United States Army in World War II
Mediterranean Theater of Operations

Sicily and the Surrender of Italy

Albert N. Garland
Howard McGaw Smyth
Assisted by
Martin Blumenson


. . . to Those Who Served

Stetson Conn, General Editor

Advisory Committee
(As of 15 June 1963)
Fred C. Cole
Washington and Lee University


Maj. Gen. Hugh M. Exton
U.S. Continental Army Command


William R. Emerson
Yale University


Maj. Gen. Tom R. Stoughton
Industrial College of the Armed Forces


Earl Pomeroy
University of Oregon


Brig. Gen. Ward S. Ryan
U.S. Army War College


Theodore Ropp
Duke University


Col. Elias C. Townsend
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College


Bell I. Wiley
Emory University


Col. Vincent J. Esposito
United States Military Academy


C. Vann Woodward
Yale University


Office of the Chief of Military History
Brig. Gen. Hal C. Pattison, Chief of Military History

Chief Historian Stetson Conn
Acting Chief, Histories Division Lt. Col. Paul W. Phillips
Chief, Editorial and Graphics Division Lt. Col. James R. Hillard
Editor in Chief Joseph R. Friedman


Foreword vii
The Authors viii
Preface ix
Background and Plans
Chapter   Page
I. Allied Strategy in the Mediterranean 1
    Casablanca: The Decision for Sicily 1
  TRIDENT: Beyond Sicily 12
    Algiers--And Italy? 23
    The Surrender Problem 25
II. The Axis on the Defensive 27
    The Italo-German Alliance 27
    The Disintegration of Fascism 39
    The Allied Threat 44
III. Preparations and Preliminaries 52
    The Beginnings 52
    The Plan 58
    Other Factors 63
IV. The Axis Situation 69
    Pantelleria 69
    Growing German Strength 73
    The Defenses of Sicily 75
V. Final Allied Preparations 88
    Missions and Forces 88
    Seventh Army Plans 96
    Naval and Air Plans 105
    The Final Days 108
Operations and Negotiations
VI. The Assault 115
    The Airborne Operations 115
    The Seaborne Operations 119
VII. The First Day 147
    The Axis Reaction 147
    The Battle 150
    The Beaches 156
VIII. The Axis Threat 163
IX. Airborne Reinforcement 175
X. The Beachhead Secure 185
    Straightening Out the Sag 185
    On to the YELLOW Line 189
XI. Continuing the Campaign: The Decisions 202
    Sixth Army and OB SUED 202
    The Allied Problem: How to Continue 205
    Comando Supremo and OKW 211
XII. Seventh Army Changes Directions 218
    The Eighth Army Attempt To Break Through 218
    The II Corps Front 219
    Agrigento 224
    Army Directive of 15 July 1943 230
    Discord and Harmony 234
XIII. The Drive to the Climax 239
    The Feltre Conference 239
    Planning the Western Sweep 244
    The Pounce on Palermo 250
    Denouement 254
XIV. The Climax 258
    Sardinia Versus the Mainland 258
    The Overthrow of Mussolini 263
    Allied Reaction 268
    Rome: Open City 278
XV. Dissolution of the Rome-Berlin Axis 281
    Badoglio's First Moves 281
    Friction Along the Alps 288
    The Italian Course is Changed 295
XVI. The Drive to the East 300
    Developing an East Front 300
    Axis Reactions 306
    Nicosia 309
    Along the North Coast 316
XVII. The Battle of Troina 324
XVIII. Breaking the San Fratello Line 348
XIX. Evacuation 368
    The Tarvis Conference 368
    The Italian Dilemma 371
    The Decision to Evacuate Sicily 374
    Allied Reaction 378
    The Evacuation Begins 382
XX. Brolo 388
XXI. The End of the Campaign 406
    The Race to Messina 406
    Conclusions 417
    Patton 425
The Surrender
XXII. The QUADRANT Conference and the Quebec Memorandum 435
    Strategic Issues at Quebec 435
    The Mission of General Castellano 440
    The Quebec Memorandum 446
    Approval of the Long Terms 448
XXIII. The Surrender Preliminaries 451
    The Zanussi Mission 451
    Castellano at Lisbon 455
    Zanussi's Negotiations in Lisbon and Algiers 461
    Thoughts in Rome 465
XXIV. The Italian Decision 469
    ACHSE 469
    The Parleys at Cassibile 474
    The Decision at Rome 479
XXV. The Armistice 482
    The Signature 482
    Planning GIANT II 485
    Second Thoughts in Rome 489
XXVI. The Renunciation 497
    "Innocuous" 498
    The Announcement 505
XXVII. The Surrender 510
    Badoglio’s Announcement 510
    Flight of the King and High Command 513
    Interpretations 519
XXVIII. The Dissolution 522
    German Reaction 522
    The Battle for Rome 524
    Dissolution of the Italian Armed Forces 532
    Mussolini 536
XXIX. The Second Capitulation 540
    Mission to Brindisi 540
    The Long Terms 543
    Malta 549
    Epilogue 552
A. Composition of American Forces 555
B. The Quebec Memorandum 556
C. Short (Military) Terms in General Eisenhower's Possession on 6 August 1943 558
D. Additional Conditions (Long Terms) Signed on 29 September 1943 559
Bibliographical Note
Basic Military Map Symbols
1.  British Eighth Army Operations, 10 July 1943 122
2.  The Seizure of Agrigento, 3d Infantry Division, 14-17 July 1943 227
3.  15th Army Group Front, 23 July 1943 305
4.  II Corps Advance, 24-31 July 1943 312
5.  The Capture of Troina, 1st Infantry Division, 1-6 August 1943 335
6.  The Fight for San Fratello, 3d Infantry Division, 8 August 1943 362
7.  15th Army Group Gains, 24 July-10 August 1943 381
8.  Brolo and the Naso Ridge, 3d Infantry Division, 11-12 August 1943 395

