Restoration of Unwatered Compartments and Machinery
of Sunken Ships
U. S. NAVY YARD
Pearl Harbor, T. H.
March 14, 1942
Salvage Bulletin # 14A
Subject: Restoration of Unwatered Compartments, Damaged Machinery and Disposition of Recovered Material, Scrap and Trash
Please substitute this Salvage Bulletin (#14A) for Salvage Bulletin # 14, dated February 13, 1942, which has been revised as a result of further experience and the development of additional cleaning equipment, improved technique, etc.
The following is published for the information and guidance of all personnel engaged in salvage operations, especially for the ships' personnel It is hoped that a better understanding of the problems and procedures involved in such operations will be gained thereby. Part I will concern itself with general cleaning operations around the ship and Part II with reconditioning of machinery.
1. Generally speaking, the very minimum amount of material will be removed from a ship. Prior to decision to remove material, careful consideration should be given to leaving the material in place for necessary cleaning, preservation, etc. If it is not considered practicable to carry out these operations with the material in place, consideration should be given to retaining the material on board and the utilizing of the portable cleaning and preserving units which are being made available.
2. The material which may be removed falls into the following categories and disposition thereof will be made as indicated :
a. Trash may be defined as material unfit for any further use. It may be separated into two types, burnable and unburnable, the former including clothing, wood, etc. and the latter brickwork, etc. All trash should be thus separated and deposited at the Hickam Field dump. Ship superintendents will make arrangements regarding shipment of trash as per Salvage Bulletin # 3.
b. Scrap denotes all metal fit only for remelting. It will be stripped of all fittings, separated into ferrous and nonferrous piles and placed in the dump at Richardson Recreation Center.
c. Material damaged and unfit for further use should not be brought to the Navy Yard for decision regarding ultimate disposition. Ships' personnel will
decide if the material is to be regarded as trash or scrap and make the proper disposition thereof.
d. Material, the removal of which to the Yard will expedite repairs will only be sent to the Yard on job orders. Such material will ultimately be returned to the ship. This is to be taken to mean electrical equipment, damaged machinery, instruments and gauges, etc., repair facilities for which obviously do not exist on board. Not to be included in this category is material which is merely water soaked or oil coated. Provision has been made for cleaning by Yard forces of material that is to be placed in stores and reissued to various activities. The arrival in the Yard of such equipment oil coated or water soaked as bunk springs, lockers, chairs, etc. is assumed to mean that the ship from which this equipment was sent has no further use for same. Ships will, therefore, make provision for cleaning and reclamation of such material either on board or on the beach. Salvage Bulletin #6 is suggested as a reference in this matter.
e. Delicate instruments that require temporary safe storage or routine care not available aboard ship.
f. Material, the removal of which will reduce weight in accordance with a definite salvage plan or which, by its removal will remove a hazard to salvage operations.
g. Material duly authorized for temporary or permanent use elsewhere.
3. Before a lower compartment is pumped down, oil, if it is present, should whenever possible, be skimmed off the water. A technique has been developed to accomplish this. Otherwise, as the water lowers, much unnecessary work must be done in order to remove the oil which will coat itself as a fine film over all interior surfaces.
4. Emergency lights and ventilation must be provided in good quantity at an early date in order to facilitate work. The importance of providing these services cannot be too highly stressed. (See Salvage Bulletin #21). Before entering unwatered compartments air tests must be made to determine the presence of toxic gases and adequate ventilation must be supplied while work is being carried on in such spaces. Lives have been lost and more will be unless all safety precautions are taken before attempting to enter or work in unwatered compartments.
5. The most effective means of removing any fuel oil that may be present appears to be by use of a hot salt water wash-down, with a Wheeler unit removing the sludge from a low point in the compartment. A hot fresh water washdown is then used to follow the salt water wash-down, until compartment is cleaned to a workable condition. Cleaning operation should start as near midship as possible and carried out board to prevent excessive tracking through clean compartments. In the event there is no oil or only light oil present, only hot fresh water is to be used. After and during the wash-down adequate ventilation must be provided, warm dry air being the best. The lagging and the wiring absorbs large quantities of oil and water and after the space is clean personnel are continually annoyed by drops. After the wires are dry they should be scrubbed their entire length with a brush and fresh water. Then about a day later this operation should be repeated to wash off any salt crystals that tend to form. See Bulletin #24, paragraph (2h) on procedure to handle junction boxes. Evaporation and
plenty of wiping by rags will eventually cure this. In connection with the use of rags, reference should be made to Manager's Bulletin #26/42. Receptacles should be provided on board for soiled rags and such rags brought ashore daily for laundering.
