or attached to doors of rooms, cupboards, or to windows. Both ends of wires should be investigated for traps. If wires are in tension, they must not be cut until this investigation has been carried out. Pressure igniters commonly are found under loose boards and door mats. The DZ.35 type is the igniter usually employed.

    4. German Mine Detectors

    a. MINE DETECTING ROD, 1939 PATTERN. (1) Description. This detector consists of a length of light alloy tubing, one end of which carries a steel point, while the other carries a bayonet joint permitting a second length of tubing to be added when the operator is standing. The weight of the main tube and point is approximately 10 ounces.

    (2) Employment. This detector is used as a probe, the point being dropped vertically into the ground from a height of about 4 inches. It is claimed that the nature of any underground object encountered can be recognized by the characteristic sound coming from the tube.

    b. MINE DETECTOR BERLIN 40 TYPE B. (1) Description. This detector consists of a detector unit carried in a pack on the operator's back, a search coil, sectionalized pole, headphones, and cable connections.

    (2) Employment. The variable condenser is adjusted to produce a suitable note in the earphones. Proximity of a metal object to the search coil produces a change of tone.

    c. MINE DETECTOR Tempelhof 41. (1) Description. This is a portable detector provided with a loud speaker instead of earphones. The whole instrument can be carried in an infantry pack.

    (2) Employment. The tone control is turned to the right until the loudspeaker produces its maximum volume. In presence of a metal object the tone will rise in pitch.

    d. MINE DETECTOR Frankfurt 40. (1) Description. This detector is contained in a wooden box which fits into a canvas pack. The pack also has a compartment in which the search coil can be carried when not in use. The box is divided into two compartments, one for the batteries and one for the detector. The wiring is exposed by removal of a sliding panel which is held in position by one screw. The tubes and batteries are accessible


    Figure 70. Mine Detector (Wien 41)
    Figure 70. Mine Detector (Wien 41).

    Figure 71.--Mine Detector (Frankfurt 42)
    Figure 71.--Mine Detector (Frankfurt 42).


    after removal of the front panel. The pole is in three sections. The search coil is housed in a bakelite moulding.

    (2) Employment. The circuit is adjusted for zero balance. A tone is produced in the earphones by proximity of a metal object.

    e. OTHER MINE DETECTORS. Other mine detectors in general use are:

    5. Antipersonnel Mines

    a. S-MINE 35. (1) Description. This antipersonnel mine may be operated by direct pressure on an igniter in the head, or by a pull on one or more trip wires attached to pull igniters. The mine may also be fired electrically. The pressure igniter, S.Mi.Z.35, functions under a weight of about 15 pounds. When set with trip wires, pull igniters ZZ.35 or Zu.ZZ.35 are used, with a two- or three-way adapter screwed on the mine in place of the transit cap. The mine is cylindrical with a close-fitting cover. For transport three are carried in a wooden box or watertight pressed metal case. In the space between the outer case and inner cylinder of each mine there are approximately 360 steel balls, mild steel rods in short lengths, or small pieces of scrap steel. These constitute the loading of the mine. The base plate has a recess to hold the propellent charge. The central steel tube is threaded externally to take the adapters or igniters, and internally to take any standard German igniter or electric detonator for deliberate firing. At its lower end, the tube passes through the base plate and is secured by a union. Inside the main steel tube is another short tube, containing a delay element (about 41/2 seconds). There have been cases where the delay holder has been replaced by a detonator, causing the mine to explode without jumping. Equally spaced in the base plate are holes leading into the bottom of the three detonator tubes and containing short-delay elements. When the igniter functions, the delay pellet provides a short delay before igniting the propellent charge in the base of the mine. The burning of this charge projects the main elements of the mine into the air. Simultaneously, the powder delays in the bottom of the detonator tubes are ignited and explode the mine some 3 to 5 feet above the ground.

    Figure 72.--S-Mine with Y Adapter and Z.Z. 35 Igniter
    Figure 72.--S-Mine with Y Adapter and Z.Z. 35 Igniter

    Figure 73.--S-Mine with S. Mi.Z. 35 Igniter
    Figure 73.--S-Mine with S. Mi.Z. 35 Igniter.


    Figure 74.--Jerrican booby-trapped to S-Mine
    Figure 74.--Jerrican booby-trapped to S-Mine.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Performance. The delay between firing the igniter and the ejection of the mine varies according to age and condition of the mine. However, tests have shown an average of 3.9 seconds. The delay between the ejection of the mine and the detonation also varies; tests have shown that it averages 0.6 second.

    (4) Neutralisation. Anti-handling devices first are neutralized. Then uncover the mine, identify, and neutralize the igniters.

    (5) Disarming. After neutralizing, cut the trip wires of the pull igniters. Unscrew the igniters and unscrew the plugs from the three holes in the cover and remove the detonator by turning the mine over.

    b. S-MINE 44. (1) Description. The S-Mine 44 is an antipersonnel mine of the bounding type similar to the S-mine 35. The igniter well is toward one side of the cover plate, and the height at which the mine explodes is controlled by an internal pull-igniter arrangement. The igniter is the combination push-and-pull type, and its neutralization demands extreme care. The employment of this mine is the same as for the S-mine 35. The lethal range is 22 yards, and the casualty range 110 yards.

    (2) Operation. The igniter initiates the 41/2-second delay pellet firing the propellent, which throws the mine upward. When the coiled wire is fully extended it pulls the release pin from the igniter, exploding the mine.

    c. Schü-Mine 42. (1) Description. The Schü-mine 42 with the Z.Z.42 igniter is an easy, handy obstacle to employ against infantry, cavalry, and light vehicles. In small-scale obstacles, it conveniently can be substituted for the S-mine 35. In almost all minefields it can be used in conjunction with Tellermines. The mine consists of a casing of impregnated plywood, or hardened compressed fibrous cardboard, painted dull black; one 1928 pattern demolition charge weighing 200 grams or 7 ounces; and one Z.Z.42 pull igniter with No. 8 detonator. The total weight is 1.1 pounds. The igniter is prepared for use by unscrewing the safety cap and inserting the detonator (open end to open end). The pin is held in position by the spring-loaded striker.

    (2) Lifting and Neutralizing. After locating the mine, search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices, then lift the lid without exerting any pressure. See whether the pin of the igniter is still seated firmly in the striker. If this is the case the mine may be lifted, after determining that there are no anti-lifting devices. Mines on which pressure has been exerted and the pin disturbed from its normal position should be destroyed in place.

    d. WOODEN ANTIPERSONNEL MINE 43(N). (1) Description. In its operation this mine, with an impregnated wood body, is very similar to the standard German Schü-mine 42. The lid, hinged to the back of the body, is fitted with a metal operating flange at the front. This flange, in the armed position, rests on two wooden dowels and is secured by a safety pin. The center of the flange is slotted to clear the striker of the igniter, but two small tongues rest in the loop of the igniter pin. The igniter, Z.Z.42, is screwed into a zinc socket. The main filling is cast TNT, with pressed TNT around the detonator socket.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Operation. The mine is fired by pressure on the lid. The metal flange will first shear the dowels and then push out the pin, thus releasing


    Figure 75.--Schü-Mine with Z.Z.42 Ignite
    Figure 75.--Schü-Mine with Z.Z.42 Igniter.

    the striker. The operating load is approximately 75 pounds.

    (4) To Neutralize. The same as for the Schü-mine 42.

    e. WOODEN MINE 42(N). (1) Description. The body is made of impregnated wood, with a zinc socket in the top to take a detonator and igniter. Across the top is a shaped block of wood drilled to allow the igniter to be screwed down on the top of the body. The igniter is the standard D.Z.35. The main filling is cast TNT with pressed TNT primer.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Operation. The mine is fired by pressure on top of the D.Z.35 igniter, or by pressure on a


    Figure 76.--Glass Mine 43
    Figure 76.--Glass Mine 43 with (a) Hebelzünder Igniter, and (b) Buck Igniter.

    cover board over the head of the igniter. Without the cover board, the mine is practically insensible to blast, but the probability of operating the mine is reduced considerably. The functioning load of the igniter fitted to this mine is 75 pounds. It appears that the igniter is being manufactured with a weaker spring for use in this mine, since the pressure required to function a standard D.Z.35 is 130 to 165 pounds.

    f. ANTIPERSONNEL PRESSURE MINE (ITALIAN). (1) Description. This mine consists of a rectangular bakelite box, with a wedge-shaped, hinged lid, containing a TNT charge held in place by a projection and surrounded on the remaining three sides by deeply grooved fragmentation plates. The igniter mechanism consists of a metal tube which contains a spring-loaded striker, fitted with an actuating pin and a cocking ring. The outer end of the striker tube is secured against the wall of the box by a flange. The striker assembly slips into the side of the mine, in a recess cut out to receive it. A corresponding slot in the lid enables the mine to be completely closed when the igniter is not cocked.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Method of arming. To arm the mine the igniter is cocked by pulling out the ring and inserting the actuating pin. The detonator is then inserted in the striker tube and secured by locking the ring. The whole assembly is inserted in the box, the detonator fitting into a recess in


    the explosive charge. Finally, the lid is gently closed until it rests on the actuating pin.

    (4) Operation. A slight pressure on the lid will cause it to push out the pin and release the striker.

    (5) To Neutralise. Avoid all pressure on the lid of the mine. Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices. Lift the lid clear of the actuating pin. Insert a wire or nail in the safety-pin hole and lift out the striker assembly. Unscrew the locking ring and remove the detonator.

    g. ANTIPERSONNEL GLASS MINE 43. (1) Description. This antipersonnel mine is made almost entirely of glass. It is armed with the chemical igniter or with the Hebelzünder. The bottom of the glass container is recessed to hold a Sprengkorper 28. On top of the mine rests a glass shear plate, and, on top of that, a thick glass pressure plate.

    (2) Operation. A pressure of 20 to 25 pounds breaks the thin shear plate and applies pressure on the lever of the Hebelzünder, thus firing the igniter and exploding the mine.

    (3) To Neutralize. If the mine is fitted with a Hebelzünder, remove the two glass plates, insert safety pin, and unscrew the igniter. Then remove the detonator. If it is fitted with a chemical igniter, unscrew the igniter by gripping it as low as possible. Do not grip the corrugated portion which crushes easily.

    h. GERMAN ANTIPERSONNEL "POT MINE". (1) Description. A crush igniter is screwed into the top of the cylindrical body of this mine by means of an adapter. The pressed steel body contains an explosive filling of approximately 4 ounces of powdered picric acid.

    (2) Operation. A moderate pressure on the top of the igniter explodes the mine.

    (3) To Neutralise. Unscrew the igniter, grasping it as low as possible. If the detonator does not come out with the igniter, remove it by turning the mine upside down. If it does not then drop out, unscrew the adapter and remove the detonator. The total weight of the mine is 121/2 ounces.

    i. MODIFIED Schü-Mine. (1) Description. This modified Schü-mine may be used with the Z.Z.35 igniter. The large lid has a sloping front through which the igniter plunger head protrudes.

    (2) Operation. Pressure on the lid causes the sloping front to push on the actuating pin. This pulls out the plunger of the igniter, causing it to fire. A hole is bored in the lid directly above the safety pin of the igniter. A cord attached to the ring of the safety pin is used to draw the pin out through the hole to arm the mine.


    6. Antitank Mines

    a. GENERAL. The Germans use about 40 types of antitank mines, but the four types of Teller-mines are used most extensively.

    b. TELLERMINE 43 (MUSHROOM). (1) Description. In place of the usual cover, this mine has a mushroom head pressure plate which screws into the igniter socket. Two threaded sockets are provided for subsidiary anti-lifting igniters, one in the side of the mine and the other in the base. The positions of these two sockets vary, although they always have been found on a diameter of the mine.

    (2) Characteristics.

    c. TELLERMINE 1942 (T.Mi.42) (1) Description. This mine consists of a cylindrical, pressed-steel body, containing a central detonator pocket which is surrounded by a priming cylinder of a composition resembling penthrite. Two pull igniter sockets are provided, one in the side of the mine 4 inches from the carrying handle, and the other in the base 2 inches from the center of the mine. These sockets are screwed into the body of the mine and waterproofed by rubber washers. A cylindrical cavity on the top of the mine contains the pressure-plate assembly. This pressure plate carries a rubber washer or aluminum strip, which is secured to it by a steel ring spot-welded to the plate and forming a seal where it passes under the lower edge of the flanged ring. A strong spring provides the resistance which must be overcome to depress the pressure plate. A central, threaded socket serves for the insertion of the igniter assembly, T.Mi.Z.42(15), consisting of a spring-loaded striker retained by a shear pin. The detonator resembles that used in the Teller-mine 35, but it screws into the body of the mine.

