Reports of General MacArthur



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Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-60005

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402


The Reports of General MacArthur include two volumes being published by the Department of the Army in four books reproduced exactly as they were printed by General MacArthur's Tokyo headquarters in 1950, except for the addition of this foreword and indexes. Since they were Government property, the general turned over to the Department in 1953 these volumes and related source materials.In Army and National Archives custody these materials have been available for research although they have not been easily accessible. While he lived, General MacArthur was unwilling to approve the reproduction and dissemination of the Reports, because he believed they needed further editing and correction of some inaccuracies. His passing permits publication but not the correction he deemed desirable. In publishing them, the Department of the Army must therefore disclaim any responsibility for their accuracy. But the Army also recognizes that these volumes have substantial and enduring value, and it believes the American people are entitled to have them made widely available through government publication.

The preliminary work for compiling the MacArthur volumes began in 1943 within the G-3 Section of his General Staff, and was carried forward after the war by members of the G-2 Section, headed by Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby with Professor Gordon W. Prange, on leave from the University of Maryland, as his principal professional assistant. Volume II of the Reports represents the contributions of Japanese officers employed to tell their story of operations against MacArthur's forces. The very large number of individuals, American and Japanese, who participated in the compilation and editing of the Reports would make a complete listing of contributors relatively meaningless.

Volume I narrates the operations of forces under General MacArthur's command from the Japanese attack on Luzon in 1941 through the surrender in 1945. While service histories have covered much of the same ground in separate volumes, no single detailed narrative of General MacArthur's leadership as commander of the Southwest Pacific Area has yet appeared. Chapters dealing with the reconquest of Borneo, plans for the invasion of Japan, and the Japanese surrender make a distinctly new contribution. Volume I Supplement describes the military phase of the occupation through December 1948, reporting events not treated elsewhere in American publications. Volume II on Japanese operations brings together a mass of information on the enemy now only partially available in many separate works. Collectively, the Reports should be of wide interest and value to the American people generally, as well as to students of military affairs. They are an illuminating record of momentous events influenced in large measure by a distinguished American soldier.

Washington, D.C.
January 1966
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff



I determined for several reasons to republish General MacArthur's reports to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of World War II. First, the Reports of General MacArthur still stand as a detailed account from MacArthur's perspective of his operations against the Japanese in the Southwest Pacific Area. Second, the Reports offer a unique Japanese version of their operations in the Southwest Pacific that remains one of the few English-language descriptions of Imperial Army campaigns during World War II. Third, excellent illustrations, many of them original artwork commissioned for the Reports, plus superb maps give these volumes an enduring value for military historians and the American public. Finally, while General MacArthur remains a towering figure in American historiography, the passage of fifty years has dimmed the contributions of the U.S. Army units that first checked the Japanese southward advance in Papua New Guinea, then spearheaded the counteroffensive along the north New Guinea coastline that enabled MacArthur to make good his promise to return to the Philippines.The veterans of these campaigns, both men and women, deserve to be remembered for their contributions to the Nation in its time of greatest peril. These are General MacArthur's Reports, but they are also his testament to the American soldiers who served under his command.

Washington, D.C.
31 January 1994
Brigadier General, USA
Chief of Military History



This report has been prepared by the General Staff of GHQ to serve as a background for, and introduction to the detailed operational histories of the various tactical commands involved.

The pressure of other duties having prevented my personal participation in its preparation, it has been entrusted by me to that magnificent staff group which actually conducted the staff work during the progress of the campaigns. They speak with that sincere and accurate knowledge which is possessed only by those who have personally participated in the operations which they record.