Maps I-IX are in accompanying map envelope
I.  Central Europe and the Mediterranean (National Geographic Society Map)  
II.  The Battleground and the Enemy, 10 July 1943  
III.  The Final Landing Plan  
IV.  The Seventh Army Assault, 10 July 1943  
V.  Counterattack at Gela, 11 July 1943  
VI.  Seventh Army Advance, 11-12 July 1943  
VII.  The Seventh Army Changes Direction, 13-18 July 1943  
VIII.  The Seventh Army Clears Western Sicily, 19-23 July 1943  
IX.  The Race to Messina, 13-17 August 1943  
President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill 9
Allied Leaders in the Sicilian Campaign 13
Churchill Addressing the U.S. Congress, May 1943 20
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini 28
King Victor Emmanuel III 30
Generale d’Armata Ugo Cavallero 31
Feldmarschall Albert Kesselring and General der Infanterie Enno von Rintelen with Prince Umberto Di Savoia 34
Generale d’Armata Vittorio Ambrosio 36
Generale di Corpo d’Armata Giacomo Carboni 37
Count Dino Grandi 40
Count Galeazzo Ciano 41
General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery and Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr., in Sicily 55
Lt. Gen. Sir Miles C. Dempsey 62
Lt. Gen. Sir Oliver Leese 63
Pantelleria Under Attack 71
Generale di Corpo d’Armata Comandante Designato D’Armata Mario Roatta 77
Generale d’Armata Alfredo Guzzoni 77
Generalleutnant Eberhard Rodt 80
Feldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen 80
Generalmajor Paul Conrath 80
Generalleutnant Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin 81
Col. Ernst Guenther Baade 81
General der Panzertruppen Hans Valentin Hube 81
Looking South From the Heights of Enna 85
Gela Beach 90
Lt. Gen. Omar N. Bradley and Maj. Gen. Terry de la Mesa Allen 93
Maj. Gen. Troy H. Middleton 94
Maj. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway 94
Maj. Gen. Lucian K. Truscott, Jr 94
Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy 95
Maj. Gen. Hugh J. Gaffey 95
Lt. Col. William O. Darby, Leader of Force X 95
Ponton Causeway From an LST to Shore 104
Landing Craft Massed in Bizerte Harbor for the Invasion of Sicily 109
Paratroopers Preparing To Emplane for Sicily 116
Glider Casualty 116
Ponte Dirillo Crossing Site 118
USS Boise Bombarding Coastal Defenses in Gela Landing Area 121
Licata and Beach Areas to the East 124
The Right Flank Beach at Licata 126
Highway 115 127
A Shore-to-Shore LCT at Licata Beach 130
Army Donkeys Wading Ashore at Licata 130
Bringing Up Supplies by Cart at Licata Beach 132
Knocked-Out Italian Railway Battery on Licata Mole 132
Enemy Defense Positions Along Coast Road East of Licata 134
Road Junction Y 137
Italian Prisoners Taken at Gela on D-day 138
The Coast Line West of Scoglitti 140
Landing Heavy Equipment at Scoglitti 145
Looking Down the Niscemi Road to Piano Lupo 151
American Troops in Gela on D Plus 1 153