    (2) Characteristics.

    Figure 77.--Tellermine 43 (mushroom)
    Figure 77.--Tellermine 43 (mushroom).


    Figure 78.--Tellermine 42
    Figure 78.--Tellermine 42.

    Figure 79.--Tellermine 35 (steel)
    Figure 79.--Tellermine 35 (steel).


    (3) Functioning. The mine functions when a minimum pressure of 495 pounds on the pressure plate causes the hexagonal cap to descend on the head of the plunger and shear the pin which retains the striker in the body of the igniter.

    d. TELLERMINE 35 (STEEL) (T.Mi.35 Stahl). This mine, 121/2 inches in diameter, weighs 21 pounds. Painted a mat gray, it is marked T.Mi.S 31 T Vii. 242 on the top in white paint; S88 12 42A, on the top in black paint; and WO 42, stamped on the top. In this model the pressure plate which extends over the entire mine is fluted, probably to prevent sand from blowing off when the mine is buried. In the center of the pressure plate is a threaded socket, closed by a screwed plug with a milled head. This socket will take the standard T.Mi. Z.35 igniter, but the mine can also be used with the igniter assembly of the Tellermine 42. The subsidiary igniter sockets are located on the bottom and side of the mine.

    e. TELLERMINE 35 (T.Mi.35). (1) Description. This is a circular mine with a flat base and slightly convex cover. A strong spiral spring inside the mine holds the cover against the turned-in flange of a skirt screwed to the outside of the main body. The central hole for the main igniter (T.Mi.Z.35 or T.Mi.Z.42) is provided with a rubber washer to make a close joint with the body. When the T.Mi.Z.42 is used, a steel plug must be placed in the central well. Two holes for additional igniters are provided. The central tube, which takes the exploder system, contains the detonator, above which are two metal collars. Above these is a rubber ring, capable of compression to make the assembly watertight. The igniter screws into the cover of the mine, so that

    Figure 80.--Tellermine 35 with anti-lifting devices
    Figure 80.--Tellermine 35 with anti-lifting devices.

    Figure 81.--Tellermine 35
    Figure 81.--Tellermine 35.


    the lower face of the igniter presses hard against the rubber ring. One collar is a retaining collar for the detonator; the other is an adjusting or positioning collar for the igniter. The igniter is screwed into the correct position by a special tool, and when positioned it is secured by a small grub passing through the collar. If this collar has been removed, it cannot be replaced correctly unless the special tool is available. Incorrect positioning makes the mine either too sluggish or too sensitive.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Functioning. The mine functions when the pressure on the cover compresses the mine spring, causing the body of the igniter to descend and shear the pin holding the striker. Pressure of 175 to 400 pounds will explode the mine.

    (4) To neutralise. Examine the sides and bottom of the mine for anti-handling igniters. Identify the igniters and neutralize. Remove the main igniter from the mine, manipulate the safety device, and immediately replace the igniter.

    f. TELLERMINE 29 (T. Mi. 29). (1) Description. This mine was the first of the Tellermine series and was thought to have become obsolete, but it has been found in France since D-Day. It consists of a cylindrical body the lid of which is provided with three sockets for the reception of three Z.D.Z. 29 push-pull igniters. These igniters, according to a German document, are to be set at the heavy pressure setting (marked S or 125 kg.). Three additional sockets, two in the side and one in the base provide means of attaching anti-handling igniters.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Neutralisation. Search for and neutralize anti-handling devices. Unscrew the three igniters. The mine is now safe.

    g. L. Pz. ANTITANK MINE. (1) Description. This is a circular mine with flat top and bottom, enclosed in two saucer-shaped covers. In the center of the top is a small cover plate secured by bayonet catches under which is a safety screw

    Figure 82--Tellermine 29.
    Figure 82--Tellermine 29.


    Figure 83.--L. P. Z. Mine
    Figure 83.--L. P. Z. Mine.

    which when screwed tightly clockwise closes the entry to the detonator. Above the blasting cap is a small chamber from which fire tubes lead radially to the five special pressure igniters action of which is similar to that of the D.Z. 35 pressure igniter.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Functioning. Pressure on the lid causes one or more of the igniters to fire, setting off the mine.

    (4) Neutralization. Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices. Remove cap and screw safety screw clockwise until line marked SICHER coincides with white mark on case. If all the nuts on the bottom of the mine are present and screwed up, mine is safe.

    h. Topf MINE. (1) Description. The mine body is a hollow cylindrical disc of plastic material filled with HE. Its top face is formed as a circular pressure plate surrounded by a shear groove. The cylindrical recess in the center of the mine body accommodates the primer plug. The carrying handle is fixed to the mine bottom by two glass screws.

    The primer plug assembly consists of a glass screw cap and the cylindrical igniter seating, made of bituminous cardboard material.

    (2) Action. Under a load of 330 pounds, the pressure plate shears along its shear groove and comes to rest on the pressure head of igniter, crushing it and causing the mine to explode.

    (3) To neutralize:

    (a) Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices.

    (b) Ensure that the mine is undamaged.

    Figure 84.--Riegelmine 43 (R. Mi. 43)
    Figure 84.--Riegelmine 43 (R. Mi. 43).


    Figure 85.--Topf Mine
    Figure 85.--Topf Mine.

    (c) Lift carefully, rest on one side, and unscrew the primer plug.

    (d) Remove the igniter.

    (e) Unscrew protective detonator pocket.

    (f) Remove the detonator and replace the protective pocket on the igniter.

    i. Riegel. ANTITANK MINE (R. Mi. 43). (1) Description. The mine consists of an encased explosive charge and of an outer box in two parts, lid and tray. The charge is provided with five standard igniter sockets, one on top, two on one side, and one at each end. Holes in the box correspond with the sockets on top and on the side, enabling igniters to be inserted from outside and fitted as anti-handling devices.

    Z.Z.42 igniters are inserted in the end sockets and their pins rest on shoulders at each end of the tray and are covered by swivel clips. The charge is supported in the tray by two shear


    wires. For transport, two safety bars are inserted which take the weight of the charge off the shear wires. When the safety bars are withdrawn, spring-loaded shutters close the holes. These shutters can be opened by pushing a pencil or large nail through a hole in the base of the tray.

    The lid rests on the charge, and the ends of the shear wires are led up over the lid and windlassed together to keep it on.

    (2) Characteristics.

    (3) Functioning. Pressure on the lid of the mine shears the shear wires and the pins of the Z.Z.42 igniters are pushed out, thus setting off the mine.

    (4) Neutralization. Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices. Turn the mine on its side and by pushing a pencil or nail through the hole in the base raise the shutters covering the safety bar holes. Insert safety bars. Cut shear wires and remove lid. Open swivel clips and, having seen that the pins of the Z.Z.42 igniters are resting on the shoulders and not beneath, take out the charge case. Unscrew the Z.Z.42 igniters.

    NOTE: The charge case can be inserted with one Z.Z.42 igniter pin reversed and beneath the shoulders. In this case the charge case must be slid out by lifting the end in which the Z.Z.42 igniter is used normally.

    j. FRENCH LIGHT ANTITANK MINE. (1) Description. The mine body consists of a rectangular steel body filled with 53/4 pounds of HE. In the top of the mine are two igniter pockets, one at either end. The body is covered with a slip-on rectangular cover the top of which is corrugated. There is a square hole in either end of the cover

    Figure 86.--French light antitank mine
    Figure 86.--French light antitank mine.


    through which passes a safety bar which is removed when the mine is laid.

    (2) Action. A pressure of from 300 pounds to 500 pounds in the lid causes it to descend on the igniters, exploding the mine.

    (3) Characteristics.

    (4) To neutralise:

    (a) Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices.

    (b) Lift cover and remove both igniters.

    (c) Replace the cover.

    k. WOODEN-BOX MINE 42 (Holzmine). (1) Description. The body of the mine is a rectangular wooden box containing 111/2 pounds of HE. A pressure block protrudes through the lid of the mine, which inside the mine rests on a shear flange secured to the side of the mine by wooden dowels.

    The mine is gray or unpainted, with a red band on one side and on the face of the pressure block.

    (2) Action. Pressure of 200 pounds or more on the pressure block shears the dowels securing the shear flange, which when forced down pushes out the pin in the Z.Z.42 igniter, exploding the mine.

    (3) Characteristics.

    (4) Neutralising. Search for and neutralize any anti-handling devices. Remove the lid avoiding all pressure on the pressure block. Lift pressure block clear of the shear flange. Place the pressure block so it bears on the supporting block in the unarmed position. Replace the lid.

    Figure 87.--Wooden Box Mine 42
    Figure 87.--Wooden Box Mine 42.



    NAME Length (Inches) Width (Inches) Height (Inches) Weight (Pounds) Igniter Firing load (Pounds) REMARKS
    Tellermine 35. 12.5 (diam.) 3.2 20 T.Mi.Z. 35
    T.Mi.Z. 42
    175-400 Fitted for anti-handling devices.
    Tellermine 35 (steel). 12.5 (diam.) 3.5 20 T.Mi.Z. 35
    T.Mi.Z. 42
    175-400 Fitted for anti-handling devices.
    Tellermine 42. 12.5 (diam.) 4 20 T.Mi.Z. 42 250-400 Fitted for anti-handling devices.
    Tellermine 43 (Mushroom). 12.5 (diam.) 4 20 T.Mi.Z. 42 440-600 Fitted for anti-handling devices.
    Tellermine 29. 10 (diam.) 2.7 13.2 Z.D.Z. 29 100-275 Three igniters used.
    L. PZ. AT Mine. 10.25 (diam.) 2.25 9 Five special pressure igniters. Paratroop mine.
    Topf Mine. 12.5 (diam.) 5.5 21.775 Chemical Non-metallic. 330 Non-metallic mine.
    Riegel Mine (R.Mi.43). 32.75 4 3.5 20.5 ZZ.42 400 Fitted for three external igniters for anti-handling.
    Wooden Box Mine (42). Holzmine 42. 12 12 18 ZZ.42 200
    Wooden Box Mine V.B.I. Holzmine V.B.I. 12 12 4 20 ZZ.42 200
    Heavy Wooden AT Mine. 17 15. 75 10.5 37 DZ.35 200 Fitted for anti-handling devices.
    Panzer Schnellmine Type A. 20.75 13 5 16 (approx.) ZZ.42 Locally produced improvised mine.
    Type B. 20.75 13 5 16 (approx.) Buck igniter.
    Improvised Aluminum Mine. 12.5 (diam.) 4.75 14 to 161/2 DZ.35
    T.Mi.Z. 42
    C.V.P. 1 AT & Apers. Mine (Hungarian) 10 (diam.) 3 8 60
    French Light AT Mine. 9.5 5.5 4.5 14.5 Rod 35
    Rod 36
    Dutch AT Mine T. 40. 11 (diam.) 3.5 13.2 Pressure ball release type. 100 Oval section.
    AT Mine Type N. (Norwegian). 15.75 5.5 5 10 Pressure ?
    Belgian Heavy AT Type HA. 9 8.75 8.5 33 Shear Pin and Striker. 400
    Figure 88.


    7. Igniters

    a. PULL IGNITERS. (1) Bakelite Z.Z.42 (Zugzünder 42). The pin, the striker, and the actuating spring of this igniter are steel. The body and the collar are plastic mouldings, and the cap holder is brass. Between the lower end of the spring and the striker head are a metal washer and a felt washer which act as a guiding gland. The over-all length is 37/16 inches, and the diameter is1/2 inch.

    (2) Zugzünder 35 (Z.Z.35). (a) Description. This igniter is used with trip wires to operate S-mines, improvised mines, and booby traps. The heavy antitank mines have this igniter as a booby trap against lifting the lid, and it also is used as an extra igniter in Tellermines and as the main igniter in the drifting mine. The brass body of the igniter contains a sliding cylinder, a compressing spring, the striker, and the striker spring. In the unarmed position, the safety pin is prevented from falling out by a nut on the end of the pin and by a spring clip. When the nut is removed prior to arming, the clip still holds the pin in place until it is pulled away by a cord.

    (b) Operation. In the armed position the striker is held only by two small cotters, which project into the groove behind the head of the striker. When the sliding cylinder is pulled up about 3/16 inch, the cotters are freed and move outwards, releasing the striker. The pull required to fire the igniter is 9 to 13 pounds.