  Pearl Harbor 1
  Japanese Strategic Objectives 1
  Initial American Dispositions 3
  Allied Strategy after Pearl Harbor 4
  The Attack against the Philippines 6
  Strategic Withdrawal to Bataan 14
  The Battle for Bataan 16
  United States Army Forces in Australia 21
  The ABDA Command 22
  The Threat to Australia 22
  Disposition of Forces 26
  General MacArthur Arrives in Australia 28
  Organization of the Pacific Theater 30
  Establishment of General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area 31
  The Organization of Forces 33
  Decision to Take the Offensive 34
  The Magnitude of the Task 40
  Concept of the Offensive 45
  Strengthening Port Moresby 45
  Battle of the Coral Sea 46
  Kanga Force 49
  Battle of Midway 50
  Milne Bay and Merauke 50
  Kokoda Trail 51
  Intelligence in Operations 53
  General Headquarters Transferred to Brisbane 55
  Pursuing the Counteroffensive 55
  Japanese Landing near Buna 62
  Enemy Advance along Kokoda Trail 62
  Action in the Solomons 63
  Battle of Milne Bay 66
  Enemy Checked near Port Moresby 70
  Plans and Preparations 72
  Clearing the Owen Stanleys 75
  Airlift to Wanigela 78
  Landings on Goodenough Island 79
  Guadalcanal 80
  The Advance in Papua Continues 84
  Attack Stalemated 88
  The Fall of Buna 91
  Gona-Sanananda 96
  The End of the Papuan Campaign 98
  Concept of Strategy 100
  The Struggle for Wau 101
  General Situation in Early 1943 105
  Southwest Pacific Area Command 107
  Battle of the Bismarck Sea 110
  Final Plans 113
  Woodlark and Kiriwina 117
  New Georgia 117
  Nassau Bay to Salamaua 120
  Air Attack on Wewak 121
  Nadzab and Lae 122
  Securing the Huon Peninsula 124
  Bougainville 125
  New Britain 128
  Saidor 132
  Objectives of 1943 Achieved 132
  Preliminary Plans 134
  The Admiralties 136
  Supplementary Operations 142
  Plan to By-Pass Hansa Bay 142
  Hollandia-Aitape Invasion 145
  Regrouping of Command Functions 149
  Capture of Wakde Islands 150
  Struggle for Biak 152
  Noemfoor Island 153
  Counterattack at Aitape 156
  Seizure of Sansapor 160
  End of the New Guinea Campaign 160
  The Battle against Enemy Coastal Shipping 164
  New Strategic Situation 165
  Basic Strategy 166
  Initial Planning for the Philippines 168
  The "MUSKETEER" Plans 170
  Leyte Invasion Date Advanced 172
  Morotai 174
  Palau Islands 178
  Preparing for the Leyte Invasion 178
  Logistic Support 179
  Organization of Forces 181
  Additional Fleet and Air Support 183
  Operations Instructions 184
  Logistical Difficulties 190
  Japanese Forces in the Philippines 190
  The Filipinos in the Plan of Operations 191
  Preliminary Air Bombardment 193
  Strategic Value of Leyte 196
  Clearing Leyte Gulf 196
  The Return of MacArthur 198
  Widening the Beachheads 199
  Naval Threat to Leyte Gulf 203
  Indications of Japanese Intentions 205
  Approach of Enemy Naval Forces 207
  Estimate of the Enemy Plan 209
  Battle of Surigao Strait 212
  Third Fleet Goes North 213
  Battle off Samar 216
  Admiral Kurita Breaks Off Engagement 221
  Defeat of the Japanese Navy 223
  Japanese Reaction to the Invasion 224
  The Advance Inland 226
  Resistance Stiffens 228
  Approach to the Ormoc Corridor 230
  The Japanese Attack Burauen 232