6. "Tectyl" is the trade name of a substance called thin film polar compound. It does wonders for machinery submerged in salt water if the treatment is given very soon after the water has been lowered. It must not be used on electrical installation and wiring since it will make them soft and gummy. It can be used on any metal surface. Its action it two-fold. First it absorbs the water and then covers with a thin protective film. It is primarily for bearing surfaces and internal parts of machines like reduction gears, blowers, turbines, pumps, etc. Detailed instructions will be furnished by the Salvage Planning Officer on request since they are too voluminous to be covered here in any but a general manner. For large surfaces like boiler or turbine casings or firesides of boilers it is recommended that consol light grade be sprayed. All hands are again cautioned that this can be overdone and some day someone will have to remove it. It is recommended that galvanized iron containers of tectyl, in which to dunk gauges and small fittings, be provided. This is all that need be done, let them dry, no breakdown is required. If they were not mechanically damaged they will be as good as new.
1. It is recommended to Commanding Officers that the enlisted personnel engaged in these operations be organized into groups of 10 to 12 firemen and machinist mates ratings from both the fireroom and engineroom supervised by a Chief Petty Officer or a first class P.O.
2. The machinery to be reconditioned comprises the main propelling and auxiliary machinery and the operations pertaining to the reconditioning thereof will be indicated under separate headings.
3. Pumps, reciprocating, in both engine and fire rooms:
a. With a Kerrick Kleener, blast off all the fuel oil.
b. Clean the pump up externally as nearly as possible.
c. Break the drain on the steam cylinder and remove the throttle bonnet.
d. With the steam hose and hot water, wash out steam cylinder and valve chest, draining thru the drains.
e. Hook up the drain and fill the steam cylinder with the necessary amount of tectyl-1 to 2 gallons, depending on the size of the cylinder.
f. Replace the throttle bonnet, close up the valves; and commence pumping operations using compressed air, exhausting at the drains or thru the exhaust valves, after removing the bonnet. Before operating pump, clean rods and slack off on packing to avoid scoring rods. Run the pump thus about 1/2 hour. All tectyl must be drained from the cylinder prior to this operation.
g. While the pump is running, swab the rod and open the water end of the pump with discharge into engine or fire room.
h. After running the pump, remove valve chest from water end and wash out thoroughly.
i. Close up pump and put in standby condition, either drying it out each day or put it in its regular duties.
j. These operations completed, begin testing suction and discharge lines to these pumps making sure that everything is tight. Renew gaskets and repair lines where necessary.
This procedure is to be carried out on all pumps. In the case of main circulating pumps driven by reciprocating engines, the procedure is as outlined above. Where lubricators are fitted to such engines, fill them with tectyl and lubricate the bearings first with tectyl and then, after having rinsed out the tectyl, lubricate with regular lube oil. All pumps should be run at least 15 to 20 minutes daily after having been thus reconditioned.
4. Pumps, Turbine Driven
a. External cleaning operations are the same as for the reciprocating pumps. The water end is to be very thoroughly washed with hot water and lube oil replaced by tectyl.
b. Open the turbine throttle, removing the throttle bonnet, and wash the casing out thoroughly with hot water.
c. While the turbine casing is full of hot water, jack the turbine over by hand and rinse out thoroughly.
d. Drain the turbine and fill with about 2 gallons of tectyl and jack by hand for 10 to 15 minutes.
e. Connect an air hose to the unit and run the turbine and pump assembly for about one hour with tectyl in the bearings and turbine casing.
f. Drain the tectyl from the bearings and replace with lube oil.
g. Drain the tectyl from the turbine casing into a bucket and save for reclamation or for further use.
The packing in all pumps should be removed at the earliest opportunity.
Note: In cases where turbines are fitted with jacking gear driven by an electric motor, remove the motor immediately and send to the electrical shop for repairs. Temporarily replace electric driven jacking motor with compressed air jacking motor.
