The following listing of events is limited to those coming within the scope of this book, and those forecasting events to be treated in the volumes to follow.
Appendix B: Chronology
10 November 1775 Continental Congress authorizes raising of two battalions of Marines 11 July 1798 Congress reactivates Marine Corps 10 June 1898 Battalion of Marines seizes Guantanamo Bay; preliminary thinking on Advanced Base concept begin. 13 July 1910 Marine School for Advanced Base Training established 25 April 1915 Forst modern amphibious assault: Brisith land on Gallipoli 27 April 1917 First Marine aviation unit formed: "Marine Aeromautic Company, Advanced Base Force" 28 June 1919 Treaty of Versailles gives Japan mandates for German islands in Central Pacific 23 July 1921 "Operations Plan 712" accepted by Major General Commandant, establishing Marine Corps concept of strategy in the Pacific 7 December 1933 Fleet Marine Force established 15 January 1934 Tentative Manual for Landing Operations published 1 September 1939 Germans invade Poland; World War II begins 1940 7 May Pacific Fleet ordered by President to remain indefinitely in Hawaiian waters 5 July Export Control Act invoked against Japan to prohibit exportation of strategic materials and equipment 19 July President signs Naval Expansion Act containing provisions for "Two Ocean Navy" 29 September Midway Detachment, FMF arrives at Midway 8 October U.S. advises its citizens to leave Far East 1941 12 May Ambassador Nomura of Japan presents Secretary of State Cordell Hull with Japanese proposal for a "just peace in the Pacific" 27 May President declares a state of unlimited emergency; he announces that the Atlantic Neutrality Patrol is extended and that Pactic Fleet units have been transferred to the Atlantic 12 June All Naval Reserve personnel not in deferred status are called to active duty 22 June Germany, Italy, and Romania declare war on Russia and invade along a front from the Arctic to the Black Sea 7 July 1st Marine Brigade lands in Iceland. 1st Marine Aircraft Wing forms at Quantico, Va. 10 July 2d Marine Aircraft Wing forms at San Deigo, Calif. 15 August Naval Air Station, Palmyra Island, and Naval Air Facility, Johnston Island established 11 September President orders Navy to attack any vessel threatening U.S. shipping 14 November Marines are ordered to leave Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China 20 November Ambassador Nomura presents Japan's "final proposal" to keep peace in the Pacific 26 November Secretary of State submits final proposals for adjustment of U.S.-Japanese relations 27 November Adm Stark, CNO, sends war warning to commanders of the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets 30 November Japanese Foreign Minister Tojo rejects U.S. proposals for settling Far East crisis 7 December Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, et.al. 8 December U.S. declares war on Japan. Japan attacks Allied bases in the Pacific and Far East, and lands on Batan Island north of Luzon, P.I., and on east coast of Malay Peninsula. U.S. Marines and other Allied nationals interned at Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China 9 December Japanese occupy Tarawa and Makin Islands in Gilberts 10 December Guam surrenders to Japanese landing force 11 December U.S. declares war on Germany and Italy. Wake Island defenders repulse Japanese landing attempt. Japanese make additional landings in Philippines 20 December Adm E.J. King becomes Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet 21 December Naval defense forces in Philippine Islands move headquarters to Corregidor 22 December Japanese land at Lingayen Gulf, P.I. 23 December Wake Island surrenders to Japanese 25 December British surrender Hong Kong 26 December Manila, P.I., declared an open city 31 December Adm C.W. Nimitz assumes command of Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor 1942 2 January Manila and Cavite, P.I., fall to Japanese 11 January Japanese begin invasion of Netherlands East Indies 22 January Allied forces evacuate Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea 23 January Japanese occupy Rabaul, New Britain, and land at Kieta on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands 24 January Japanese land at Kavieng, New Ireland 1 February U.S. carrier task forces raid Japanese positions in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands 6 February U.S. and Britain establish Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) 8 February Japanese land at Gasmata, New Britain 9 February Japanese land at Singapore 15 February Singapore surrenders 27 February Battle of Java Sea 1 March Battle of Sunda Strait 8 March Japanese land at Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea 9 March Java surrenders to Japanese, ending conquest of Netherlands East Indies 10 March Japanese invade Finschhafen, New Guinea 11 March Gen MacArthur leaves Philippines for Australia 12 March U.S. forces arrive in New Caledonia 26 March Adm King relieves Adm Stark as Chief of Naval Operation (CNO) 29 March Marines arrive at Efate, New Hebrides 30 March Pacific Ocean divided into Pacific Ocean Areas under Adm Nimitz, and Southwest Pacific Area under Gen MacArthur 1 April Japanese occupy Buka Island, Solomons 5 April Manus Island, Admiralties, occupied by Japanese 9 April Bataan falls to Japanese 18 April Doolittle raid strikes Tokyo, Yokosuka, Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagoya 2 May Japanese land on Florida Island, Solomons 3 May Japanese occupy Tulagi, Solomons 4-8 May Battle of the Coral Sea 6 May Corregidor and Manila Bay forts surrender 12 May Last U.S. troops in Philippines surrender on Mindanao 28 May U.S. forces arrive at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides 3 June Japanese bomb Dutch Harbor; land on Kiska and Attu, Western Aleutians 4-6 June Battle of Midway 14 June First echelon of 1st Marine Division arrives at Wellington, New Zealand 19 June VAdm Ghormley assumes command of South Pacific Area and South Pacific Forces 25 June President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill conclude conference in Washington; decision reached for combined efforts to develop atomic bomb 18 July Amphibious Force, South Pacific Area, is established under command of RAdm Turner 21 July Japanese land at Buna, New Guinea 7 August 1st Marine Division land on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, and Guadalcanal in Southern Solomons to launch the first U.S. offensive of the war 8 August 1st MarDiv wins control of Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo and captures airfield on Guadalcanal 9 August Battle of Savo Island forces U.S. ships to retire from Guadalcanal area, leaving control of waters temporarily to Japanese 17 August 2d Raider Battalion (Carlson's Raiders) land from submarines at Makin Island in the Gilberts. Raid is completed following day 20 August First fighter aircraft arrive on Henderson Field, Guadalcanal 21 August Marines turn back first major Japanese attack on Guadalcanal in Battle of the Tenaru 24-25 August Naval Battle of Eastern Solomons 13 September Marines repulse second major Japanese ground attack at Guadalcanal in the Battle of the Ridge 18 September 7th Marines arrive on Guadalcanal 11-12 October Naval Battle of Cape Esperance. U.S. forces under Adm Spruance engage Japanese ships of the "Tokyo Express" 13 October 164th Infantry Regiment of Americal Division arrives to reinforce 1st MarDiv 14 October Japanese battleships and cruisers bombard Henderson Field 18 October VAdm Halsey relieves VAdm Ghormley as Commander South Pacific Area and South Pacific Force 20-25 October Marines and Army troops fight off heavy ground attacks of major Japanese counteroffensive 26 October Naval Battle of Santa Cruz Island: U.S. force sustains heavy loss, but checks Japanese movement toward Guadalcanal 8 November Allied Expeditionary Force invades North Africa 12 November Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (12-15 Nov) begins as Japanese aricraft attack U.S. transports Guadalcanal 13 November RAdm Callaghan's task group of cruisers and destroyers engages Japanese raiding group including two battleships, in second night of Battle of Guadalcanal. U.S. force heavily damaged, but Japanese retire 14 November Japanese cruisers and destroyers bombard Henderson Field 15 November RAdm Lee with two battleships and four destroyers turns back large Japanese naval group to end naval Battle of Guadalcanal 16 November U.S. Army forces land south of Buna, New Guinea 9 December MajGen A.A. Vandegrift, CG 1st MarDiv, is relieved by MajGen A.M. Patch, CG Americal Division, as commanding general of Guadalcanal. 1st MarDiv make preparations to retire from combat zone to rehabilitate and retrain 17 December U.S. Army forces begin attacks against Japanese in the Mount Austen area 1943 10 January Gen Patch's XIV Corps on Guadalcanal begins offensive to the west 23 January XIV Corps' westward advance captures Kokumbona on Guadalcanal coast 23 January U.S.-Australian counteroffensive secures Buna-Sanananda area, New Guinea 29-30 January Naval Battle of Rennell Island 1 February Japanese begin to evacuate troops from Guadalcanal 8 February Evacuation of some 11,000 Japanese troops from Guadalcanal is completed 9 February Gen Patch's Cape Esperance envelopment force joins with western advance and Guadalcanal is declared secure
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