  Preparation for the Ormoc Landing 233
  Ormoc Captured 234
  Leyte Secured 235
  Leyte in Retrospect 237
  Plans for the Northern Philippines 242
  Choosing the Route to Luzon 243
  Final Plans for the Mindoro Landing 246
  Occupation of Mindoro 247
  Assault at Lingayen Gulf 254
  I Corps Advances Eastward 261
  XIV Corps Advances Southward 262
  Enemy Plan of Defense 263
  XI Corps Cuts Across Bataan 267
  Recapture of Clark Field and Fort Stotsenburg 269
  Final Drive to Manila 270
  Battle in Manila 271
  Bataan and Corregidor Retaken 277
  The Assault East of Manila 280
  Drive in the North 284
  Ipo and Wawa Dams Captured 288
  Clearing Batangas and the Bicol Peninsula 288
  Occupation of Kiangan and the Cagayan Valley 291
  The Philippine Resistance Movement 295
  Activities of the Allied Intelligence Bureau 298
  Activities of the Philippine Regional Section 304
  The Guerillas on Mindanao 308
  The Guerillas on Negros, Cebu, and Bohol 312
  The Guerillas on Panay and Adjacent Islands 315
  The Guerillas on Leyte and Samar 316
  The Guerillas on Luzon 318
  General MacArthur's Tribute to the Philippine Guerillas 324
  Southward Advance 327
  Clearing the Visayan Passages 328
  Operations on Palawan 328
  The Zamboanga Landing 333
  Clearing the Sulu Archipelago 337
  Planning for Operations in the Southern Visayas 339
  The Seizure of Panay 339
  The Attack on Negros Occidental 342
  Liberating Cebu 343
  Final Operations in the Visayas-Bohol and Negros Oriental 347
  The Enemy Situation in Mindanao 348
  X Corps Invades Mindanao 348
  Kabakan to Davao 351
  Clearing the Sayre Highway 352
  The Landing at Macajalar Bay 354
  Reduction of Enemy Forces in East-Central Mindanao 354
  Final Operations on Mindanao 355
  End of the Philippine Campaign 355
  Changing Concepts 363
  The Directives of 3 April 1945 366
  Pacific Theater Command Reorganization 367
  Army Air Force Reorganization 368
  Plans for the Borneo Campaign 369
  Final Southwest Pacific Operations: Borneo 371
  Assault along the West Coast 375
  Assault along the East Coast 379
  Final Actions in New Guinea, New Britain, and Bougainville 383
  Interim Plans 387
  Command Changes for "OLYMPIC" 389
  Division of Southwest Pacific Area 391
  Demobilization, Redeployment, and Replacements 393
  Evolution of "DOWNFALL" 395
  Strategies under Consideration 397
  Concept of "DOWNFALL" 399
  Japanese Plans and Estimates 401
  Geography and Road Net of Kyushu 406
  General Plan of "OLYMPIC" 407
  Employment of "OLYMPIC" Ground Forces 411
  Logistics Arrangements 411
  The Enemy Situation 414
  The Planned Defense of Kyushu 418
  American Plan for the Invasion of Honshu-Operation "CORONET" 423
  Geographical Considerations 426
  Employment of "CORONET" Ground Forces 427
  Enemy Plans for the Defense of Honshu 427
  Continued Pressure on Japan 431
  Naval Pre-Invasion Operations 433
  The Potsdam Operations 435
  "BLACKLIST" Plan 436
  The Final Blows 440
  Japan Capitulates 442
  Preparations for Surrender 445
  The Manila Conference 447
  Reorganization of AFPAC 450
  Initiation of "BLACKLIST" 450
  Tokyo Bay: 2 September 1945 454
  Surrender throughout the SWPA Areas 458
  "The Guns are Silent" 466