5. Turbines, Main Propelling
a. Remove electric motors from jacking gear and send to the electrical shop for reconditioning as soon as possible. If the motors are in such a condition that they cannot readily be repaired and replaced, replace with compressed air driven motors.
b. Clean out lube system and drain tank, pump out all salt water.
c. Clean out sump tank and after removing all salt water, wipe clean with kerosene.
d. Open the complete system including the lube oil coolers and all bypasses and fill the sump tank with fresh hot water in which soda has been dissolved to the proportion of 10 pounds of soda ash to about 500 gallons of hot water. Using the regular circulating pump, circulate this thru the system for 6 to 8 hours. In the meantime jack the main turbines over slowly.
e. After the procedure in Paragraph d above has been carried out, all water will be drained from the system. Using an air hose, blast and dry out all water that remains.
f. Have personnel clean out sump tank and put enough tectyl in the sump tank so that the circulating pump will take and hold a suction. Circulate tectyl to all bearings thru the entire lubrication system and the reduction gears.
g. All spring bearings and external thrust bearings, if fitted, should be flushed out as outlined above, first with
water, then with tectyl, then refilled with new lube oil.
h. Spray all reduction gears and inside reduction gear casings with tectyl.
i. In treating main turbine casings and rotors the procedure is as outlined for smaller units.
1. Fill up casing with hot fresh water to top of shaft and jack rotor for 2 to 3 hours.
2. Drain casing and using a spray outfit, spray tectyl into the casing. The recommended procedure for spraying tectyl is as follows:
a. Remove a valve near the first inlet to the turbine (usually the warming-up valve).
b. Remove the bonnet of this valve, put in a blank flange drilled and tapped to receive a pipe.
c. Introduce a pipe into the turbine thru this hole. By means of this pipe blast 10 to 15 gallons of tectyl into the turbine, thus creating a vapor which circulates thru the diaphragms and casing. By introducing enough tectyl while the turbine is slowly jacked all parts are thoroughly covered with tectyl. When this operation is completed, drain all tectyl from the turbine casing.
j. After all tectyl has been removed from the lube system, wipe down the sump tank with kerosene and put in enough lube oil so that the lube oil pump will take and hold a suction while circulating thru the entire engine room lube system for approximately 2 to 3 hours. Jack the main turbine while circulating lube oil thru the system.
k. While jacking the main turbine, two men familiar with the plant or two experts should go over all turbine and reduction gear casings, carefully scrutinizing the entire plant for cracks, ruptures or misalignments, listening for any drones or unusual noises and noting if the whole unit turns over as easily as usual. Men should be stationed at various points to note any unusual conditions found. This can best be accomplished by the Engineer Officer's Assistant or men who are familiar with the operation of the plant.
l. Upon completion of the above operations the plant should be in a state of operation and regular operating routine established and request for Dock Trial be made as soon as practicable.
m. Reclamation of tectyl.
1. Put all tectyl used in the operations detailed above into one of the ship's lube oil treating tanks that has been cleaned beforehand.
2. Heat the tectyl up to about 1500 and pass thru a De Laval Separator. By this operation approximately 60% of the tectyl used in cleaning the main lubrication system can be reclaimed.
6. Instruments, Gauges, etc., in Engineroom
a. All gauges in the engineroom should be removed, immediately submerged and rinsed thoroughly in a tank of hot fresh water.
b. Dip them in a tank of tectyl, allow to drain, then assemble them in boxes and send to the instrument shop.
c. All electrical instruments in the engine room such as electrically operated telegraphs should be removed by electricians and sent at once to the electrical shop. Do not treat with tectyl. This will be taken care of in the electrical shop. Do not disassemble units, send to shop complete.
7. Piping, Valves, Condensers, etc.
a. All steam lines should be gone over carefully to discover the presence
of ruptures and damage. A hydrostatic test to working pressure should be put on the lines using only cold water. Do not remove lagging at this time.
b. All lubricating oil lines, firemains, etc. in the engineroom should be hydrostatically tested to working pressure.
c. All main condenser connections and the condensers themselves should be scrutinized for drainage. If the condenser is undamaged it will not be necessary to wash it out immediately but as soon as possible a 15 pound test should be given to the fresh water side and the salt water side filled to determine the presence of any cracks, leaks or broken gaskets. Washing will be done when directed.
d. All relief valves and other large valves should be thoroughly inspected and those found damaged should be removed and sent to the shop.
e. All valves in place should be treated with "consol." All working parts such as valve stems should be sprayed with "consol." All valve stem packing should be removed as soon as possible in the event the system is not to be put in operation for some time.
