Chapter VI: 1944














[1] The most probable cause of Scorpion's loss is her striking a mine, in either the Yellow or East China Seas. She is listed as overdue, presumed lost, on 6 March 1944.

[2] During the last half of February 1944, ZP-42 blimps, operating from Brazilian bases, located and aided in the recovery of some 450 tons of baled rubber, part of Rio Grande's cargo.

[3] SERVRON 10 was based at Majuro (February-May 1944), Eniwetok (June-September 1944), Ulithi (October 1944-April 1945), and Leyte-Samar, P.I. (May-August 1945), during the war. At the height of its activities, the squadron controlled 609 vessels at five fleet anchorages.

[4] Delhi Maru is on her maiden voyage as a "Q-ship," her conversion having been completed 14 January.

[5] U-129 and U-516 are surprised at this fueling rendezvous as well, but both escape.

[6] Bowfin identifies the escort for the tanker as what she believes to be ex-Stewart (DD-224), which had been salvaged by the Japanese and commissioned as the unnamed Patrol Vessel No.102 (see 19 February 1942).

[7] Buchanan was proceeding independently from Purvis Bay to Espiritu Santo when directed to the scene of the torpedoing of Cache.

[8] Grayback is listed as overdue, presumed lost, on 30 March 1944. If the Japanese account for a definite "kill" on that date is accepted, then the attribution for the sinking of naval transport Ceylon Maru on 27 February at 31°45'N, 127°45'E, for Pogy is questionable. Commonly given credit for the sinking, Pogy did not report any such attack in her patrol report for that date. Grayback could have been damaged and continued her patrol, sunk Ceylon Maru, and then succumbed to the effects of the damage inflicted on 26 February.

[9] Trout is reported as overdue, presumed lost, on 17 April 1944.

[10] Karatsu will never return to active service. She is one of four ships intentionally sunk to block the channel through the entrance of the breakwater off Manila in February 1945.

[11] Suiten Maru was raised on 12 July and re-entered active service.

[12] She was repaired in time to participate in the Marianas campaign.

[13] Fortunately, five LSTs in the Hawaiian Operating Area were uncommitted to other operations and were assigned to the force that would invade the Marianas in mid-June.

[14] No.8 Shonan Maru escaped from Saipan on 23 June and reached Manila on 1 July.

[15] Only one merchantman, Inari Maru, reached Japan.

[16] She is listed as overdue, presumed lost, on 26 July.

[17] Phelps moors alongside the battle damage repair ship Phaon (ARB-3) soon thereafter, in such a manner to permit the destroyer to continue to carry out her fire support duties!

[18] After U.S. forces capture Guam, the wreck of Nichiyu Maru is demolished with explosives sometime between 27 and 30 July.

[19] Among those lost with Robalo is her commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander Manning M. Kimmel, one of the sons of Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, who had been Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet on 7 December 1941.

[20] Heavy guns at St. Mandrier (nicknamed "Big Willie") consisted of turrets taken off French battleship Provence, sistership to Lorraine.

[21] Submarine Perch (SS-313) loses contact with Escolar on 17 October, after which point Escolar is never heard from again. The most likely cause of Escolar's loss is her striking a Japanese mine about 17 October between 33°44'N., 127°33'E. and 33°44'N., 129°06'E., the site of minefields laid in 1943 and 1944. She is listed as overdue, presumed lost, on 27 November.

[22] Subsequently, the Navy charters the ship and renames her Triana (IX-223) and she is used as a floating storage facility.

[23] Exernsteine was taken into U.S. Navy service and commissioned 24 January 1945 as miscellaneous auxiliary Callao (IX-205). Bureau of Ships used the ship for experimental work into 1950.

[24] She is listed as overdue, presumed lost, on 27 November.

[25] Houston's service career proved short after her repairs, but Canberra, converted and reclassified as a guided missile heavy cruiser (CAG-2), went on to participate in the Vietnam War between 1965 and 1968.

[26] Whitehurst would evantually portray the fictional USS Haynes in the 1957 motion picture "The Enemy Below."

[27] Submarine Ray (SS-271) may have torpedoed Caroline Maru as well.

[28] Not since 1942 has a Japanese submarine successfully attacked a ship operating with a fast carrier task force. High winds and heavy seas from a nearby typhoon complicate the task of saving Reno, but "skillful seamanship, courage, and the unremitting effort of all of those remaining on board" allow her to reach Ulithi on 11 November.

[29] I 37 is on a kaiten mission at the time, bound for the Palaus, when she is reported missing on 20 November.

[30] Since both submarines expended five kaitens between them (four from I 47 and one from I 36) and none of the kaiten crews survived, no possibility exists of confirming which submarine should be credited with sinking Mississinewa.

[31] Shinano, converted from a Yamato-class battleship, is on her maiden voyage when she encounters Archerfish. She will be the largest warship sunk by any of the combatants' submarines during World War II.

[32] Three years to the day earlier, Ward (Lieutenant William W. Outerbridge) fired on a Japanese midget submarine attempting to gain entrance into Pearl Harbor. In a remarkable coincidence, Commander Outerbridge is O'Brien's commanding officer when she scuttles Ward.

[33] Rear Admiral Arthur D. Struble, commanding TG 78.3, consequently shifted his flag from the damaged Nashville to destroyer Dashiell (DD-659).

[34] Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr., will be promoted to fleet admiral after the conclusion of hostilities.

[35] Dragonet, on her maiden war patrol, eventually managed to clear the reef, and after a passage fraught with difficulty (including, at one point, a 63-degree port list), reached Midway on 20 December 1944.

[36] Lack of evidence militates against establishing the definite cause for Swordfish's loss. She (1) is sunk by Patrol-Escort Vessel No.4 on 5 January 1945 off Torishima, Bonin Islands (29°25'N, 141°07'E, or (2) strikes a mine (12,000 had been laid in four fields in that area between January and June 1944) in the Okinawa area after 9 January 1945. She is listed as overdue, presumed lost, on 15 February 1945.

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