    (c) To neutralize. The igniter is made safe by pushing a small nail through the hole in the striker. The trip wire then may be cut.

    (d) To disarm. When the igniter is fitted into a mine or charge, unscrew the igniter with the nail in place and remove the detonator.

    (3) Zug-und Zerschneidezünder 35 (Zu. Z.Z.35). (a) Description. This igniter is used chiefly in places where tension wires are easily concealed. It functions in two ways--either by pull on a wire or by cutting the wire. In both cases it is set by securely fastening a wire through the hole in the head of the movable cylinder. The body of the igniter contains a movable cylinder, a striker spring, and the striker. The striker is held in position by two cotters. The movable cylinder slides inside a sleeve fitted in the end of the main housing. This sleeve has two slots through which the safety pin passes. These slots allow for adjustment of the igniter when setting the charge. When the igniter is to be armed, the wire is attached to the cylinder and given enough tension to hold the safety pin near the center of the slot. This ensures easy withdrawal of the safety pin after the charge or mine has been laid. Before withdrawal of the pin the nut is removed from the end of it.

    (b) Operation. When properly armed the igniter will function if the tension wire is pulled or cut.

    (c) To neutralize. If the safety pin has been removed, and the tension wire is intact, push a small nail through the safety-pin hole, and, after determining that there is no igniter on the other end of the wire, the wire may be cut.

    b. PRESSURE IGNITERS. (1) Drücksünder 35 (DZ.35 Type A). (a) Description. This is a mechanically-acting, push igniter, designed for use with improvised mines and booby traps. It is also the main igniter of the heavy antitank mine. It consists of an aluminum body and a plunger which carries the 11/4-inch pressure head. The plunger is held away from the cap by a strong spring. Within the plunger is a recess for the striker and spring. Two steel balls rest partly in two holes in the plunger and retain the striker in the cocked position. When in the safe position, the plunger is prevented from moving by a safety pin.

    (b) Operation. After withdrawal of the safety pin the igniter is fired by pressure on the head, which depresses the plunger until the steel balls are free to escape into the space in the guide. The striker then is released and fires the cap. A pressure of 130 to 160 pounds (corresponding to a depression of about 1/3 inch) is sufficient to fire the igniter.

    (c) To neutralise. Push a nail into the safety pin hole and secure it in place to prevent its falling out.

    (d) To disarm. After neutralizing the igniter, unscrew it from the charge and remove the detonator.

    (2) Drückzünder 35 (DZ.35 Type B). (a) Description. This igniter functions exactly the same way as type A, though its construction differs in a few minor details. The body is made of unpainted brass, and the diameter of the pressure head is 1 inch. The retaining steel balls are replaced by two small cotters, placed below the head of the striker. The cap is located in the base plug.

    (b) Operation. After withdrawal of the safety pin, the igniter is fired by pressure on the head.


    When the plunger is depressed about 1/3 inch, the two small cotters escape from the guide into the space below. The striker then is released and fires the cap. The pressure required in some cases is as low as 50 pounds.

    (c) To neutralize. Same as for Type A.

    (d) To disarm. Same as for Type A.

    (3) S-Minenzünder 35 (S.Mi.Z.35). (a) Description. This igniter is used to initiate the S-mine when set as a pressure operated charge. The body of the igniter is made of aluminum and holds a pressure spring, plunger, striker, and striker spring. A central part of the body acts as a distance piece and guide for the plunger. Three steel antennae, 11/4 inches long, are screwed to the head of the plunger. This hollow plunger takes the striker, which is held in position against its spring by two steel balls. The balls are held partly in two holes in the plunger and partly in a groove in the striker. The safety pin is retained in its hole by a spring-loaded and milled nut. When the safety pin is withdrawn, the mine is armed.

    (b) Operation. Pressure on the antennae causes the plunger to descend, and after moving approximately 0.2 inch the steel balls fall away releasing the striker. The firing pressure is approximately 15 pounds.

    (c) To neutralize. Push a nail into the safety pin hole. Care must be taken in handling this igniter as a slight steady pressure may cause it to function.

    (4) Tellerminenzünder 42 (T.Mi.Z.42). This igniter consists of a simple steel striker retained against the pressure of a steel spring by a shear wire. The striker is in a steel casing. A percussion cap is at the base of the casing. The pressure necessary on the head of the striker is approximately 400 pounds.

    (5) Tellerminenzünder 43 (T.Mi.Z.43). (a) Description. The chief feature of this igniter, which can be used in Tellermines 35, 35 (steel), 42, and 43, is that once it has been placed in the mine and armed it cannot be removed without exploding the mine. The head of the T.Mi.Z.43 is approximately 1/4 inch higher than that of the T.Mi.Z.42. The upper shear pin is 1/4 inch above the body of the igniter. The outer ends of the arming shear pins can be seen on the sides of the igniter body, either 1/2 inch or 7/8 inch below the top of the igniter body. The igniter consists of a body into which is pressed a cap retainer. Inside is a pressure sleeve, which protrudes above the casing. The upper part of the sleeve is fitted with a strong shear pin, and the lower part is connected to the igniter body by a weak brass arming wire. Inside the pressure sleeve is a plain tubular striker guide containing the striker, held in place by two retaining balls.

    (b) Operation. The igniter is inserted in the normal manner, and the top of the mine is screwed on. This depresses the pressure sleeve, which in turn shears the weak arming pins with an audible snap. The anti-lifting device of the igniter now is armed. The igniter can be set off in either of two ways. When the pressure plate is crushed or depressed, the sleeve is pressed down until the strong shear pin is cut. The retaining balls escape into the recess above the shoulder of the sleeve, freeing the spring-loaded striker which fires the percussion cap. Any attempt to unscrew the pressure plate or cap of the mine will cause it to explode. Under pressure of the spring the sleeve follows any upward movement of the plate or cap and after about 1/8 inch upward travel the balls escape below the sleeve, again releasing the striker.

    (c) Disarming. Since there is no way to determine whether a Tellermine is armed with this igniter, no pressure plate or screw caps should be removed from these mines. They should be lifted and destroyed. However, should it be necessary to determine the type of igniter, wind a rope or tracing tape counter-clockwise around the pressure plate or screw cap four complete times. Then pull from a safe distance to unscrew the plate or cap.

    (6) T.Mi.Z.35. (a) Description. This pressure igniter has only been found in Tellermines. The brass body contains a floating striker assembly. The striker head is stepped to fit a projection on the spindle. This is a secondary safety device to keep the weight of the striker off the shear pin until the igniter is armed. A white mark with the word Sicher (safe) above it, and a red mark with the word Scharf (armed) above it are inscribed on the head of the igniter. When the screw head is turned so the red spot moves from the safe to the armed position, the projection moves clear of the striker head.

    (b) Operation. In the mine the lower face of the guide compresses the ring situated above the adjusting collar. Pressure on the cover of the mine moves the body of the igniter down against the rubber on the collar and so exerts a force on


    Figure 89.--Friction Igniters
    Figure 89.--Friction Igniters.


    Figure 90.--Pull Igniters
    Figure 90.--Pull Igniters.

    Figure 91.--Pressure Igniters
    Figure 91.--Pressure Igniters.


    Figure 91 (Continued)
    Figure 91 (Continued).


    top of the striker, shearing the pin. The striker then moves under the pressure of the spring.

    (c) To neutralize. If the mines have been subjected to blast, unscrew the igniter gently. Hold the igniter clear of the mine with the cap pointing away. Turn the red spot on the screw head from Scharf to Sicher. Fix the claw attached to the wire, or a similar improvisation, into the slotted end of the safety bolt, and press the safety bolt home. Replace the igniter in the mine, screwing it in hand tight. If the mines are known to be in good condition, turn the red spot from Scharf to Sicher, using a coin, not a screwdriver. Fix the claw attached to the wire into the slotted end of the safety bolt and press the bolt home.

    Figure 92.--Pressure Release Device E.Z. 44
    Figure 92.--Pressure Release Device E.Z. 44.

    c. OTHER IGNITERS. (1) Pressure Release Device, E.Z.44 (Entlastungzu&numl;der 44). (a) Description. This device is intended primarily for booby-trapping Tellermines. Any attempt to remove the mine permits a plunger to rise, setting off an 8-ounce charge of TNT-PETN. A weight of 10 pounds is sufficient to hold the device in the armed position, and a built-in clockwork, time-delay protects the person setting it from premature detonation. The device is housed in a steel body crimped at the base. The operating mechanism fills one-half of the container, while the explosive occupies the remaining space. The operating mechanism includes the pressure release assembly, including plunger, plunger spring, and striker retaining arm; the clockwork mechanism; and the firing assembly, including striker, striker spring, percussion cap, detonator holder, and detonator.

    (b) Operation. The clockwork mechanism is wound. A weight of at least 10 pounds is placed on the plunger. The safety bar is released, permitting the clockwork mechanism to function for 11/2 minutes with a loud buzzing sound, withdrawing the internal safety pin. The device now is armed.

    (c) To neutralize. Once this device is armed it cannot be neutralized.

    (2) Tilt Igniter, Ki.Z.43 (Kippzünder 43). (a) Description. The tilt igniter is designed to fire whenever the tilt rod is moved in any direction. This tilt rod is on top of the igniter, which contains a sliding pressure piece, pressure spring, hollow striker, striker spring, and two retaining balls. The detonator assembly includes percussion cap and detonator. An extension rod, 243/4 inches long, is connected by pushing the sleeve over the tilt rod.

    Figure 93.--Tellermine with Tilt Igniter attached
    Figure 93.--Tellermine with Tilt Igniter attached.

    (b) Operation. The igniter is armed by removing the safety pin. When the tilt rod is moved in any direction, the tilt-rod base is tilted inside the igniter body, depressing the pressure piece, thus freeing the striker. A lateral pressure of 15 to 23 pounds on the end of the tilt bar will fire the igniter. Use of the extension rod reduces the pressure needed to explode the igniter to 11/2 pounds.

    (3) S-Mine Igniter 44. (a) Description. This igniter is a combination push-and-pull type, with the standard German igniter thread. It can be used in mines and charges other than the S.Mi.44.


    Figure 94.--Clockwork Long-delay Igniter (J-Feder 504)
    Figure 94.--Clockwork Long-delay Igniter (J-Feder 504).

    The steel case of the igniter contains a spring-loaded striker above a percussion cap and detonator socket. The striker protrudes through the top of the igniter. Two flat, winged, actuating pieces are held together at the top by a safety pin. Holes in these pieces serve for the attachment of trip wires.

    (b) Operation. The igniter is armed after the safety pin is withdrawn. A pressure of 21 pounds on the wings of the actuating pieces, or an outward pull of 14 pounds on the trip wires, opens the winged actuating pieces sufficiently to release the striker and fire the percussion cap.

    (c) To neutralize. This igniter requires extreme care in neutralization. In place the igniter is completely covered, leaving only the wings exposed. Carefully locate the wings and remove enough earth to insert a safety pin or nail through the pin holes. If trouble is encountered in inserting the pin or nail, the mine is dangerous and should be destroyed in place. Unscrew the igniter, lift the mine, and remove the detonator.

    (4) Clockwork long delay igniter (J-Feder 504). This igniter is a clockwork mechanism that may be set to function at any desired delay from 10 minutes to 21 days. It is used for special demolitions.

    (5) Crush Type Chemical "Buck" Igniter. (a) Description. This igniter is a chemical, crush-actuated type, consisting of a thin metal drum, with circumferential grooves to reduce its resistance to vertical pressure. It contains a glass ampule half filled with acid, surrounded by a white, powdered, flash composition. It weighs 1 ounce.

    (b) Operation. A moderate pressure on top of the igniter crushes the metal drum and the glass ampule inside it. The acid pours into the white powder, and a flash results, setting off detonator and mine.


    8. Bridging Equipment

    a. GENERAL. (1) Development. Apart from the introduction of a 60-ton type in the armored division bridging column, German bridging equipment has undergone few important changes since the beginning of the war. Standard types are not numerous; particular emphasis is placed upon the construction of improvised bridges at the earliest possible stage of a river crossing.

    (2) Bridging Operations. The initial stage of an assault crossing is carried out by storm boats. These may be supplemented by pneumatic boats supplied in three sizes. Once a bridgehead has been established, pneumatic boats play an important part, either in ferrying personnel and stores, or in construction of rafts and light bridges. The superstructure for these light bridges consists of standard timber members carried ready for construction. Ready made timber bridges for crossing dry gaps also are carried, and some engineer units carry a light box girder and pontoon equipment known as bridging equipment "D". In the third stage of a river crossing, when the bridge is required for normal traffic of approximately 24 tons, bridges from the divisional bridging column are used. Of these, there are two types: bridging equipment "B", a pontoon trestle bridge; and bridging equipment "K", a box girder bridge supported on pontoons and trestles. A third type, bridging equipment "J", designed to accommodate the heavier German tanks, replaces the "K" equipment in armored divisions.