8. Bright Work and Finished Surfaces
a. All bright work and finished metal surfaces in the engineroom should be thoroughly washed down and cleaned with tectyl.
a. A description of the procedures used on one damaged destroyer will, it is believed, be of value in the reconditioning of boilers damaged by submergence. It is presented herewith. This destroyer had been on fire for about three days and then had been submerged for some time. After raising the ship the forward fireroom was found to contain a large amount of buckled machinery, soot and a great deal of burned cork, etc. All bulkheads, boiler casings, etc., were for the first cleaning washed down and cleaned with hot fresh water and air hoses. The boilers were washed thoroughly inside and out, including the tubes. All fuel oil and debris was removed from the furnaces, tubes and top casings of the boilers. The water in the boiler drums was tested and found fresh, obviating the necessity for immediate worry about the internal condition of the boilers. All casings were wiped down with kerosene and all registers, soot blowers and external machinery sprayed with "consol" and worked until it moved freely. All boiler stops, safety valves and other external fittings were impregnated with "consol" and put in a state of preservation. After the firesides had been thoroughly cleaned with fresh water, a wood fire was built under the boilers and kept going for 24 hours. Steam was formed and the air cock opened, permitting steam to blow freely thru the drum. An examination of the brickwork showed that it would not be necessary to withdraw any bricks. The brickwork was found sound enough to permit the ship to proceed under her own power to the states. The first consideration in the case of boilers is getting them immediately in a state of preservation by cleaning the firesides and spraying them with "consol." If it is later deemed necessary to remove or repair brickwork, this can be done after the fireroom is cleared of other work. The boiler having been cleaned up and dried out, all blowers, fuel oil pumps, feed pumps and all other auxiliary machinery in the fireroom were tested. All instruments in the fireroom, most of which had been damaged
by fire were removed and a list made of those which would have to be temporarily or permanently replaced. Boilers were then given a hydrostatic test in accordance with M.E.I. The boiler stops were then opened and the main steam line to the engine bulkhead was tested at working pressure only, because of possible damaged gaskets and cold water. This test will show up any gaskets that have been carried away or any ruptures to the pipe. In view of the fact that the ship was going back to the states for repairs it was not deemed necessary to remove lagging from steam lines or boiler drums. It is believed that general procedure should concern itself with getting the machinery in a state of operation and getting the ship ready to move. Any removal of lagging found necessary can be done at a later date. When other matters have been attended to the lagging may if necessary be removed and the piping wire brushed and put in a state of preservation. Where boilers or other machinery units have been severely damaged, remove all lagging as soon as possible so that the extent of damage can be ascertained and the unit lightened for removal. The forced draft blowers in the forward fireroom had been damaged by fire and it was found necessary to remove them and take them apart and clean them. This is especially true in the case of the ball thrust bearings which had become gummed up. No parts had to be replaced but the assembly had to be taken down and cleaned. #2 fireroom had not undergone such intense heat as #1 and thus it was found necessary only to clean the machinery up generally with tectyl. The blowers were run by air for several hours and found to be in satisfactory condition. Governors and overspeed trips worked perfectly. One boiler at a time was lit off and steam raised with boiler stops open to the main and auxiliary steam lines. When steam pressure was about 100 lbs. the machinery was tried out. It was discovered that in certain cases relief valve springs had lost their tension and also that the operation by steam of certain machinery uncovered conditions that had to be rectified. This required two to three days. The safety valves were lifted by steam and were found to be in perfect order without need of resetting. The main engineroom had not been seriously affected by water, but had sustained considerable heat. A small amount of damage was repaired. The most important points to be noted in the foregoing are these:
1. The fact that a boiler has been submerged is not prima facie evidence that the brickwork has been irreparably damaged and must be torn down. The immediate need of a boiler is a thorough cleaning and drying out and being placed in a state of preservation.
2. An immediate cleaning up and testing of all boilers and fireroom machinery is the primary consideration on unwatering a fireroom.
3. Lagging and other insulation should not be immediately stripped off unless it is believed that it hides damage.
10. Electrical Equipment
a. The electric wiring necessary for most jobs now in sight appears to be limited to that required to re-establish vital circuits. In many cases this involves jumping past damaged areas. A word of caution is again necessary against blanket renewals and unnecessary work. Consult wiring diagrams, dry out the wiring and bring up megger readings. Wiring always appears to be in worse condition
than it really is. Discretion must be used in cutting cable in damage areas. Never make the mistake of chopping off cable too short to prevent later splicing with a junction box thereby necessitating costly renewals. As soon as possible submit a list to the Salvage Planning Officer giving the approximate runs in feet, sizes and types required. This is needed in order to check available stock and in many cases to locate equivalent substitutes.
b. Electrical Equipment
c. Main Drive-See Salvage Bulletin # 24.
d. Motors and Generators.-It is requested that in handling electrical Planning Officer, Lt. (jg) Darroch, telephone 4255, be contacted as soon as a space is unwatered. He will visit the ship and make detailed arrangements on how each lot of equipment is to be handled. Do not dump this equipment on the yard if it is desired to have the job run smoothly. Ships can aid considerably in the task if they will compile in advance a list of units prior to removal from the ship with the following information.