Plate   Page
1 The Japanese Conquests which Isolated General MacArthur's Forces in the Philippines (Facing) 1
2 The Japanese Invasion of the Philippines and the Forces Employed 5
3 Aerial Reconnaissance of Luzon 8
4 Operations on Luzon, December 1941 9
5 Terrain Features of Bataan 12
6 Route of Strategic Withdrawal to Bataan and Concept of Defense 13
7 Action on Bataan, January-April 1942 17
8 Disintegration of the Malay Barrier and the Threat to Australia 24
9 Orientation Map Showing Lack of Rail Transportation along the Vulnerable Northern Coast 25
10 The Boundaries of the Southwest Pacific Area and the Extent of the Japanese Advance 32
11 The Main Australian Defense Areas 36
12 The United States Superimposed on the Southwest Pacific Area 41
13 Relief Map of New Guinea 44
14 Battle of the Coral Sea 48
15 Section along the Kokoda Trail 52
16 Coast Watching Teleradio Stations 56
17 Operation Plan "Tulsa Two B" 60
18 Japanese Thrust toward Port Moresby 64
19 Enemy Landings at Milne Bay, August 1942 65
20 Action from Oivi to Imita Ridge, July-September 1942 68
21 Japanese Dispositions and Capabilities, September 1942 69
22 Relief Map of Eastern Papua 73
23 Axes of Advance, Papuan Campaign 76
24 Owen Stanley Offensive 77
25 Coast Watchers Stations (AIB) along the Japanese Bomber Routes, August 1942-April 1943 83
26 Action in Kokoda-Oivi-Wairopi, November 1942 86
27 Terrain Features, Buna-Gona Area 90
28 The Capture of Buna 94
29 Sanananda Front, 22 November 1942-22 January 1943 95
30 New Guinea-Solomons Area 102
31 Strategic Location of Wau 106
32 Command Organization, Southwest Pacific Area 108
33 Operations Chart "Elkton Plan," New Britain-New Ireland-New Guinea Area 114
34 Operations, Nassau Bay to Salamaua 119
35 Nadzab and Lae 123
36 The Envelopment of the Huon Peninsula 126
37 Allied Operations and Estimated Enemy Dispositions, Solomon Islands 127
38 Enemy Ground Dispositions, Bismarck Archipelago, 30 November 1943 130
39 Westward Drive along New Guinea 135
40 Admiralty Islands Campaign 139
41 Hollandia Operation, 22 April-6 June 1944 147
42 Wakde-Sarmi Operation, 17 May-2 September 1944 151
43 Biak Island Operation, 27 May-20 August 1944 154
44 Noemfoor Island Operation, 2 July-31 August 1944 155
45 Japanese Counterattack East of Aitape 158
46 Sansapor-Cape Opmarai Operation, 30 July-31 August 1944 159
47 Enemy Shipping Routes Destroyed during the New Guinea Campaign 163
48 The Philippines 167
49 "MUSKETEER II" Plan 171
50 The Morotai Campaign, 15 September-4 October 1944 175
51 Enemy Airfields Reported in Use, September 1944 177
52 Allied Geographical Section Publications 180
53 Organization of Forces for the Leyte Operation 182
54 Plan of the Leyte Operation 185
55 Enemy Ground Dispositions, 30 September 1944 192
56 Leyte 197
57 Sixth Army Landings on Leyte, 17-20 October 1944 200
58 Leyte Assault, 20-25 October 1944 201
59 Approach of Naval Forces 204
60 Battle for Leyte Gulf 210
61 Battle of Surigao Strait 214
62 Battle off Samar 219
63 Leyte Attack Continues, 25 October-2 November 1944 227
64 Ormoc-Carigara Corridor, 3 November-25 December 1944 231
65 General Situation, Leyte Campaign, 31 December 1944 238
66 Enemy Shipping Routes Destroyed during the Leyte Campaign 239
67 "MUSKETEER III" Plan: Love and Mike Operations 244
68 Luzon 245
69 Japanese Operational Airfields on Luzon, 31 December 1944 248
70 Mindoro-Marinduque 249
71 Organization of Naval Forces for the Lingayen Assault 253
72 Organization of Ground Forces for the Lingayen Assault 255