    (3) Heavy bridges. Heavier semi-permanent bridges includes the L.Z. bridge, a Sectionalized, through-girder type which is launched from a roller bed; the Herbert, with a girder superstructure supported on large Sectionalized pontoons, and the "S" equipment, used for heavy traffic over wide rivers and consisting of a double-way superstructure on Sectionalized pontoons similar to those of the Herbert. Railway bridges are represented by the Roth-Wagner, Krupp, and Ungaw bridges.

    b. BOATS USED IN RAFTING AND BRIDGING. (1) Small pneumatic boat.

    (2) Pneumatic boat assault bridge. This bridge can be built in any lengths in a current up to 21/4 knots and will carry infantry in single file.

    Weight of superstructure--12.8 pounds per foot.

    Total weight of bridge--23.7 pounds per foot.

    (3) Medium pneumatic boat. (a) Description. These pneumatic boats can be used as supports for the standard German 21/4-ton, 41/2-ton, and 9-ton rafts. The 21/4-ton raft consists of two boats; the 41/2-ton raft has four boats in the form of two pairs in tandem, and the 9-ton raft has three pairs in tandem.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (4) Motor boat. (a) Description. This craft is used primarily for pushing and towing rafts and bridge sections in bridging operations. It also can be used for river reconnaissance and barge towing. It is transported on a special two-wheel trailer, which is provided with gear so the boat can be launched and recovered direct from the trailer. The motor boat is a broad-beamed craft constructed of steel plates with copper-nickel rivets.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (c) Engine. The boat is driven by a six-cylinder, Maybach-type, S5, water-cooled, gasoline engine.


    (d) Trailer. The two-wheel trailer includes chassis, extensible tipping slipway, traveling cradles, winch, and hoisting cable. It has the following characteristics:

    (5) Storm boat. (a) Description. This boat, when in operation, is carried and launched by eight men, while four men are required to carry and install the motor. The boat is steered by pivoting the motor on the bracket which attaches it to the stern. The helmsman stands in the stern gripping two handles at the front of the motor.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (c) Engine. This is a "mechanical oar" propulsion unit: a propeller attached to a long shaft running through a casing bolted to the engine. The propeller revolves several feet behind the boat.

    (6) Large pneumatic boat. This is the largest of the three standard pneumatic boats and is generally used singly.

    c. PONTOON AND TRESTLE BRIDGES. (1) Training pontoon bridge. (a) Description. There is little evidence of this equipment being used operationally; it is thought to be kept for training. There are two types of light pontoon and trestle bridges: one with half pontoons having a load capacity of 4 tons, and the other with double-pontoon piers having a load capacity of 5 1/2tons. The decking used for this bridge also is used in bridging and rafting with pneumatic boats.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (2) Pontoon and trestle bridge (Czech). This equipment consists of steel half pontoons and center sections. Two types of bridges are built.

    (a) Roadways built on piers of one half pontoon and one center section, with a capacity of 8.2 tons and the following characteristics.

    (b) Roadway built on piers of two half pontoons and one center section, with a capacity 16.5 tons and the following characteristics:


    (3) Light pontoon and trestle equipment (Brückengerät C). The three following types of bridges can be built with this equipment.

    (4) Medium pontoon and trestle equipment (Brückengerät T).

    (5) Heavy pontoon and trestle equipment (Brückengerät B). This is the standard combat equipment of the German Army.


    Figure 95.--Small pneumatic boat
    Figure 95.--Small pneumatic boat

    Figure 96.--Track bridge and medium pneumatic boat
    Figure 96.--Track bridge and medium pneumatic boat.


    Figure 97.--K Bridge
    Figure 97.--K Bridge.

    Figure 98.--L.Z. Bridge
    Figure 98.--L.Z. Bridge.


    (6) Light timber bridges on fixed supports. (a) Folding single span foot bridges. This equipment is made up of two single members, hinged together, and consisting each of two 3-inch round timber roadbearers supporting three cross bearers to which are wired two planks (9 foot 10 inches by 10 inches by 31/2 inches. This bridge is trussed by means of a timber strut a short distance off center and a system of ties. The total length of the bridge is 19 feet 8 inches.

    (b) Light tracked bridge. This is a light tracked timber bridge, constructed in two load ratings: 6 tons and 9.5 tons. It generally is supported by simple framed trestles, but if floating supports are needed the large pneumatic boat is used. The following tables give the cross sections of the roadbearers for varying spans and loads:

    (7) 27-Ton heavy tracked bridge. (a) Description. This bridge is a variation of the light tracked bridge, with a capacity of 27 tons, it consists of two bays and a span of 29 feet 6 inches. A single bent framed trestle is used as a central support.

    (b) Components.

    Figure 99.--Herbert Bridge
    Figure 99.--Herbert Bridge.


    d. FIXED BRIDGES. (1) Small box girder (Brückengerät K). This equipment is capable of carrying heavy vehicles and light tanks over short gaps. It is essentially an assault bridge and can span gaps of 31 feet 6 inches, 47 feet 3 inches, or 63 feet with box girders alone. The bridge always is built with three girders and has a carrying capacity of 27 tons. Trestles and pontoons are supplied to span wet or dry gaps with a series of bridges.

    (2) Light sectional bridge (Leichte Z Brücke). This is a through bridge with a timber roadway, approximately 12 feet wide, slung between two main girders of braced steel panels 8 feet 2 inches long and 7 feet 10 inches high. The normal bridge cannot span a gap greater than 147 feet 6 inches, and is rated over this and all lesser spans at 33 tons for tanks. With special underslung bracing the span may be increased to 172 feet without altering its rating.

    (3) Herbert Bridge. This bridge is sometimes called the "Italian Meccano Bridge". It is through-girder type with a 10-foot clear roadway. Each girder is constructed of steel lattice pyramids, made of angle iron and channel struts. The decking is of 6-inch timber plank. The German classification of this bridge is 18 tons over 82 feet. This bridge also may be used in conjunction with trestles or pontoons.

    e. Heavy Bridging Equipment. J 42 and J 43 Bridging Equipment (Brückengerät J 42 and J 43). The J 42 equipment consists of steel box-girder sections, of which any number up to four can be bolted together to form a maximum span of 64 feet. Each section is about 16 feet 6 inches long. A decking of stout chesses is laid on these main bearers and held down by two similar box girders used as vibrants. The girders are launched over rollers. Trestles and four-section pontoons are used as supports. The single track width of the bridge is believed to be 13 feet 9 inches, but it also can be constructed in double track width. The J 43 bridge is a strengthened version of the J 42.

    9. Mechanical Equipment

    a. 6-TON MOBILE CRANE (Sd. Kfz. 9/1) (Drehkran Kraftwagen 6 t.). This crane is mounted on the chassis of the 18-ton semi-tracked vehicle (Sd. Kfz. 9). It has a telescopic jib mounted on a ball-bearing base, which permits a traverse of 180 degrees and an adjustment for ground slope up to 12 degrees in any direction. The jib has two radii of operation according to the lifting capacity: 6 tons for the smaller radius and 4 tons for the larger radius.

    b. WIRE CUTTERS. (1) Large type. These cutters are approximately 2 feet in length and weigh 5 pounds. The two jaws of special steel are pivoted on two links and operated by a pair of tubular steel handles. These are hinged together and covered with insulated grips which are secured by terminal caps and locking rings. A short pin acts as a stop.

    Figure 100.--Wirecutters
    Figure 100.--Wirecutters.

    (2) Small type. These cutters are 1 foot 4 inches long and weigh 23/4 pounds. There are minor variations in construction among samples manufactured by different firms. The general design is similar to that of the large cutters, but the shape of the jaws is different, one jaw being bent over in the form of a hook to aid in holding the wire. The handles have insulated grips.

    c. BLAST DRIVE ROD. This equipment is designed for the rapid production of small diameter vertical holes in the ground for telegraph poles or similar supports. The equipment includes a drive rod; two tabular hand levers; a long, thin, metal rod; and a propellent charge, safety fuze, and igniter.


    Figure 101.--Electric chain-saw
    Figure 101.--Electric chain-saw.


    (1) Light power saw. (a) Description. The main components are the gasoline motor with its gearing, the clutch, saw blade, and saw chain. The saw blade can be turned through 90 degrees for horizontal or vertical cutting and is locked in position by a lever.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (2) Heavy power saw. (a) Description. This is similar to the light power saw. It is too heavy for hand use and is provided with three adjustable legs and a large bogie for wheeling into position. The saw blade can be swivelled about the axis of the chain drive wheel, as well as vertically of horizontally.

    (b) Characteristics.

    e. ELECTRIC GENERATORS AND ELECTRIC POWER TOOLS. (1) Field generating set (a) Description. This field generating set is used by German army engineers in mobile workshops for power driven tools. It is also used for charging storage batteries.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (2) German electric two-speed drill. This machine is used for boring holes in the construction of improvised bridges. The drill normally uses its own detachable mounting but, for boring wood, it may be held by hand. The drill consists of a 50-cycle AC motor, consuming 800 watts, fitted with a Morse taper sleeve and a two-speed gear box giving 200 to 400 revolutions per minute.

    f. GERMAN PILE DRIVERS. (1) Field Pile-Driving Frame 1939. (a) Description. This equipment consists of a guide mast with a double block at the top, supported on a base by two


    back stays. For pile-driving from land the frame is mounted on four wheels. These wheels are replaced by beams when pile-driving is carried on from a raft. A two-drum, hand winch serves to raise and lower the pile driver. The following can be operated on the frame:

    (b) Characteristics.

    (2) Pneumatic pile driver (360 foot pounds). (a) Description. The main components are a stationary part, consisting of the piston, piston rod, and piston base; a moving part (monkey) consisting of driving block, cylinder, and screw-in cylinder head; a spring-loaded clamping device, and a guide for use with the pile-driving frame 39. The driver is the fast hitting type and attains its high rate because the acceleration of the moving portion is due not only to its own weight but also to the compressed air operating downwards on an internal flange at the base of the bore of the cylinders.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (3) Pneumatic pile driver (1,440 foot pounds). (a) Description. This pile driver is similar to the lighter one, but it has a heavier monkey and a longer stroke. This driver is the free falling type. The monkey is lifted up by compressed air, falls freely onto the base plate, and gives up its kinetic energy to the. pile after covering a stroke of little more than a yard.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (4) Diesel pile driver (992 foot pounds). (a) Description. The main components are the piston with anvil, the monkey, the guide tubes, the headpiece, and the fuel tank. This diesel pile driver works on the two-stroke principle: an explosion takes place on each hitting stroke. The required ignition temperature is reached through the compression of the air trapped between the top of the falling piston and the monkey.

    (b) Characteristics.

    (5) Heavy diesel pile driver.
    (a) Characteristics.

    g. WATER SUPPLY AND WATER PURIFICATION. (1) Portable haversack filter. This filter, issued on a company basis, is a standard item of equipment in the German Army. Performance is said to be from 22 to 55 gallons of water per hour, according to the amount of solid matter in suspension. Although the action of the filter is purely one of clarification, it is claimed by the Germans that it effectively will treat "naturally" contaminated water, that is water in which corpses have been lying. However, it will not rid the water of objectionable smell, nor is it effective against water containing chemical agents or substances in solution.

    Figure 102.--Haversack water filter
    Figure 102.--Haversack water filter.


    Figure 103.---Tube well set with accessories
    Figure 103.---Tube well set with accessories.

    (2) German Tube Well 1937 Pattern, with Accessories "A" and "B". This tube well is a suction pump capable of lifting water from a depth of 26 feet. Accessory "A" extends the depth to about 33 feet. Accessory "B" permits the pump to be used for pumping surface water.

    h. MARKINGS OF CYLINDERS OF INDUSTRIAL GASES. The Germans always stamp the type of gas their cylinders contain into the metal itself as guide in case the paint should change color or disappear through weathering.

    i. EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT. Trench plows. Small and large trench plows are used by the German Army. The small trench plow consists of a double plowshare on the hooked end of a girder which is supported on a two-wheeled trailer and towed behind a semi-tracked vehicle. The large plow consists of the plow, anchor, pulley assembly, tow wire, and support.

    j. AIR COMPRESSORS AND PNEUMATIC TOOLS. (1) Sinker rock drills. There are two types of sinker rock drills used by the German Army: the "D" handle and the "T" handle types. Both, judged by American standards, fall into the lightweight class (40 to 50 pounds). These tools are similar in design but the internal parts are not interchangeable. Both of these rock drills can be used by attaching American standard air lines with the universal coupling used on the German drills.