1. Ships item Number (E-l, E-2, etc.)
2. Name of motor or use ( #1 Deck Wind)
3. Location of motor (Frame 46-S on Forecastle Deck or #8-46-1 Deck #8-Frame 46-Starboard side.)
4. Motor Serial No. and name plate data. Mark all equipment with metal tags, giving the above information. Ships are requested not to undertake removal of oil from motors, but rather to leave this to be done by the electrical shop.
e. Instruments-See paragraph 6c.
f. Switchboards-See Salvage Bulletin # 24, paragraph # 5. It is planned to disconnect, remove intact and recondition in the shop all switch board and control panels that can be more expeditiously repaired by this method. No wires are to be cut, put all nuts back on the studs and carefully mark all leads. There will be no general removal of these items and each item will be individually inspected and scheduled for removal by the Salvage Machinery Superintendent, Lt. Comdr. C. W. Rhodes.
1. Power Leads-Give as thorough fresh water wash as is possible. Dry by wiping and by drying compartment, and by drying compartments the intention is to dry the compartment as dry as is possible. No puddles or drippings can be permitted. Then all wires will be scrubbed with fresh water individually. Continue this process until no more salt forms on the wires or is divested. Do no work on the ends of the cable until specifically directed. The first step will be to clean ends. Then test with low voltage test and submit result to officer in charge of work who will direct procedure from there on.
2. Lighting-The cable and spaces will be given the same treatment as for power cable. See Salvage Bulletin # 24, paragraph 2b.
3. I.C. Circuits and F.C. Circuits-Establish a priority on what circuits will be required. Rewiring of circuits will be done in general as for lighting. All telephones (Ship's service, battle and sound power) will be carefully removed, tagged and delivered to the instrument shop as each compartment is unwatered. There must be no delay in this respect.
11. Comments and Suggestions
a. It has been observed that the
tendency is to tear down too much machinery. It is believed that the minimum amount of machinery should be torn down and the maximum use made of the tectyl treatment. Machinery proven to be out of line or ruptured may have to be torn down for repairs. Machinery that shows no signs of damage other than submergence can readily be reclaimed with tectyl and made to continue in service indefinitely. It may be necessary at some future date to replace packing or do minor repairs.
b. Plans should be made well in advance to procure a plentiful supply of steam. It may be necessary to install a stationary or portable boiler on board or alongside the ship to give a steam supply at about #130; 10 to 15 portable water heaters such as have been built up by the pipe shop at the Navy Yard should also be secured.
c. For mixing operations preparatory to washing down bulkheads, use steam and hot water in a 50-50 proportion and get close to the bulkhead and remove all mud and fuel oil. For washing out machinery and boilers an ample supply of hot fresh water is necessary. Final cleaning is best done using steam cleaners. These should be assembled ahead of time and also obtain sufficient cleaning compound.
d. Numerous air hoses should be provided, 2 to 3 for each engineroom, especially the larger size in order to secure the necessary volume of air to jack over and operate all pumps and machinery.
e. Battleships should have a supply of about 1,000 gals. of tectyl and 300 gals. of "consol" on board. Provision should be made for reclaiming tectyl. Lube oil treating tanks should be cleaned out and De Laval Separators secured as soon as possible and a place to run the oil separated from the tectyl; 60 to 70% of the tectyl used can thus be reclaimed. Since this compound is hard to secure in this area and costs about $3.00 per gallon it is advisable to reclaim as much as possible. No amount of tectyl no matter how small should be discarded without some attempt at reclaiming part of it. In using tectyl the presence of open flames should be avoided and adequate ventilation in compartments where tectyl is being used should be supplied.
f. In organizing the personnel, it is recommended that they be given a lecture on the procedure, explaining the advantage of tectyl in getting machinery again in operation without tearing it down.
H. N. WALLIN.
All Salv. Officers
PHR&S Unit (25)