Paratroopers Moving in on the Ridge at Abbio Priolo 166
American Ships Under Air Attack 167
Col. James M. Gavin in Biazzo Ridge Area 169
Wrecked German Tanks Dot Gela Plain 171
The Robert Rowan Exploding Off the Coast at Gela 178
Airborne Reinforcements in a C-47 Heading for Sicily 180
Paratroop Reinforcements Moving Through Vittoria 183
Ponte Olivo Airfield 186
Tank-Mounted Troops Rolling Through Palma 193
Canicatti Under Artillery Fire 198
Butera 221
Agrigento and the Surrounding High Ground 225
A Dukw Hauling Supplies in Porto Empedocle 229
Signal Corps Troops in Caltanissetta 234
Caltanissetta, Southwest Corner of the Enna Loop 247
General Ridgway and Staff Near Ribera 250
Mortar Squad Preparing To Attack Santo Stefano 251
The 2d Armored Division Rolls Into Palermo 252
Maj. Gen. Geoffrey Keyes and Italian Generale di Brigata Giuseppe Molinero After Surrender of Palermo 253
Maresciallo d’Italia Pietro Badoglio 264
Southern Approach to Enna 302
Leonforte 303
Caronia Valley 310
Gangi, With Mount Etna in Distance 311
Coast Road Patrol Passing the Bombed-Out Castelbuono Railroad Station, 24 July 1943 316
Demolished Bridge Along Highway 117 322
Troina Ridge From the High Ground Near Cerami 326
Looking West From the Town of Troina 327
Goumiers Moving Toward Capizzi 330
Forward Observation Post Directing Fire on Troina 332
Artillery in Position Near Cerami 332
Half-Track Squeezing Through a Narrow Street in Cerami 334
Maj. Gen. Clarence R. Huebner and General Allen, 8 August 1943 346
Provisional Pack Train and Mounted Troops 349
Enemy Field of Fire Over Furiano River Crossing Site From San Fratello Ridge 350
Looking South Over the Furiano River Valley 351
Looking North Over the San Fratello--Cesaró Road 354
Highway 113 355
San Fratello Ridge 356
Sant’Agata From the Seaward Side of San Fratello Ridge 364
Treating a Wounded Soldier 366
San Marco D’Alunzio 367
Axis Second Echelon Leaders at Tarvis 370
Smoke Pall Covers Parts of Messina After Bombing Attack 377
Randazzo From the Southern Approach 383
Destroyed Bridge Along Highway 116 384
Americans and British Meet at Randazzo 386
Pillbox Overlooking Highway 113 390
Cape Orlando 391
Brolo Beach From the East 392
Enemy View of Landing Area at Brolo 394
Setting a Machine Gun Position on Monte Cipolla 397
Lt. Col. Lyle A. Bernard and His Radioman in Command Post Atop Monte Cipolla 400
The Objective, Messina 407
Troops Moving Around Blown-Out Section of Cliffside Road 408
The Bridge That Was "Hung in the Sky" 409
General Dwight D . Eisenhower and General Montgomery Observing the Effect of Artillery Fire on the Italian Mainland 415
Secret Emissaries to Lisbon 456
The Tiber River at Fumicino 487
The "Rescue" of Mussolini 538
Signing Surrender Document Aboard H.M.S. Nelson 550

Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Jerry Holden for the HyperWar Foundation