    (2) German F.M.A. Air Compressor.

    (a) Engine. This is a four-cylinder gasoline engine with magneto ignition. The horsepower rating is


    Figure 104.--F.M.A. Air Compressor
    Figure 104.--F.M.A. Air Compressor.

    27 at 950 revolutions per minute. The main shaft is connected to the compressor by a single disc clutch with a rotating collar and a manual engaging lever. There are two water pumps, one attached to the engine and one to the compressor.

    (b) Compressor. The compressor is a two-cylinder, single-stage mechanism. The operating pressure is presumed to be approximately 90 pounds per square inch. The air tank is of unusual design. It consists of three short sections of steel tubing welded into a "V" shape with the open ends sealed off. This air tank is used as the base for mounting the engine and compressor.



    1. General

    The German military organization is thoroughly prepared for chemical warfare. Germany's chemical industry is highly developed; equipment and stocks of war gases in storage and production are ample, and adequate well trained personnel are available. Offensively or defensively, the German Army is in a position to wage chemical warfare at any time. Unusual activity in research and manufacture has taken place in German chemical plants since the beginning of the war, and from time to time movements of war gases from one area to another have been reported. Military depots are believed to be amply stocked with gas shells of all calibers. Construction of anti-gas shelters in German cities, issue of gas masks to civilians, and a constant examination and replacement of gas mask canisters have been regularly carried out.

    Figure 105.--German gas mask, GM 30
    Figure 105.--German gas mask, GM 30.

    2. Defensive Equipment

    a. GAS MASKS. (1) General. Most German gas masks are of the snout type, in which the canister is connected directly to the facepiece. Types GM 30 and GM 38 are in general use, and in addition to the standard masks there are several special types. Generally, German gas masks provide good protection against the common war gases, and fair protection against such gases as arsine, hydrocyanic acid, and cyanogen chloride. The Germans also have three types of gas masks for horses and one for dogs.

    (2) Gas mask, GM 30. The facepiece is of four-layer, field gray fabric, with a suede leather fitting band, a leather chin support, and plastic eyepieces. The head harness has seven points of attachment. There is a cotton strap for suspending the mask from the neck in an alert position. Some GM 30 facepieces are fitted with an adapter for microphone.

    Figure 106.--German FF. 41 and FE 42 Canisters (larger is the FE 42)
    Figure 106.--German FF. 41 and FE 42 Canisters (larger is the FE 42).

    Canisters normally used with this mask are the FE 41 and the FE 42. The FE 41 canister is drum-shaped and painted green. It measures 21/2 inches by 41/4 inches in diameter and weighs 11.9 ounces. It is being replaced by the FE 42, the canister of which is the newest and most efficient of the service canisters. Externally, it is similar to the FE 41, but is larger and heavier, measuring 31/2 inches high by 41/4 inches in diameter, and weighing 16.3 ounces.

    The standard carrier is a corrugated cylindrical metal case with a hinged cover and cotton carrier straps. It is painted drab, field gray, or blue-gray. Parachutists are provided with a padded, canvas, satchel-type carrier, having a snap fastener at the top and a zipper along one side.

    (3) Gas mask, GM 38. This mask began replacing the GM 30 in 1938. It is similar in design,


    Figure 107.--German gas mask, GM 38
    Figure 107.--German gas mask, GM 38.

    Figure 108.--German optical gas mask
    Figure 108.--German optical gas mask.

    but the facepiece, made of synthetic rubber has a rubber fitting band and a simpler head harness with only five points of attachment. The same canisters and carrier are used with this mask as with the GM 30.

    (4) Gas mask, cavalry. The facepiece is of conventional German construction, similar in most respects to that of the GM 30. It has a hose-tube assembly, approximately 17 inches long, for connecting canister to facepiece. The brownish-gray canister has a generally elliptical cross-section, and measures 81/2 inches high by 47/8 inches by 211/16 inches. Its weight is 27.7 ounces. The face-piece carrier is lightweight duck, and measures 20 inches long by 8 inches wide at the upper end. Its sides are tapered to a width of about 3 inches throughout the 9-inch hose portion. The canister carrier, of dark brown saddle leather, fits snugly over the canister and is attached to the lower end of the facepiece carrier.

    (5) Gas mask, optical. The facepiece, made of leather, has round, glass eyepieces, held in place by screw-type adapters. The interpupillary distances of eyepieces may be varied by means of an adjustable screw. A hose-tube connects the facepiece to the canister which is carried over the shoulder. In the left cheek of the facepiece is an adapter for a microphone. Standard canisters, as well as carbon monoxide canisters, may be used with this facepiece. The carrier is a rectangular metal box.

    (6) Gas mask, oxygen breathing set. This is a self-contained, oxygen-breathing apparatus, effective for somewhat over an hour. The face-piece is of the usual service type. The carrier is a metal knapsack, designed to rest on the user's back. It contains an alkali canister, an oxygen bottle, a valve, and a breathing bag with two breathing tubes, an "in" and an "out". The mechanism operates automatically on breathing. The apparatus is designed for use in cellars, dugouts, gun turrets, and ship holds in the presence of high concentrations of toxic gas, such as carbon monoxide.

    (7) Plastic emergency breathing device. This is an emergency breathing device enabling a canister to be used without a facepiece. Made of either transparent or yellow plastic, it consists of a circular piece to which are attached a tube for mouthpiece and a T-bar for chin rest. The circular piece is threaded internally to receive standard German canisters. A nose clip is attached


    to the circular piece by a cord, which also may serve to hold the device in an alert position. Apparently intended for protection against rapidly acting gases in sudden concentration, it can be put into use in less than 5 seconds. Its existence may partly explain why the German soldier is supposed to carry a spare canister.

    (8) Gas mask, combat engineers. This is a leather helmet, with a leather drop curtain fitted with eyepieces. The curtain normally is rolled up, but it may be dropped quickly over the face and held in place by a tape tied around the back of the head and neck. Flat filters cover the nose and mouth, possibly to provide limited, but speedy, protection against transient high gas concentrations. The face also would be protected against incendiary or corrosive materials.

    (9) Gas mask, headwound. Designed for men with headwounds, this is a hood made of sheet rubber, with one oval window large enough to see out of with both eyes. It is provided with inlet and outlet valves and a fitting to receive the standard canisters. The carrier is a metal case.

    (10) Gas mask, carbon monoxide. The Germans have several types of special canisters which provide very good protection against carbon monoxide. These canisters are attached to the normal facepieces by means of long hose-tubes. The canisters normally are larger and heavier than the standard canisters. An example is the CO FB 38 canister, measuring 11 inches high by 5 inches in diameter and weighing 5.2 pounds.

    (11) Gas mask, horse. (a) Model 38. This is a black rubber facepiece which fits over the nostrils and upper jaw. The bottom of the face-piece is reinforced to provide a biting pad. Oneach side of the facepiece is a canister, and on the front is an outlet valve. Near the top of each side, in the rear of the facepiece, are two heavy metal buckles for attaching the head harness. The canister, drum-shaped and painted green, measures approximately 2.1 inches high by 5 inches in diameter.

    Figure 109.--German CO FB 38 Canister for protection against carbon monoxide
    Figure 109.--German CO FB 38 Canister for protection against carbon monoxide.

    Figure 110.--German horse gas mask, PFE 41
    Figure 110.--German horse gas mask, PFE 41.

    Figure 111.--German dog gas mask 41
    Figure 111.--German dog gas mask 41.

    (b) Model 41. This consists of a pair of hollow cones with large slots near the apex, each with an outlet valve in the base and a threaded side opening into which a flat canister is screwed. The cones are placed up the nostrils of the horse and held in place by a harness over the head.

    (c) Damp mask, Model 41. This consists of a large paper-fabric bag with padded lip and biting pad to fit over the upper jaw. Before it is used, the mask must be impregnated with a special salt solution.

    (12) Gas Mask 41, dog. The facepiece, of a black, rubber-like compound, is made in four sizes. It has circular eyepieces, a valve assembly in the nose, and a canister on each side. The head harness consists of a throat strap, a fastener strap, and four head straps. The valve assembly consists of an air inlet knob and an outlet valve. The canister of thin green-painted metal, is 2 inches high by 31/4 inches in diameter. The carrier is a brown canvas haversack with a shoulder sling.


    b. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. (1) General. For troops there are the impermeable light and heavy protective suits and several types of protective capes. No impregnated clothing has been reported. There are leggings and protective covers for horses, and leggings and gas clothing for dogs.

    (2) Light protective suit. This suit consisting of boots, shorts, gloves, and a neck cover, is made of a fabric coated with a synthetic rubber (opanol). Components of the normal suit vary in color from grayish-green to dark blue-gray, with light tan or khaki for tropical use. Boots are rubber soled. The gloves are of either elbow or shoulder length. In some cases shorts have a bib in front. When deemed necessary, an extra pair of shorts may be used to protect the upper part of the body. The suit is carried in a small case of the same material.

    (3) Heavy protective suit. This comprises a jacket with hood, pants of the over-all type, gloves, and boots. Jacket and pants are made of fabric coated on both sides with gray rubber. Boots of knee length, are of heavy black rubber. Gloves are of gray or black molded rubber.

    (4) Protective sheet. This rectangular sheet is approximately 78 inches long and 48 inches wide. It may be made of paper, opanol-coated fabric, or nylon.

    (5) Eyeshields. Made of celluloid-type material, these consist of four separate sections sewed together to form an eyeshield with side panels. The eyeshield--two amber or green and two colorless--are carried in a green fabric case.

    (6) Horse cover. Made of an impermeable opanol-coated fabric, black inside and tan outside, this cover is in two halves, one for the right side and one for the left. Each half is rectangular, 62 inches long and 45 inches wide. On the front end is a sleeve-like projection of double thickness to fit over the leg. The cover is designed to protect the underbelly parts of the horse.

    (7) Horse legging. Sleeve-like in shape, of gray or green rubberized fabric, it is made in two sizes to fit front and hind legs.

    (8) Horse goggles. These comprise a pair of plastic eyepieces trimmed with leather, held together by an adjustable cloth strap, with another cloth strap attached to the outside of each eyepiece. A red line on one eyepiece, and a blue line on the other, apparently are to mark the right and left eyepieces.

    Figure 112.--Gloves, German heavy protective clothing
    Figure 112.--Gloves, German heavy protective clothing.

    Figure 113.--Pants, German heavy protective clothing
    Figure 113.--Pants, German heavy protective clothing.

    Figure 114.--Jacket, German heavy protective clothing
    Figure 114.--Jacket, German heavy protective clothing.


    Figure 115.--Decontamination vehicles
    Figure 115.--Decontamination vehicles.


    (9) Gas Clothing 41 for dogs. This consists of a hood and suit, to which are sewed rubber footcovers. Suit and hood are made of thin, field-gray, impregnated fabric. The suit, made in three sizes, is carried inside the facepiece of the dog gas mask.

    (10) Dog Legging 41. This is made of rubber in only one size and consists of foot and leg parts, fitted with fastening straps.

    c. DECONTAMINATION. (1) Equipment. (a) Mobile decontamination plant. This plant for the decontamination of clothing and equipment may take the form of motor trucks mounting a water-tube boiler for the rapid generation of steam, a a steam chamber, and a drying chamber.

    (b) Vehicle for decontamination of personnel. A six-wheeled motor vehicle fitted with a large box body which contains bathing facilities for 150 men per hour. Completely equipped, it weighs about 9 tons.

    (c) Vehicle for decontamination of clothing. A six-wheeled vehicle fitted with a large closed body which is equipped with a boiler, fans, and water tanks. Completely equipped, it weighs about 9.7 tons.

    (d) Light decontamination vehicle. This open, semi-tracked, 1-ton motor vehicle, equipped with a distributing hopper on the rear, carries about 1,675 pounds of bulk decontaminant and 16 decontamination canisters (22 pounds) for use by hand.

    (e) Filter for decontamination of water. The apparatus consists of two parts: the filter proper and a tank containing water for cleaning the filter. Both are of sheet iron covered with enamel. The filter proper is a tall, cylindrical tank filled with activated charcoal.

    (f) Decontamination plow. This is a large, fish-hook-shaped, ditching plow, mounted on a two-wheeled carriage with pneumatic tires. Overall length is 11 feet 6 inches; over-all width is 6 feet 1 inch. The plow produces a furrow 20 inches wide.

    (g) Decontamination pump. This is a metal stirrup pump, approximately 24 inches in length, with about 9 inches of rubber hose.

    (h) Decontamination canisters. These canisters consist of metal cylinders, 6.7 inches high by 3.3 inches in diameter, and a quadrangular metal or cardboard container, 14.6 inches high by 8.2 inches wide. Each has a perforated screen in the top for sprinkling the contents, normally Losantin, on a contaminated surface.

    (2) Decontaminants. (a) Losantin. This high quality, stabilized, white bleach powder is used for decontamination of standard blister gases. It is packed in steel drums of 55 and 110 pounds capacity.

    (b) Decontaminant 40. This is a fine white or pale cream powder, packed in steel drums holding 132 pounds. Especially designed for nitrogen mustards, it is also a powerful decontaminant for all blister gases.

    (c) Decontaminant N. A powdered or flaked white solid, supplied in wooden boxes of 175 pounds capacity, this is a substitute for Decontaminant 40, which is difficult and expensive to produce.

    (d) Weapon decontamination agent. This individual issue is a small bottle of liquid agent in a dark brown, bakelite container. It is used for the decontamination of small arms and individual equipment.

    (e) Weapon decontaminating agent set. This is a company issue. It consists of two bottles of liquid in a cardboard container 14 inches high by 4.7 inches in diameter. The red-capped bottle contains the decontaminating agent, and the black-capped bottle contains a substance to counteract the corrosion caused by the agent.

    (f) Horse decontamination canister. A quadrangular cardboard box, with a perforated screen at one end, type 40 holds about 20 ounces of decontaminant. It is intended for a team of horses; type 41 which holds only about 10 ounces is designed for an individual horse. The canister is carried in the horse gas-mask carrier.

    (g) Dog decontamination canister 42. This is a quadrangular cardboard box holding about 10 ounces of decontaminant.

    d. PROTECTIVE AGENTS. (1) Losantin. Ten tablets of Losantin are issued in plastic boxes for

    Figure 116.--German alkaline eye salve
    Figure 116.--German alkaline eye salve.


    Figure 117.--German weapons decontaminating set, individual issue
    Figure 117.--German weapons decontaminating set, individual issue.

    Figure 118.--German weapons decontaminating agent set, company issue
    Figure 118.--German weapons decontaminating agent set, company issue.


    decontamination of the skin. Adhesive strips of different colors indicate the year of manufacture. The issue is four boxes to a soldier, but reports state that it is being replaced by Protective Ointment 41.

    (2) Protective Ointment 41. This is issued in bottles, with six swabs in an orange bakelite container, for decontamination of the skin.

    (3) Alkaline eye salve. This is a creamy white salve in either a metal foil tube or a white jar. It is used for the treatment of eyes contaminated with blister gases.

    (4) Inhalant ampoules and swabs. Five inhalant ampoules and six swabs are packed in a green metal box. The ampoules are for inhalation upon exposure to toxic smokes, and the swabs are for wiping off liquid blister gases.

    Figure 119.--German inhalant ampoules and swabs.

    e. GAS DETECTORS. (1) Detector powder. This is ochre or pink powder which changes color in contact with certain war gases in liquid form. The pink powder is reported to be obsolescent. Either a detector canister or a detector pump is used to spread the powder.

    (2) Carbon Monoxide Detector Paper 42. Two bottles of testing liquid, 400 detector papers, and one holder for the detector paper comprise this set. When moistened with the testing liquid, the paper changes color in the presence of carbon monoxide.

    (3) Arsine detector paper. This equipment is packed in a cardboard box, containing 100 bottles of detector paper and 30 holders for the detector paper. Each booklet which holds 10 sheets is inclosed in airtight packing. Arsine in the air changes the color of the paper.

    (4) Detector Canister 42. This metal cylinder, with a perforated screen in one end, holds about 4 pounds of detector powder.

    (5) Gas detector. This is for detection of gas vapors. It comprises an air-sampling pump in a metal holder and five types of testing tubes in a metal carrier.

    (6) Carbon monoxide detector set. (a) Army type.

    This consists of a field gray, wooden box, containing an air pump, 32 detector tubes, a tube holder, and accessories.

    (b) Commercial type.

    Essentially, this consists of an air pump and detector tubes in a metal cylindrical carrier. Though a commercial detector, it is used in army fortifications. When air containing carbon monoxide is drawn through a tube from either set, the contents of the tube changes color.

    (7) Gas detector equipment set. This consists of a metal carrier containing an air pump, a few detector tubes of each type, arsine detector paper, a small detector canister, and accessories.

    (8) Spray detector cards. These stiff paper cards, packed 20 to a carton, are coated on both sides with a paint containing a dye which changes color in contact with liquid blister gases.

    (9) Detector powder pump. This is a ribbed, sheet-metal box container having an internally built pump, with a handle on one end and an adjustable spray nozzle on the other.

    Figure 120--German gas detector set
    Figure 120--German gas detector set.

    Figure 121.--German detector powder pump
    Figure 121.--German detector powder pump.


    Figure 122.</i>--German gas detector and sampling kit
    Figure 122.--German gas detector and sampling kit.

    (10) Gas detector and sampling kit. This aluminum chest contains six sample bottles, four small detector canisters, war gas warning cards, spray detector paper, and accessories.

    (11) Detector paint. This paint contains a dye which changes color in contact with certain liquid war gases. It is used to make smears on surfaces for detection of war gas spray.

    (12) Gas detector for fortifications. A metal case contains an electric motor, air pumps, six pairs of metal and glass detector tubes, seatings for the tubes, and necessary connections for drawing air through all of the tubes at the same time.

    (13) Field laboratory. This laboratory includes equipment for testing for war gases, in addition to necessary equipment for accomplishing its main function of food and drug analysis.

    (14) Gas detection vehicle. This is an open, semi-tracked, 1-ton vehicle used for carrying gas detection personnel and their equipment.

    f. MISCELLANEOUS. (1) Ear plugs. These are square tablets of yellow wax, packed six in a metal box, for protection of men with damaged ear drums.

    (2) Anti-dim disc. This occurs in sets of two. The disc, 2.3 inches in diameter, has one side coated with gelatin. It is fitted over the inside of the eyepieces, with the gelatin-coated side next to the wearer's eyes. The gelatin rapidly absorbs moisture and prevents fogging of the eyepieces.

    (3) Anti-dim sheet. This is an oval celluloid-type disc to fit over the window of a headwound gas mask to prevent fogging. The disc is believed to have one side coated with gelatin. Ten discs are packed in a tin box.

    (4) Gas mask tester. This includes a rectangular chest containing an electric motor, a pressure gage, a head-form for the gas mask face-piece, and accessories.

    (5) Canister testing apparatus. This is a portable tester in a wooden case. The case contains a pump, a canister resistance gage, and accessories.

    Figure 123.--German gas mask testing equipment
    Figure 123.--German gas mask testing equipment.


    Figure 124.--Gas warning flag set
    Figure 124.--Gas warning flag set.

    (6) Gas alarm device. This is a whistling cartridge which is fired from a signal pistol. It rises about 50 feet, giving off either a whitish or green light and emitting a high-pitched whistle audible for about 400 yards.

    (7) Anti-gas pathway material. This strong paper, impregnated with a tar-like substance, is prepared in rolls, approximately 4 feet wide and 55 yards long. It is stated to be of sufficient strength to allow 200 men to cross a contaminated area in safety.

    (8) Gas warning flag set. This is a pistol-shaped case containing 20 L-shaped iron rods, 20 warning flags (yellow with black skull and crossed bones imprinted), and a roll of yellow marking tape.

    Figure 125.--Set of German collective protectors
    Figure 125.--Set of German collective protectors.

    (9) Collective protector. This is installed in air raid shelters and other fixed installations. It consists of a pump, either electrically or hand driven, a mechanical canister, a chemical canister, and necessary connections for drawing outside air through the canisters.

    (10) Gas protective case for pigeons. This is a case of four compartments, each with an inlet tube and filter.

    3. War Gases

    a. GENERAL. German war gases, generally speaking, have retained their World War I classification. However, "crosses" are believed to have been superseded by the terms "rings" or "bands" for purposes of nomenclature. The appearance of the FE 42 canister suggests that the Germans are aware of the potentialities of hydrocyanic acid (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK) and arsine (SA). Tests show that this canister affords fair protection against these gases. The Germans are known to favor the combination of gases. Thus, a vesicant toxic smoke is a combination of "blue"-and "yellow"-band gases, and the nature of the chemical filling would be indicated by two bands of the corresponding colors. "Green" and "yellow" bands would indicate a choking gas with vesicant properties. A double "yellow" band would indicate a vesicant gas of enhanced persistence.


    b. NITROGEN MUSTARDS. In addition to the more or less standard agents, there is documentary evidence to show that the Germans possess a nearly odorless gas designated as "Green Band I." It is only one of several gases with like characteristics that may be referred to as "nitrogen mustards."

    Generally speaking, the nitrogen mustards are either liquids or low-melting solids, pale yellow to colorless, and are practically odorless. Their volatility varies, some being less volatile than mustard gas and some more volatile. They are fairly readily hydrolyzed by water, but the products of such hydrolysis are toxic.

    Nitrogen mustard gas has a low freezing point, and might, therefore, be used for high-altitude bombing or spray (if thickened). It may be three or four times as volatile as mustard gas and therefore less persistent. Since higher concentrations are possible, it is more dangerous as a gas, though not so powerful in its vesicant effect. It would require special stabilization if used in hot climates.

    The principal danger from the nitrogen mustards lies in the fact that their vapors are not easily detected by smell. Munitions which contain these gases and have a high bursting charge (20 to 30 per cent HE) are indistinguishable from HE on detonation. Under such conditions, reliance must be placed on the usual U.S. detector methods: that is, detector paint or paper and the vapor detector kit, M-9.

    Nitrogen mustard is likely to be used to achieve surprise by being included in a normal HE bombardment in order to capture key positions. It is also possible that this gas would be used as a spray from airplanes, or in aerial bombs.

    (Mixtures of mustard gas and Lewisite may be used in cold weather to reduce the freezing point. A 50-per cent mixture of mustard and Lewisite is called Winterlost. The mustard gas is likely to be an improvement over that of World War I; it is probably more persistent, possibly more vesicant, and more difficult to decontaminate.)

    (There have been frequent references to mixtures of these choking gases.)

    (Neither of these gases was used by the Germans in the last war. They relied upon a number of bromine compounds, which are less powerful than the two substances listed. It is thought that Germany attaches little importance to tear gases alone, but the possible use of other gases camouflaged by tear gases must not be overlooked.)

    4. Ground Weapons

    a. GENERAL. The Germans have a large number of weapons capable of firing chemical warfare munitions--guns, mortars, howitzers, and projectors--with varying calibers and ever-increasing types.

    b. GUNS.

    No less than 12 guns of 75-mm caliber, including a self-propelled model, fire smoke shells. The limitations of gas shells for artillery are clearly recognized by the Germans. Although thus far no German gas shells have been captured, reports indicate that for some time they have been building up extensive stocks of gas-filled shells, 105-mm and 150-mm being the favored calibers. Smoke shells for several types of 105-mm guns, two of which are self-propelled, are known. Smoke shells weighing

    Figure 126.--75-mm smoke projectile for tank gun
    Figure 126.--75-mm smoke projectile for tank gun.


    Figure 127.--15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 being loaded
    Figure 127.--15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 being loaded.


    Smoke Shell Weapon Firing the Munition Color Markings and Remarks
    8 cm Wgr. 34 Nb.
    8 cm Wgr. 38 Blau.
    8 cm Mortar (S.Gr.W.34). Red body. Nb. in white.
    Blue band.
    Ejects blue smoke for target indication.
    10 cm Wgr. 35 Nb. 10 cm Smoke Mortar (Nb.W.35). Brick red or olive green; Nb in white.
    *10 cm Wgr. 40 Nb.
    *10 cm Wgr. 40 Wkb. Nb.
    Nb. W. 40.
    Nb. W. 40.
    Brick red or olive green;
    Nb in white with long burster tube.
    20 cm Wgr. 40 Nb. 20 cm Spigot Mortar (le. Ldg. W. 40). Used by the Engineers.
    Electrically fired. Range 700 meters.
    38 cm Wgr. 40 Nb. 38 cm Spigot Mortar (S. Ldg. W. 40). Used by the Engineers.
    * It should be noted that the HE shell for the 10 cm mortar 40 has stencilled on the tail "10 cm Nb. W. 40", due to the fact that the mortar is the "Nebelwerfer 40", i.e., "smoke" projector.
    Figure 128.


    approximately 86 pounds are provided for 150-mm self-propelled guns, known as the "Grizzly Bear" and the "Bumble Bee". There are also smoke and incendiary shells for the 150-mm heavy infantry gun.

    c. MORTARS. The basic weapon of German chemical warfare troops is the 105-mm mortar, two models of which are known. In addition to the 81-mm mortar, the Germans have a 12-cm mortar that is identical with the Finnish 12-cm mortar made by Tampella. They also have copied the Russian 12-cm mortar. Revolutionary in design are the 20-cm and 38-cm spigot mortars. While these mortars are primarily intended for the destruction of obstacles, minefields, and gun emplacements, smoke shells are provided and there is apparently no reason why gas or incendiary fillings could not be substituted for HE.

    d. HOWITZERS. Smoke shells are provided for two types of light field howitzers of 105-mm caliber and three types of 150-mm heavy field howitzers. Projectiles weighing 80 pounds filled with blister and choking gases, for the heavy field howitzers are reported.

    e. PROJECTORS. Two general types of rocket projectors have made their appearance during the current war: the Nebelwerfer (literally, smoke projector) and the Schweres Wurfgerät (heavy throwing apparatus). For details of these weapons see Section VII of Chapter VII.

    f. SMOKE GENERATORS. (1) General. Smoke generators are often referred to as "thermo-generators" due to the fact that they produce smoke by the "hot" process, namely, by the combustion of the smoke materials. They may be stationary, thrown by hand or rifle, or by dischargers mounted on tanks. Also, they may be fastened on floats or buoys for amphibious operations.

    (2) Smoke Candle 39 (Nb.K.39). This smoke generator consists of a metal can, 53/4 inches high by 31/2 inches in diameter, provided with holes in the top for smoke emission. It weighs approximately 43/4 pounds and is painted green, with two white bands around the body. The Berger-type smoke mixture, consisting of two parts of zinc dust to three parts of hexachlorethane, is fired by a pull type igniter and burns from 4 to 7 minutes.

    (3) Smoke Cylinder (Rauchrohr). Designed primarily for use against tanks, this munition consists of a cylinder 10 inches long with a diameter of 1 inch. It contains 71/2 ounces of a smoke mixture composed of zinc, magnesium, and hexachlorethane. Its total weight is 11 ounces. Ignited by a pull type igniter, it burns 3 to 4 minutes, emitting a dark gray smoke.

    (4) Long-Burning Smoke Generator (Langekerzer 42, Nb.KL 42). This long burning smoke generator is a green, cylindrical metal container with an over-all height of 19 inches and a diameter of 6 5/6 inches. It contains approximately 36 pounds of a smoke mixture consisting of zinc, zinc (or ammonium) chloride, and hexachlorethane. Its total weight varies from 35 to 49 pounds. The ignition is electrical or by means of a pull wire. The generator burns 15 to 30 minutes, emitting a whitish gray smoke sufficient to provide a screen 200 yards wide, 400 to 500 yards long and 40 yards deep under favorable conditions.

    Figure 129.--28/32 cm Schweres Wurfgerät 41 emplaced for launching incendiary rockets
    Figure 129.--28/32 cm Schweres Wurfgerät 41 emplaced for launching incendiary rockets.


    Figure 130.--Smoke candles: Nb.K.39B, Nb.K.S.39B, and Nb.K.39
    Figure 130.--Smoke candles: Nb.K.39B, Nb.K.S.39B, and Nb.K.39.

    (5) French smoke floats. German E-boats are reported to have used French 132-pound smoke floats consisting of a container, filled with Berger Mixture, a flotation device, a lid, and an igniter. The emission period is 4 to 5 minutes.

    Figure 131.--Smoke cylinders, Rauchrohre Nb. 39
    Figure 131.--Smoke cylinders, Rauchrohre Nb. 39.

    Figure 132.--German smoke apparatus, drum and cylinder
    Figure 132.--German smoke apparatus, drum and cylinder.


    g. SMOKE GENERATOR PROJECTORS FOR ARMORED VEHICLES. The Pz.Kpfw.III and Pz.Kpfw.VI are provided with smoke generator projectors (dischargers), which are mounted on each side of the turret. They consist of three cylindrical tubes, 6 inches in length by 3.7 inches in diameter, mounted on a bracket one above the other at a fixed elevation of 45 degrees, but slightly splayed to give a lateral spread to the generators. Nb.K.39 smoke generators are fired from inside the turret. Panther and Tiger Model B tanks are fitted with smoke generator dischargers mounted flush in the right rear top of the turret, at an angle of 60 degrees to the turret roof. They are mounted in a circular ring in such a manner that they may be traversed through 360 degrees. The barrel, 71/2 inches long by 3 5/8 inches in diameter, is fitted with a breechblock. The firing mechanism is operated by a trigger from within the tank, projecting the Nb.K.39 smoke generators.

    h. SMOKE SPRAYERS. Smoke sprayers (Nebelzerstäuber) disseminate a liquid smoke-producing material by the application of compressed air. The smoke liquid, generally chlorsulfonic acid, is atomized or dispersed as minute particles which vaporize and quickly condense again as very fine droplets by absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere. The process is "cold" as distinct from the "hot" process of the smoke generator. The Germans have a variety of smoke sprayers for diverse uses: stationary, portable, mounted on vehicles or tanks, carried on board ship or aircraft, and floating on buoys.

    i. GRENADES. Nebelhandgranate 39 and 41 are smoke hand grenades containing a hexachlorethane mixture. They are of similar design. Both are painted green and are distinguished by the inscription Nb. Hgr. 39 (or 41) in white, with a white broken line beneath the lettering. The Germans have two types of glass hand grenades, known as Blendkorper 1H and Blendkorper 2H, charged with a mixture of titanium tetrachloride (FM) and silicon tetrachloride. They also have incendiary frangible hand grenades of the Molotov-cocktail type, consisting of a pint glass bottle filled with a mixture of benzene and creosote oil. This type is intended primarily for use against tanks.

    j. GAS MINES. The German gas mines are referred to as spray canisters (Spruhbüchse). They are used by the ground forces for contaminating ground, roadblocks, buildings, or inaccessible places. They are also used for harassing landing parties on tidal beaches and for delaying armored vehicles and troops. The mines can be laid at the sides of roads, under bridges, in woods, or in other convenient locations and may be actuated by time mechanism or pressure fuzes. One mine can contaminate an area of 20 to 25 square meters.

    Figure 133.--Egg type smoke grenade
    Figure 133.--Egg type smoke grenade.

    Figure 134.--Frangible smoke grenade, Blenkorper 1H.

    k. BULK CONTAMINATION. Any liquid-spraying apparatus (Spruhgerät) may be used for bulk contamination. Tanks, armored cars, and trucks may be equipped with apparatus for spraying gas and smoke. Chemical trucks are included in the equipment for the special gas companies. The special spraying apparatus of the decontamination battalions is a potential contaminating apparatus as well, since it may readily be used for offensive purposes, spraying liquid "gases" instead of decontaminating liquids.

    l. MOBILE FLAME THROWERS. A flame thrower is a pressure-operated apparatus which projects a jet of liquid ignited as it leaves the gun. Its essential features are: a fuel container, a device


    Figure 135.--Frangible smoke grenades, Blendkorper 2H.

    for forcing the fuel out of the container, a projecting tube with a nozzle at its end, and an igniting system to set the jet of fuel aflame. The principle types developed by the Germans are as follows:

    (1) Flame thrower, portable, Model 35. This is the type with which Germany started the present war. It is a modified version of the 1918 model. Both fuel and compressed nitrogen containers are housed in one cylinder. The nitrogen is used for propulsion of the fuel, which is ignited at the nozzle by a jet of hydrogen flame. Both ejection and ignition of the fuel are controlled by the same trigger placed on the top of the gun. It can fire ten one-second bursts as far as 30 yards. Weighing 79 pounds it is too heavy for a single man in action.

    (2) Flame thrower, portable, Model 40. This is a "lifebuoy-type" flame thrower, weighing only 47 pounds. However, the decrease in weight has been accomplished by a one-third reduction in fuel, as compared with the Model 35. The range is unaltered.

    (3) Flame thrower, portable, Model 41. This consists of two cylinders, one for fuel and the other for compressed nitrogen. The complete apparatus weighs 35 to 40 pounds. Ignition is by hydrogen, which flows over an electrically heated wire at the nozzle, where it is lighted and in turn sets the oil afire. Firing is by the "hot" method: the oil is ignited each time the trigger is pulled: thus, the target can not be first sprayed with oil and then set afire. Five blasts can be fired, producing a flame of 700 to 800 degrees centigrade.

    (4) Flame thrower, portable, Model 42. In appearance it is similar to Model 41, but is slightly shorter and differing in one essential point:


    the ignition system. The hot-spot hydrogen jet ignition system of the older model has been replaced by the cartridge system. This consists of a cartridge magazine in which there are ten rimless, blank, 9-mm pistol cartridges, loaded, fired, and ejected in automatic succession at each pull of the trigger. Since the fuel ejection and the firing mechanisms are operated by the same trigger the result is the "hot-firing", wherein prior drenching of the target with oil is impossible. The jet of the fuel is set afire at the instant it leaves the nozzle. The apparatus weighs about 30 pounds empty and up to 40 pounds full. It holds approximately 7 1/2 gallons of fuel, a black oil smelling like creosote. The fuel ejection is by compressed nitrogen gas under a pressure of 441 pounds per square inch. There is no reducing valve on the nitrogen line. The oil is sufficient for 5 to 6 blasts, each lasting 3 seconds, reaching a range of 25 to 35 yards.

    (5) Para-Flame Thrower (Einstoss Flammenwerfer). This is another variety of the portable flame thrower. It is the standard one used by the paratroops and also is used to a great extent by the It weighs 233/4 pounds. The fuel is the usual black liquid used in other German flame throwers. It is fired from the shoulder, throws a flame 38 yards long, lasting 2 to 3 seconds. It is said to possess a constant, steady pressure producing an even flame. Also, it is claimed that it can be aimed accurately.

    (6) Trailer flame thrower. This is a flame thrower that bears a resemblance to a "field gun", since it is mounted on a chassis and is towed by a motor vehicle. Fitted on the frame is a box-shaped sheet metal body which contains the fuel tank, the pump, and the engine. The fuel tank is 4 feet 111/2 inches by 1 foot 91/2 inches, and holds 40 gallons of creosote oil. The pump is a gasoline engine-driven, centrifugal pump. The flame gun is mounted on a spigot on top of the fuel tank to facilitate traversing; the gun itself is carried on trunnions to permit elevating and depressing. It can be traversed 45 degrees each way and elevated between +30 degrees and -10 degrees. The fuel is ignited by an electric spark and the flame will last 24 seconds at a range of 45 to 50 yards, using 1.46 gallons of fuel per second. It has an over-all length of 7 feet 11 inches and weighs 900 pounds. When operating it makes a noise which can be heard easily at a distance of 300 yards.

    (7) Flame thrower on armored car (halftrack) (Sd Kfz 251.) Two flame throwers are mounted on the rear of an ordinary 3-ton halftrack armored vehicle, but are controlled from the front seat next to the driver. The flame throwers may be traversed 160 degrees. Length of hose is 11 yards. The tank holds 185 gallons of the usual German flame thrower-fuel. A centrifugal pump propels fuel with a consumption rate of 2 gallons per second. The fuel is sufficient for 80 bursts of 1 to 2 seconds each at a range of 40 to 50 yards. The weapon is fired by an electro-gasoline system.

    (8) Flame thrower on Panzerjäger 38 Chassis. (le. Pz. Jäg. 38 Chassis). The flame thrower is mounted offside on the front of the self-propelled Panzerjäger 38. The fuel capacity is 154 gallons, with a consumption rate of 1.8 gallons per second. Fuel release is controlled by hand through a 14-mm nozzle. The range is 55 to 66 yards.

    m. STATIONARY FLAME THROWERS. (1) General. These are called Abwehr Flammenwerfer by the Germans, a nomenclature that implies the defensive nature of the weapons. They are also known as static flame throwers, emplaced flame throwers, fougasse flame throwers, and flame thrower mines. The latter name is probably due to the fact that they are buried directly behind minefields or are dispersed among the mines to "thicken up" the defense and fired by remote control. Usually they are emplaced behind wire entanglements facing in the direction of probable attack to cover road blocks, landing beaches, harbor walls, and to act as movable obstacles at a gap in defense walls. They are buried at intervals of 12 to 30 yards, well camouflaged, leaving only the horizontal muzzle projecting above the ground. Groups of emplaced flame throwers are controlled from a central point, usually a small pillbox, and are operated either by remote electric control or by trip-wire mechanism.

    (2) Emplaced flame thrower (Abwehrflammenwerfer 42). (a) General. This apparatus consists of fuel container, flame tube, and propellent container. Necessary accessories are slow burning powder propellent, electric squibs, wire, storage battery, and fuel. It has an over-all height of 2 feet 6 inches.

    (b) Fuel container. The fuel container is a cylindrical tank 21 inches high and 113/4 inches in diameter. It has iron carrying handles, and a capacity of 8 gallons. The fuel is a black viscid liquid smelling like coal tar. It is a mixture of


    Figure 136.--German static flamethrower
    Figure 136.--German static flamethrower.

    pitch and light, medium, and heavy oils. It is a little thicker than the usual flame-thrower oil. The fuel tank holds 7.7 gallons.

    (c) Flame tube. The flame tube is a 2-inch metal pipe rising vertically and centrally from near the bottom of the fuel container; after passing through the top it curves and extends horizontally a distance of 20 inches. This gives the apparatus a total height of 30 inches.

    (d) Propellent container. This is a cylinder 10 inches high by inches in diameter. It contains slow-burning powder, an ignition squib, and firing wires. The propellent powder is either black powder or a mixture of nitrocellulose and diethylene glycol dinitrate. The pressure produced by the explosion of the propelling charge ejects the fuel.

    (e) Performance. Both electrical squibs fire simultaneously into the pressure chamber. One ignites the propellent powder which generates pressure to force the fuel out through the flame tube; the other ignites the fuel as it passes out of the nozzle. There is an ignition composition of aluminum and barium nitrate at the nozzle. The flame, 5 yards wide and 3 yards high, lasts 11/2 seconds. The range is 30 yards.

    n. FLAME-THROWER TANKS. (1) General. These are tanks in which flame throwers are mounted. The flame thrower and its accessories, the fuel tanks, projecting hose, gas cylinders, pump, engines, and ignition system are all so


    Figure 137.--Pz. Kpfw. III, Model L, flamethrowing tank
    Figure 137.--Pz. Kpfw. III, Model L, flamethrowing tank.

    housed in the turret that the vehicles preserve the external appearance of ordinary tanks. They have undergone several modifications and some are obsolescent.

    (2) Flame-Thrower Tank Pz. Kpfw. II (F) (Sd. Kfz. 122). This tank has two flame throwing projectors, each mounted in a small turret well forward on the track guards but operated electrically from panels in the turret. The turrets have a traverse of 180 degrees, elevation of 20 degrees, and depression of 10 degrees. Seventy gallons of fuel are kept in two tanks mounted externally on the track guards. The fuel tanks are protected by shields. Fuel is projected by compressed nitrogen. It is sufficient for 80 shots of 2 to 3 seconds duration at a range of 35 yards. Ignition is by acetylene flame.

    (3) Flame-Thrower Tank Pz. Kpfw. III, Model L. A flame thrower in the turret replaces the normal 50-mm gun (5 cm Kw.K.39), which it resembles outwardly. Traverse is 360 degrees, and elevation is from -10 degrees to +20 degrees. The fuel is a black, sticky oil smelling of creosote and is sufficient for 70 to 80 shots of 2 to 3 seconds duration. The range is 55 to 65 yards. The fuel, 225 gallons, is carried in tanks mounted inside the right and left side.

    5. Aerial Weapons

    a. CHEMICAL BOMBS. (1) 10-Kilogram (22 pounds) Fragmentation Bomb (GC 10). This is a toxic smoke and high explosive bomb. It contains an arsenic filling, identified by the Germans with a blue cross.

    (2) 50-Kilogram (110 pounds) Mustard Gas Bomb (GC 50). This bomb has a highly sensitive impact fuze, with either a small bursting charge for ground contamination or a large bursting charge for antipersonnel effect.

    (3) 250-Kilogram (550 pounds) Mustard Gas Bomb (KC 250 GB). This bomb has a time fuze which is set to function about 330 feet above the ground. The bomb will contaminate an area of about 6,000 square yards. It is possible that the Germans have gas bombs of larger caliber. A "green cross" (KC 500) bomb has been reported with a choking-gas filling.

    b. SMOKE BOMBS. (1) NG 50 Smoke Bomb. This bomb has a field gray body with white nose. It may have four white vertical stripes or two white bands painted on the body. Its over-all length is 2 feet 7 inches.

    (2) NC 50 WC. This bomb is for use on water. It has a field gray or silver body with yellow nose. Four yellow vertical stripes may appear on the body. It is 3 feet 7 inches long and 73/4 inches in diameter. The filling is a Berger Mixture or hexachlorethane.

    (3) NC 250 S. This bomb is similar to the Flam. C 250. It is painted silver with a white band and NC 250 painted between the filling plug and suspension socket. The nose is white, and the tail is olive drab. There are two sizes of this bomb, one weighing 242 pounds and the other


    418 pounds. The filling is chlorsulfonic acid and sulphurtrioxide.

    c. INCENDIARY BOMBS. (1) 1-Kilogram Bomb. Specimens of this bomb may bear designations B1 E1, B1 E1 Z, and B1 E1 ZB. All types weigh about 2.75 pounds each. The body is painted aluminum or green. The diameter is 2 inches, and over-all length 131/2 inches. The filling is 0.44 pounds of thermite.

    (2) 2-Kilogram Bomb. This bomb has the designation B2 E1 Z and weighs about 41/2 pounds. The body color is aluminum or light green. The filling includes TNT or amatol in addition to thermite. The diameter is 2 inches, and the over-all length is 20.7 inches.

    (3) Oil Incendiary Bomb (Brand C 50 A). This bomb weighs 99 pounds. It is painted field gray, with red under the tail, a red band encircling the body, and a yellow stripe on the tail cone. The body diameter is 8 inches, and the over-all length 43.2 inches. The filling is 15 liters (3.3 gallons) of a mixture of 86 per cent benzene, 10 per cent rubber, and 4 per cent phosphorus. It has a bursting charge of picric acid.

    (4) Incendiary Bomb C 50 B. This is identical in marking, dimensions, and body color with the C 50 A. However, it is filled with white phosphorus, and this is indicated by a small red bottle painted on the bomb.

    (5) Flam. C 250. This bomb weighs 240 pounds. It is painted green with a red nose, two blue tail rings, and two red bands. The diameter of the body is 2 inches, and over-all length is 641/2 inches. It contains 16 gallons of oil, weighing 110 pounds, composed of crude oil, aluminum, magnesium powder, and woodmeal-petroleum igniting mixture. The bursting charge is 2.65 pounds of picric acid and TNT.

    (6) Flam. C 250 B and Flam. C 250 C. These bombs are identical with the Flam. C 250 except markings. The type B and C bombs are painted dark blue or gray and have two red bands encircling the body.

    (7) Brand C 250 A. This bomb is painted field gray with a red undertail. It measures 141/2 inches in diameter and 641/2 inches in length. The filling, 15.8 gallons, is a mixture of 87.7 per cent petroleum solvent, 11.7 per cent polystyrene, and 0.5 per cent phosphorus. The bursting charge is picric acid.

    (8) Flam. C. 500 C. This bomb is painted blue or gray and weighs 440 to 460 pounds.


    All German aircraft smoke sprayers, S 100, S 125, S 200, and S 300, are similar in construction. They make use of a smoke acid mixture and are operated by gas pressure. The sprayer is a cylindrical apparatus housing an acid container, a small cylinder or bottle of compressed air, air lines with valve, and emission pipe, and nozzle. It is carried externally on the aircraft and can be jettisoned at will. The smoke acid is ejected by compressed air at 45 pounds per square inch. It may be filled to two levels. When charged at low level, it has a weight of 551 pounds; charged at high level it weighs 827 pounds, holding 482 and 758 pounds respectively. The firing is done electrically by operating a magnetic valve. Emission may be interrupted and re-started at will.


    1. General

    Various types of field ranges and other cooking equipment are issued to units of the German Army. The most important of these include: rolling field kitchens, field ranges, tireless cookers, and cooking outfit, 15.

    2. Rolling Field Kitchens

    a. GENERAL. Horse-drawn rolling field kitchens are issued to non-mechanized units. The large rolling field kitchen will serve 125 to 225 men; the small rolling field kitchen, 50 to 125 men. Smaller units do not receive field kitchens but get either tireless cookers or cooking outfits, 15.

    Figure 138.--The rolling field kitchen ready for traveling
    Figure 138.--The rolling field kitchen ready for traveling.


    Figure 139.--German field bakery
    Figure 139.--German field bakery.

    Figure 140.--German dough mixer
    Figure 140.--German dough mixer.


    Figure 141.--Small field range mounted in truck
    Figure 141.--Small field range mounted in truck.

    Figure 142.--Large field range mounted in truck
    Figure 142.--Large field range mounted in truck.

    b. LIMBER AND TRAILER. The rolling field kitchen consists of two parts: the detachable limber and the trailer, on which the field range is mounted. It is drawn either by two or four horses. The limber, on which the driver and cook may ride only during rapid marches, is used to transport most of the supplies, including the extra iron rations which are carried for emergency use only. After the kitchen has been set up, the limber may be used alone to get additional supplies. Under some circumstances the rolling field kitchen without the limber is issued to motorized units, and additional supplies are carried in the light truck used to move the kitchen.

    c. COOKING UTENSILS. (1) Range. The range itself, mounted on the trailer, can burn either coal, coke, briquettes, or wood. The following is considered the normal issue of fuel:

    The range normally is used as a fireless cooker, especially when underway. Fires are built in the fire boxes, but as soon as steam starts to escape from the safety valve the fire is banked and allowed to go out. This practice both saves fuel and prevents revealing the unit's position by the smoke.

    (2) Stew kettle. The main part of the range is a large stew kettle, a kind of double boiler which has a second slightly larger shell around the food kettle. A special liquid between the inner and outer kettles keeps the heat evenly distributed and prevents burning. The double shell cover is provided with a safety valve. The actual capacity of the kettle of the large range is 200 liters (53 gallons), and its cooking capacity is 175 liters (46 gallons). The small range holds 125 liters (33 gallons) and can cook about 110 liters (29 gallons) of soup, stew, boiled meat, or vegetables at one time.

    (3) Coffee kettle. The coffee kettle has a single shell but a double cover with a safety valve. Ninety liters (24 gallons) of coffee can be prepared


    at one time in the large range, and 60 liters (16 gallons) in the small one. There is a faucet to draw off the coffee. There is also a broiler in some of the ranges. All have a separate fire box, but use the same chimney.

    (4) Food containers. After the food has been prepared, it may be transported forward in insulated food containers, six of which are provided with each large rolling field kitchen, four with each small one. These containers hold 12 liters (about 121/2 quarts) and weigh about 18 pounds. They consist of an inner and an outer container with air space between them to act as insulation. Special carrying harnesses may be attached to the rings at the four corners of the back.

    3. Field Ranges

    Field ranges are provided for motorized units. These consist of the same type ranges as used with the rolling field kitchen mounted on a stand in the back of a truck. The supplies which accompany the range are packed in a special chest.

    4. Fireless Cookers

    Either large or small fireless cookers may be provided for units of less than 60 men. The large fireless cooker outfit, which weighs 77 pounds, has an insert kettle of 25 liters capacity, while the small one, weighing 53 pounds, has a pot of 15 liters capacity. A cooking fork, butcher's knife, and ladle, as well as a coffee sieve complete the outfit.

    5. Cooking Outfit, 15

    This 29-pound cooking outfit is issued to groups smaller than those using the fireless cooker. It consists of three nesting pots of 9, 10, and 12 liters (2 to 21/2 gallons) capacity, with a ladle, 10 plates, and 10 combination fork-spoons.

    6. Bakery Equipment

    a. BAKE OVEN TRAILER. The German field bake oven consists of a trailer with draw-hearth type ovens, heated by the steam-pipe principle. Seven trailers are issued per bakery company.

    b. DOUGH MIXER. The German dough mixer, mounted on a single axle trailer, is operated by a gasoline engine. Two are authorized per bakery company.


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    Transcribed and formatted by Patrick Clancey & Larry Jewell, HyperWar Foundation