73 Approach of Forces to Lingayen 257
74 Sixth Army Landings, Lingayen Gulf, 9-17 January 1945 260
75 Drive to Manila, 18-26 January 1945 264
76 Japanese Plan for Defense of Luzon, 19 December 1944 265
77 The Envelopment of Manila, 27 January-5 February 1945 268
78 The Battle of Manila, 3 February-3 March 1945 274
79 Bataan Retaken, 13-21 February 1945 278
80 Recapture of Corregidor, 16-28 February 1945 279
81 Assault Eastward from Manila, 8 March-28 May 1945 282
82 Operations in Northern Luzon, 26 January-8 August 1945 286
83 Operations in Southern Luzon, 15 March-25 May 1945 290
84 Major Guerilla Forces in the Philippines, 1942-1945 299
85 Military Districts, 1943-1945 303
86 AIB and PRS Penetrations of the Philippines, 1943-1944 306
87 Philippine Islands Communications, 15 December 1943 307
88 General Philippine Intelligence Coverage, 1943-1944 310
89 Mindanao Guerilla Organization, 31 January 1945 311
90 Central Philippines Guerilla Organization, October-November 1944 314
91 Guerilla Forces on Luzon, October-November 1944 319
92 Cabanatuan Prison Raid, 30-31 January 1945 322
93 The Philippine General Radio Net Developed during the Japanese Occupation, 9 October 1944 326
94 Plan of "Montclair III": Victor Operations, 25 February 1945 330
95 Clearing of the Visayan Passages, 19 February-8 May 1945 331
96 Operations on Palawan, 28 February-30 June 1945 334
97 Seizure of Zamboanga and the Sulu Archipelago, 10 March-20 June 1945 335
98 Operations in Panay and Negros Occidental, 18 March-20 June 1945 340
99 Landings on Cebu, Bohol, and Negros Oriental, 26 March-20 June 1945 345
100 The Assault against Central Mindanao, 17 April-5 May 1945 349
101 Final Operations on Mindanao, 6 May-11 August 1945 353
102 The Philippine Campaign, October 1944-July 1945 356
103 Enemy Shipping Routes Destroyed during the Philippine Campaign 361
104 Enemy Ground Dispositions, General Pacific Area, 30 April 1945 365
105 Enemy Dispositions on Borneo, 30 April 1945 373
106 Tarakan Operation, 1 May-21 June 1945 376
107 Brunei Bay Operations, 10 June-14 July 1945 377
108 Balikpapan Operation, 1-18 July 1945 381
109 The Borneo Operations, May-July 1945 384
110 Mop-Up Operations in Eastern New Guinea, New Britain, and Bougainville 385
111 Organization of United States Army Forces in the Pacific 390
112 "DOWNFALL" Plan for the Invasion of Japan, 28 May 1945 396
113 Kyushu 400
114 Disposition of Japanese Army Ground Forces in the Homeland, April 1945 404
115 Road and Railroad Net, Kyushu 408
116 Organization of Forces for "OLYMPIC" 409
117 Staging of Forces for "OLYMPIC" 412
118 "OLYMPIC," the Invasion of Kyushu 413
119 Estimated Enemy Ground Dispositions on Kyushu, 28 July 1945 416
120 Japanese Ground Dispositions on Kyushu, 18 August 1945 420
121 Organization of Forces for "CORONET" 422
122 Honshu 424
123 Landing Beaches, Roads, Railroads, and Critical Defiles, Kanto Plain 425
124 "CORONET," the Invasion of Honshu 428
125 Japanese Ground Dispositions on Honshu, 18 August 1945 429
126 Allied Landings, August 1942 to August 1945 432
127 Third Fleet Pre-Invasion Operations against Japan 434
128 "BLACKLIST" Organization of Forces 438
129 Basic Plan for the Occupation of Japan 439
130 Aerial Bombardment of Japan 443
131 Organization of Ground Forces for the Occupation of Japan Proper 451
132 Surrender Document 456
133 Japanese Surrender throughout the Pacific 462
134 Japanese Strength Overseas, August 1945 463


Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation