The Machine Gun
History, Evolution, and Development of Manual, Automatic, and
Airborne Repeating Weapons
George M. Chinn
Lieutenant Colonel, USMC
VOLUME I OF FIVE VOLUMES
Prepared for the Bureau of Ordnance
Department of the Navy
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C. -- Price $5.,00 Buckram)
With the belief that the next best thing to actual knowledge is knowing where to find it, this research has been compiled by the Bureau of Ordnance, Department of the Navy, in order to place in the hands of those rightfully interested in the art of automatic weapon design, the world's recorded progress in this field of endeavor.
So great a period has been covered on a vast and controversial subject, with practically no precedent to use as a guide, that the sum total of this effort must be regarded somewhat in the nature of an experiment.
While nothing is claimed for this volume except that it is the result of tedious and laborious research, it is believed that in some manner it will help point the way to a better understanding of past development. In so doing, it should help to reduce pitfalls that beset the designer traveling an otherwise dimly lighted path.
A biography is included for each of the great masters of gun design, upon whose countless experiments and basic ideas the automatic armament of the world has been created; thus the reader may better determine the magnitude of their genius and its meaning to history past and future.
Excerpts from actual writings of the inventors, manufacturers and professional critics are given wherever possible. These statements, together with other authoritative matter, are assembled for the most part according to historical sequence.
It is not to be construed that this book is infallible, as it has the inevitable errors of all first editions. Sometimes an apparent digression was thought necessary to help clarify succeeding events, such as gunpowder experiments, ignition improvements, metallurgy formulas and even aviation progress. Without these kindred subjects, present-day ordnance design would not exist.
Great stress has been laid upon the inclusion of actual photographs of early inventors firing their prototype machine guns, to present pictorial proof that the automatic weapons we know today were of as humble origin as the mechanics who created them.
The unholy desire throughout the centuries for man to implement his belligerent impulses with superior tools for conflict, has provided the anvil upon which he has patiently forged the most lethal scourge of the modern world--the Machine Gun.
The help and encouragement received from many sources in the preparation of this work can never be fully acknowledged. The following individual are listed in at least partial recognition of such contributions.
Captain Eugene Tatom, USN, formerly Chief, Re8, and Mr. James R. Norton, Head Engineer, Re8, Aviation Ordnance, Bureau of Ordnance.
Mr. M. Bigelow Browning, Vice President, Browning Arms Company; Colonel Leo A. Codd, Executive Vice President, American Ordnance Association; Dr. S. G. Green, Chief, Engineering Section, Small Arms Branch, Industrial Division, Ordnance Corps, Department of the Army; Major General Julian S. Hatcher, National Rifle Association; Colonel Allen L. Keyes, USA, Director, and Mr. Gerald C. Stowe, Curator, West Point Museum; Colonel G. B. Jarrett, Chief, Library and Museum Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground; Colonel Willard Webb, Chief, Stack and Reader Division, Library of Congress.
Mr. John Casey, General Manager, North American Aviation Corporation; Mr. Louis Ehrman, Pocomoke, Maryland; Mr. Herman P. Dean, President, Standard Printing and Publishing Company, Huntington, West Virginia; Colonel George W. Hicks, Circulation Manager, Columbus (Ohio) Citizen; Colonel Melvin M. Johnson, Jr., Technical Director, Arms Department, Research and Development Division, Mr. Edwin Pugsley, former Vice President in Charge of Research, Mr. James C. Hartley, Director of Research, and Mr. Thomas Hall, Gun Museum Curator, all of Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Division of Olin Industries, Inc.; Mrs. Ruth H. Stoeger, Librarian, Stoeger Arms Co.; Mr. H. P. White, Chief Engineer, and Mr. Burt D. Munhall, Manager, H. P. White Ordnance Co.
Lieutenant Colonel Franklin S. Allen, Jr., Chief, Tactical Combat Branch, USAF; Lieutenant Colonel John J. Driscoll, Chief, Bomber Defense Branch, USAF.
Lieutenant Colonel Andrew W. Hamilton, Chief, Technical Intelligence, Ordnance Research and Development Division, Department of the Army; Lieutenant Colonel Frank J. McMorrow, Officer in Charge of Museum, Springfield Armory; Mr. Joseph H. Church, Chief, Patent Section, Ordnance Corps, Department of the Army; Mr. H. G. Solberg, Technical Intelligence Branch, Ordnance Corps, Department of the Army; Mrs. Rosemary Darsa, Photo Branch, Army Intelligence.
Rear Admiral Malcolm F. Schoeffel, USN; Captain T. H. Ahroon, USN; Captain Devere L. Day, USN, Chief, Air Section, Intelligence Branch, ONI; Captain F. B. Miller, USN; Captain R. N. Sharp, USN; Commander William J. Lederer, USN; Commander Richard Matter, USN; Commander Dan W. Snively, USN; Lieutenant Commander Marvin Franger, USN; Lieutenant Commander Paul Pugh, USN; Aviation Ordnance Chief J. W. Cospers, USN.
Brigadier General Vernon E. Megee, USMC; Lieutenant Colonel Francis Kiernan, USMC; Major Ross Jordan, USMC; Captain Don Fenton, USMC; Chief Warrant Officer John Scarborough, USMC.
Dr. Remington Kellogg, Director, U. S. National Museum; Mr. M. L. Peterson, Acting Curator, Division of Military and Naval History, Smithsonian Institution; Mr. C. E. Haglund, Executive Officer, U. S. Patent Office; Mr. J. F. Nugent, Federal Bureau of Investigation; Mr. Harold L. Peterson, Historian, National Park Service.
Mr. Harry J. Baudu, Miss Josephine Cobb, Miss Elizabeth B. Drewry, Mr. Howard T. Gardner, Mr. Richard G. Giroux, Mrs. Emma B. Haas, Mr. John P. O'Brien, Mr. William F. Shonkwiler, Mr. Charles E. Wiseman and Mr. Richard G. Wood, of the National Archives.
Mr. Henry E. Marschalk, Miss Adele Miller and Mr. C. H. Grover, Publications Branch; Mr. Gerald D. O'Brien, Patent Counsel; Mr. William F. O'Keefe and Miss Lillian Martin, Administrative Division, of the Bureau of Ordnance.
Special thanks must be given for the excellent cooperation and service given by personnel of the U. S. Naval Photographic Center, Still Picture Library. The staffs of all libraries and museums visited were most helpful and accommodating. These institutions include the Library of Congress, Army Library, Army War College Library, Signal Corps Photographic Library, Main Navy Library, Bureau of Aeronautics Library, Bureau of Ordnance Technical Library, Bureau of Ships Library, U. S. National Museum. Aberdeen Proving Ground Library and Museum, Naval Ordnance Laboratory Ordnance Technical Museum. Naval Gun Factory Museum, and Bureau of Ordnance Museum.
Mrs. Jane Virginia Philbrick, Washington, D. C., aided greatly in the tedious research and editorial work involved in the early preparation of this volume.
Mr. Daniel D. Musgrave, Washington, D. G, deserves special thanks for many invaluable contributions based on his encyclopedic knowledge of the subject.
Three people were assigned directly to assist the author. Mr. Leo X. Abernethy, a young man well recognized for his designing skill on automatic firing mechanisms, was lent to the project by the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D. C. His display of talent in classifying basic principles and interpreting patent drawings of all nations, coupled with his ability to evaluate accurately research material of each era, warrants a commendation of the highest order. Too much credit cannot be given to him for whatever measure of success the finished product may enjoy.
The second member was Master Sergeant John H. Moore, USMC, former instructor at the Marine Corps Aviation Ordnance School, Quantico, Virginia. His meticulous care in collecting historical and pictorial research will be gratefully recognized by students of automatic weapons for years to come. His thorough working knowledge of the intricate mechanics of foreign automatic weapons is outstanding and proved of inestimable value in hastening the conclusion of the project.
The Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, Maryland, made the last, but by no means the least, contribution in providing the editorial services of Mr. Franklin W. Clark. The others on the project felt his duties were the most difficult of all and agreed that the handling of his part of the work was responsible for the project being completed with speed and accuracy. His capability left them with not only admiration but envy.
George M. Chinn
Lieutenant Colonel, USMC.
Preface v Acknowledgments vi Chapter Page PART I--FORERUNNERS OF THE MACHINE GUN 1. Weapon History Prior to Gunpowder 3 Primitive Beginnings 3 The First Projectile Throwers 4 Midieval Instruments of War 6 2. Firearm Development to Percussion Ignition 11 Origin of Gunpowder 11 Early Multibarrel Firearms 12 Improvements in Ignition 15 Beginnings of Revolving and Volley-Fire Guns 16 Application of the Detonating Principle to Firing 20 Pioneer American Gunsmiths 21 3. Background of Machine Gun Development 24 First Models of Percussion Multifiring Weapons 24 Development of Cartridges 25 Ripley Gun 26 Refinements in American Gunsmithing 28 Industrial By-Products of the Gun Trade 29 Colt Revolving Rifle, Model 1855 30 PART II--MANUALLY OPERATED MACHINE GUNS 1. Billinghurst Requa Battery 35 2. Ager "Coffee Mill" Gun 37 3. Claxton Firing Mechanism 41 4. Machine Guns Used by the Confederacy 42 Williams Machine Gun 42 Vandenberg Volley Gun 43 Confederate Cannon 46 Gorgas Machine Gun 46 5. Gatling Machine Gun 48 The Model 1862 Gun 48 Tests and Demonstrations 50 The Model 1865 Gatling 51 Adoption by the United States 54 International Acceptance of the Weapon 55 Performance and Improvement during the Nineteenth Century 57 6. Mitrailleuse Type Weapons 64 7. Farawell Machine Gun 69 8. Hotchkiss Machine Gun 71 9. Gardner Machine Gun 79 10. Lowell Machine Gun 89 11. Wilder Machine Gun 100 12. J. H. McLean's "Peace Makers" 104 13. Bailey Machine Gun 107 14. Nordenfelt Machine Gun 110 15. Taylor Machine Gun 117 16. End of Manually Operated Period 119 PART III--FULL AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN DEVELOPMENT 1. Maxim Machine Guns 123 Maxim's Early Years 123 The First Automatic Machine Gun 128 First Trials of the Maxim Gun 136 Other Maxim Weapons 143 Vickers-Maxim Machine Gun 144 2. Skoda Machine Gun 150 3. Browning Automatic Machine Guns 156 John M. Browning's Early Years 156 The Colt Model '95 Machine Gun 160 The Browning Model 1901 Machine Gun 169 Browning Guns in World War I: B.A.R. and Browning Machine Gun Model 1917 173 Browning Caliber .50 Machine Gun 181 4. Hotchkiss Automatic Machine Guns 187 Background 187 Hotchkiss Machine Gun 188 Puteaux and St. Etienne Machine Guns 194 Benét-Mercié Machine Rifle 195 Hotchkiss Machine Gun Model 1914 200 Hotchkiss 12-mm Machine Gun 202 5. Nordenfelt Automatic Machine Gun 204 6. De Knight Water-Cooled Machine Gun 207 7. Madsen Automatic Machine Gun 209 8. Bergmann and Dreyse Machine Guns 214 Bergmann Machine Gun 214 Dreyse Machine Gun 216 9. Perino Machine Gun 220 10. Carr Machine Gun 224 11. Schwarzlose Machine Gun 228 12. McClean Machine Gun 232 13. Chauchat Machine Gun 238 14. Berthier Machine Gun 243 15. Kjellman Machine Gun 248 16. Revelli Machine Gun 251 17. Laird-Menteyne Machine Gun 256 PART IV--AIRCRAFT AND AIRBORNE WEAPONS 1. Early Aircraft Developments 259 Aerial History Before Kitty Hawk 259 The Wright Brothers and other Early Pilots 262 Beginnings of Military Aviation 265 Pioneer Attempts at Aerial Armament 268 2. Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun 275 The First Aerial Machine Gun 275 Early Development of the Lewis Gun 278 The Lewis Gun in World War I 279 The Controversy over the Lewis Gun in America 285 Later Development and Production of the Lewis Gun 291 Use of the Lewis Gun by the Navy 293 The Routing of the Zeppelin Menace 295 Conclusion 297 Models of the Lewis Gun 299 3. Vickers Aircraft Machine Gun 301 4. German Maxim-Type Aircraft Weapons 309 Early Adaptations 309 Parabellum Machine Gun 310 The Fokker Synchronizer 312 Introduction of Armored Planes 314 T.u.F. Machine Gun 315 Models of Maxim Guns 317 5. Marlin Aircraft Machine Gun 320 6. Browning Aircraft Machine Guns 327 First Attempts at Air Firing 327 The Aircraft Armament Board Report 328 Browning Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. 30 332 Browning Cal. 50 Aircraft Machine Gun 333 Cycle of Operation 339 The B.A.R. Since World War I 342 Models of Browning Recoil-Operated Machine Guns 343 7. Hotchkiss Aircraft Machine Gun 345 Aerial Uses of the Hotchkiss 345 Tabulation of Hotchkiss Machine Guns 351 8. Nambu Automatic Weapons 353 9. Revelli Aircraft Machine Gun 356 10. Bergmann, Dreyse, and MG-13 Machine Guns 364 German Light Machine Gun Models in World War I 364 Bergmann Model 1915, N.A., Machine Gun 365 MG-13 367 11. Villar-Perosa Aircraft Machine Gun 371 12. S.I.A. AIrcraft Machine Gun 374 13. Gast Aircraft Machine Gun 379 14. Darne Aircraft Machine Gun 384 15. Beardmore-Farquhar Aircraft Machine Gun 389 16. Brixia Machine Gun 393 17. Mendoza Light Machine Gun 397 18. Chatellerault Machine Gun 401 19. Madsen Aircraft Machine Gun 407 The Aircraft Version of the Madsen 407 Models and Users of the Madsen 410 20. B.S.A. Aircraft Machine Gun 412 21. Breda Machine Gun 416 22. Furrer Machine Gun 425 23. ZB Machine Guns 429 ZB Model 1926 429 The Bren Gun 432 Japanese Models of the ZB 433 ZB-50 Machine Gun 434 Besa-ZB-53 Machine Guns 436 24. Vickers-Berthier Machine Gun 4441 25. Lahti (Suomi) (L/S) Machine Gun 446 26. Rheinmetall-Borsig Machine Gun 450 Introduction 450 Solothurn Model 29 451 MG-30 453 MG-15 454 MG-17 455 MG-131 457 27. Scotti Machine Gun 461 28. Bang Aircraft Machine Gun 464 29. Sistar Machine Gun 469 30. Knorr-Bremse Machine Gun 469 31. Mauser Machine Guns 472 Background 472 MG-34 473 MG-81 478 32. Johnson Light Machine Gun 480 33. MG-42 Machine Gun 484 34. FG-42 Machine Gun 489 PART V--AUTOMATIC AIRCRAFT CANNON 1. Davis Nonrecoiling Gun 495 2. Vickers Aircraft Cannon (C.O.W. Aircraft Cannon) 500 3. Revelli Aircraft Cannon 505 4. Puteaux 37-mm Aircraft Cannon 507 5. Becker-Semag-Oerlikon Automatic Aircraft Cannons 512 Backer Cannon 512 Semag Aircraft Cannon 514 Oerlikon Aircraft Cannon 515 Gazda Aircraft Cannon 519 Polsten Cannon 520 Cycle of Operation 522 Conclusion 522 6. Szakats 20-mm Aircraft Cannon 523 7. Baldwin Aircraft Cannon (37-mm) 526 8. Browning Aircraft Cannon 531 9. Madsen Aircraft Cannon 537 10. Hotchkiss 25-mm Aircraft Cannon 542 11. Scotti Aircraft 20-mm Cannon 545 12. Lübbe 20-mm Aircraft Cannon 548 13. Rheinmetall-Borsig Automatic Aircraft Cannon 550 Earhardt, Solothurn & Flak 30 Cannon 550 Flak 18 Cannon 554 MK-101 Cannon 555 MK-103 Cannon 557 MK-108 Cannon 558 14. Birkigt Type 404 20-mm (Hispano-Suiza) Cannon 562 Early History of Hispano-Zuiza Company 562 Earliest Birkigt Type 404 Cannon 563 Cycle of Operation 566 British Adoption of the Gun 566 American Negotiations for the Cannon 570 Production of Hispano-Suiza Cannon by the United States 574 Modifications and Attempts at Standardization 577 Mount, Feed, and Other Modifications 579 Types of Hispano-Suiza Cannon 582 T-26 and Other Modified Hispano-Suiza Cannon 583 Performance of Hispano-Suiza Cannon During World War II 588 15. Furrer Automatic Aircraft Cannon 591 16. American Armament Automatic Aircraft Cannon 593 17. Lahti Aircraft Cannon 596 18. Breda 20-mm Automatic Cannon 598 19. Mauser Automatic Cannon 602 MG-151 602 Flak 38 604 20. Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Caliber .90 Series 607 21. Bofors Automatic Aircraft Cannon 610 22. Japanese Automatic Aircraft Cannon 614 CONCLUSION 619 APPENDICES A. Patents on Machine Guns and Relating Mechanisms upon which the World's Automatic Weapons Have Been Based 621 B. Tabulated Characteristics of Machine Guns and Aircraft Cannon 657 BIBLIOGRAPHY 671 INDEX 675
Page Statue at Entrance to National Archives Building, Washington, D.C. xxiv A Spring Engine 6 A Catapult for Slinging Stones 7 The Trebuchet 7 The Ballista 8 A Heavy German Crossbow and a Cranequin for Cocking 9 A Crossbow with Magazine Feed 9 An Early Chinese Organ Gun 13 Volley Firing Guns Designed by Leonardo da Vinci 14 Three-Barrel Match Lock. Barrels are Revolved by Hand 15 James Puckle's Revolving Gun 18 Seven-Barrel Revolving Flintlock Rifle 19 Barnes Machine Gun. Patented 1856 25 Ripley Machine Gun. Patented 1861 27 The Colt Revolving Rifle 31 Billinghurst Requa Battery Gun, Cal. .50, Model 1862 35 Ager Machine Gun, Serial No. 2 37 Ager Machine Gun, Cal. .58, without Carriage 38 Claxton Machine Gun, Cal. .69 41 Williams Smooth Bore Machine Gun, Cal. 1.56 42 Vandenberg Volley Gun, Cal. .50. 85-Barrel Model used by the Confederates 43 Vandenberg Volley Gun. A Loading Tool Was Supplied with the Weapon that Loaded All Chambers Simultaneously 44 Confederate Revolving Cannon 45 Gorgas Machine Gun, Cal. 1.25 46 A Section View Showing the Action of Gatling's First Model Gun 49 A Letter from Richard Gatling to President Lincoln 52 Gatling Gun Aboard the USS Alliance 55 Gatling Gun, Model 1883, Ten-Barrel, Cal. .45, with Accles Feed Drum 56 General Custer, Who Left his Catlings Behind When He Met Sitting Bull at Little Big Horn 58 Gatlings at Daiquiri Just Before Starting for the Front in the Spanish-American War 59 Dr. Richard Jordan Gatling With His Weapon 61 War Department Letter Attesting Capabilities of Gatling Mechanism 62 Montigny Mitrailleuse, a Belgian-Designed Volley Firing Gun 65 De Reffye Mitrailleuse, a 25-Barreled Version as Modified by the French Ordnance Officer 66 The Chassepot Rifle Cartridge that Was Used in the Mitrailleuse 67 Farwell Machine Gun, Cal. .45 (Experimental Model) 69 Hotchkiss 37-mm Revolving Cannon Mounted on Ship's Gunwale 72 Section through Worm Wheel of Hotchkiss Cannon 74 Section through Loading Rack of Hotchkiss Cannon 74 Section through Drive Shaft of Hotchkiss Cannon 75 Hotchkiss 37-mm Revolving Cannon on Naval Deck Mount 77 Gardner Machine Gun, Model 1879, Cal. .45 80 Section Drawing of Gardner Machine Gun 81 Section Drawing of Gardner Feed Action Showing Method of Indexing Cartridges for Loading 82 Section of Gardner Bolt Assembly Retracted 84 Section of Gardner Bolt Assembly in Battery 84 Gardner Single Barrel Machine Gun with Cover Open 85 Gardner Machine Gun, Cal. .45. This Weapon Could Be Used Either Water- or Air-Cooled 86 Robertson Double-Barrel Machine Gun, Cal. .30 87 Lowell Machine Gun on Carriage Mount 90 Lowell Machine Gun with Cover Open and Barrels Depressed for Inspection 92 Lowell Machine Gun with Tripod Mount 94 Wilder Machine Gun on Tripod Mount 101 Section Drawing of Wilder Machine Gun 102 Dr. James H. McLean 104 Myron Coloney 105 Bailey Machine Gun, the First Such Weapon to Use a Belt Feed 107 Bailey Machine Gun Cartridge Belt. A Sketch Made by the Officer Who Tested the Weapon at the Washington Navy Yard, 1876 108 The Mechanism of the Bailey Machine Gun. Sketched During the 1876 Trials 109 Nordenfelt Machine Gun, Cal. .45, With Gun Carriage Convertible to Tripod Mount 111 Nordenfelt Single-Barrel Machine Gun 112 Nordenfelt Machine Gun, Cal. .45, Five-Barrel Model. Mounted in Top of a Fighting Ship to Sweep the Decks of the Enemy 115 Taylor Machine Gun 117 Hiram Maxim at the Age of Seventeen 123 Hiram Maxim. Picture Taken Shortly Before His Death in 1915 125 The First Automatic Weapon Patented by Maxim 128 The First Model Maxim Automatic Gun 130 A Drawing of Maxim's Original Machine Gun. Published in Scientific American, 1884 132 Breech Mechanism of the Improved Maxim Gun 133 A Demonstration Gun and Mount Used by Maxim. The Wooden Case Was Used as a Tripod When Firing and to Contain the Gun and Ammunition During Transportation 135 Hiram S. Maxim Holding the Light Maxim Gun and Mounting 137 Maxim Machine Gun, Model 1893, Cal. .45 139 Maxim Machine Gun, Model 1895, Cal. .303 143 German Maxim Model 1908 with Sled Mount 145 Russian Maxim Model 1910 on "Sokolov" Wheeled Carriage 146 Maxim Automatic Gun After Firing 15,000 Rounds at an American Trial in 1899 147 British Sergeant Instructing American Troops in France 148 Skoda Machine Gun, Model 1893 150 Section Drawing of Skoda Model 1893 152 Skoda Machine Gun, Model 1909 154 Original Repeating Rifle Developed by Jonathan Browning 157 John Moses Browning when 18 Years Old 157 Matthew Sandefur Browning 158 The First Shop and Arms Factory. John and Matt Browning are Shown in the Doorway. Left to Right Are Sam, George, John, Matt, and Ed Browning, and Another Gunsmith 159 John M. Browning at the Height of his Career 160 Browning's First Experimental Model of a Gas-Operated Automatic Firearm 161 Browning's First Gas-Operated Machine Gun 161 Original Letter From Browning Brothers to Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company, 1890 162 Colt Machine Gun, Model 1895 164 Section Drawing of Colt Model 1895 165 John M. Browning with the "Browning Peacemaker" 167 Colt Machine Gun, Model 1895, as Modified in 1914 169 Marriner A. Browning, Son of Matthew S. Browning, Firing the Recoil-Operated Machine Gun, Model 1901 170 Section of Browning Cal. .30 Recoil-Operated Machine Gun 171 A Drawing From J. M. Browning's Drafting Board. Browning Often Worked from Freehand Sketches Made on Wrapping Paper 172 The Prototype Model of the B. A. R 173 John M. Browning Examining One of His Automatic Machine Rifles in 1918 with Mr. Burton, One of Winchester's Experts 174 A Sectionalized B. A. R., Cal. 7.92 mm, of Polish Manufacture 175 B. A. R., Cal. .30, as Standardized for U. S. Service, Serial Number 5 176 Browning Machine Gun, Model 1917, Cal. .30, as Introduced to the Service in World War I 177 Westinghouse Production of Model 1917 Cal. .30 Browning Machine Guns 178 Ft. Val A. Browning, Son of John M. Browning, in France Instructing Troops in the Use of the Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .30 179 John M. Browning with His Cal. .30 Machine Gun 180 A Demonstration of the B. A. R. in 1918 181 Gen. John J. Pershing, Whose Specifications Resulted in the Cal. .50 Machine Gun 182 A Rare Photograph of John M. Browning's Work Shop with an Early Model Cal. .50 Machine Gun 183 John M. Browning Firing His Cal. .50 Machine Gun in Colt's Pasture 184 Products of John M. Browning's Genius 185 Laurence V. Benét Firing the First Model Hotchkiss Machine Gun 188 Components of Hotchkiss First Model Gun 189 Section Drawing of Hotchkiss Machine Gun, Model 1897 190 Hotchkiss Machine Gun, Model 1897 192 Hotchkiss Machine Gun, Model 1903, the First Hotchkiss Gun to Use a Belt Feed 193 St. Etienne Machine Gun, Model 1907 195 St. Etienne Machine Gun, Model 1907, 8-mm, Sectionalized 196 Benét-Mercié Machine Rifle, Model 1909. This Weapon Manufactured by Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company is Serial Number "0" 197 Components of the Benét-Mercié Model 1909 198 Section Drawing of the Benét-Mercié Model 1909 199 Function Firing the Hotchkiss Model 1914 in France 200 Hotchkiss Machine Gun, Model 1914, 8 mm 201 Hotchkiss Balloon Gun, Cal. .472 202 Nordenfelt Machine Gun, Model 1897, with Mount Folded for Carrying 204 Components of the Nordenfelt Machine Gun 205 Nordenfelt Machine Gun, Model 1897, with Mount Folded for Carrying 206 De Knight Automatic Machine Gun, Cal. .30, Manufactured by Pratt and Whitney 207 Madsen Machine Gun, Model 1903, Being Demonstrated by Lt. Schouboe 209 Madsen Machine Gun, Model 1903. Photographed During United States Trials 211 Action of the Madsen. (A) Loaded, Locked, and Ready to Fire. (B) After Firing, Bolt Pivots Up to Eject Cartridge. (C) Bolt Pivots Down for Loading. (D) Loaded, Locked, and Ready to Fire. (E) and (F) The Action of the Loading Arm 212 Madsen Machine Gun, Model 1914, 8 mm 213 Theodor Bergmann Firing the First Model Bergmann Machine Gun 214 Bergmann Machine Gun, Model 1910 215 Dreyse Machine Gun, Model 1912 217 Section Drawing of Bergmann Machine Gun 218 Section Drawing of Dreyse Machine Gun 218 Perino Machine Gun, 6.5 mm 221 Perino Machine Gun with Right Side Hinged Down to Expose the Mechanism 222 Carr Machine Gun 225 Target Made by Carr Gun in 1901 Trials 226 Schwarzlose Machine Gun, Model 1907/1912 229 Action of the Schwarzlose Gun 230 Schwarzlose Machine Gun, 8 mm 231 Samuel M. McClean Demonstrating His 37-mm Automatic Cannon 233 McClean Machine Gun, Cal. .30, Being Fired by the Inventor 234 McClean Machine Gun 235 McClean Machine Gun with Feed Drum 236 Chauchat Machine Rifle, Model 1915, 8 mm 238 Section Drawing of Chauchat Model 1918, Cal. .30 239 American Troops Training with the Chauchat Machine Rifle 240 The Chauchat in Action with American Troops 241 Berthier Machine Gun, Model 1911 243 Components of the Berthier Machine Gun 244 Berthier Machine Gun, Water-Cooled 246 Air-Cooled Berthier Machine Gun Tested by the United States Army, 1917 247 Locking System Designed by Friberg and Used by Kjellman 248 Kjellman Heavy Machine Gun 249 Kjellman Light Machine Gun Being Fired by the Inventor 249 Revelli (Fiat) Machine Gun, Model 1914, 6.5 mm 251 Section Drawing of Revelli Mechanism 253 American Troops Receiving Instructions on the Revelli Model 1914 254 Ader's Avion, the First Government-Sponsored Flying Machine 261 The Launching of Langley's Aerodrome, 7 October 1903 262 The First Flight by Man. The Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk 17 December 1903 263 One of the Airplanes Used by the Constitucionalistas in Mexico to Bomb Federal Gun Boats 267 The First Shot Fired from an Airplane. Glenn Curtiss, Pilot, and Second Lt. Jacob E. Fickel Holding the Rifle 269 The Successful Trial of the Chamblis Catapult at the Washington Navy Yard, 12 November 1912 270 A Curtiss Airplane, the First to Accompany the Army in Maneuvers, Clearing a Stone Wall 272 Lt. Col. Isaac N. Lewis, U. S. A 275 Captain Chandler, the First Man to Fire a Machine Gun from the Air, with Lt. Kirkland, His Pilot, at College Park, Maryland 277 Lewis Machine Gun, Cal. .303, British 278 Section Drawing of Lewis Machine Gun 280 Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1914, Cal. .303, British 282 A Cartridge Catcher, Designed to Keep Spent Cartridges from Striking the Airman or his Ship when Firing at the Enemy 283 Forward-Firing Lewis Machine Gun Mounted on a Pivoting Bracket so the Magazines Can Be Changed 284 British Troops with Lewis Guns Resting Between Attacks 286 A Device for the Lewis Gun Allowing It to be Fired from the Shoulder with Ease 287 Flexible Lewis Machine Gun Mounted on a Scarff Ring 288 Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1914, Cal. .303, Twin-Mounted, French 290 Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1918, Cal. .30, with 97-Round Magazine and Muzzle Booster 292 U. S. Marine Training with a Lewis Gun, 1917 294 Lewis Machine Gun, Model 1917, Cal. .30 296 Col. I. N. Lewis, U. S. A. (Retired) 297 Royalties Returned by Col. Lewis 298 Vickers Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1915, Equipped for Synchronizing. Mount is for Purposes of Photographing Only 302 Vickers Machine Gun, Synchronized with Propeller in a Pursuit Plane, World War I 303 Vickers Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1918, Cal. 11 mm, Manufactured by Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co 304 Vickers Aircraft Machine Gun, Class "F", Cal. .303 305 Vickers Machine Gun, Mark C, Cal. .50 306 Vickers Machine Gun, Mark V, Cal. .50 307 Maxim Machine Gun, Model 08/15, 7.92 mm, German 309 Parabellum Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1913, 7.92 mm. This Early Type Used the Water-Cooled Jacket Slotted for Air Cooling 311 Parabellum Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1913, 7.92 mm, with Refined Barrel Jacket 313 Maxim Machine Gun. Model '08/15, 7.92 mm, Modified for Synchronizing. This Weapon, Manufactured at the Spandau Arsenal, is Often Called the Spandau Machine Gun 314 Maxim Machine Gun, Model 08/15, 7.92 mm, Modified for Aircraft Installation 316 Carl G. Swebilius 320 Marlin Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1917, Cal. .30 321 Marlin Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1918, Cal. .30 322 Marlin Tank Machine Gun, Model 1918, Cal. .30 324 Marlin Ground Machine Gun, Cal. .30 325 Browning Aircraft Machine Gun Mounted on a Bristol Fighter in England for First Test of the Browning in the Air 327 Browning Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1918, M1, Cal. .30 329 U. S. Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1921, Cal. .30, Fixed 329 U. S. Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1922, Cal. .30, Fixed. This Weapon Was Designed to Feed from the Left or Right Side 330 U. S. Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1922, Cal. .30, Flexible. This Weapon Fired Over 20,000 Rounds in Test and Was Still Serviceable 331 Top: Browning Aircraft Machine Gun, M2, Cal. .30, Fixed. Bottom: Browning Aircraft Machine Gun, M2, Cal. .30, Flexible (Sectionalized) 332 First Trials of Browning Cal. .50 Machine Gun in Colt's Pasture. Fred Moore Firing the Weapon and John M. Browning Standing 334 Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1918, Cal. .50, Manufactured by Winchester Arms Company 335 Top: Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Fixed. Bottom: Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Fixed (Sectionalized) 336 Japanese Copy of the Browning Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .50, Type 1941, Fixed 338 Loading Cal. .50 Ammunition on an F6F Aboard the USS Saratoga 339 Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, Water-Cooled, in Action as Anti-Aircraft Defense 340 "Eight-Gun Nose" Installation for B-25 Aircraft. Each Browning Cal. .50 Is Provided with 400 Rounds of Ammunition for Ground Strafing 341 Firing the Benét-Mercié Machine Gun from a Deperdussin Airplane, 1914 345 Benét-Mercié Machine Gun Firing Forward. The Propeller is Protected by a Deflection Plate Originated by R. Garros 346 An Early Front-Gun Spad with False Nose to Accommodate Gunner 347 Benét-Mercié Machine Gun Adapted as an Aircraft Flexible Mount 348 Hotchkiss Aircraft Machine Gun, 13.2 mm 350 Hotchkiss Ground Machine Gun, 13.2 mm 350 Machine Gun, Model 3 (1914), 6.5 mm, Japanese 353 Machine Gun, Model 01 (1941), 7.7 mm, Japanese 354 Revelli (Fiat) Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1914, 6.5 mm, Flexible 356 Revelli (Fiat) Machine Gun, Model 1926, 6.5 mm 357 Drawing of Fiat Model 1926, 6.5 mm 359 Drawing of Fiat Model 1928, 6.5 mm 359 Fiat Machine Gun, 12.7 mm, Anti-Aircraft 361 Fiat Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1928 A, 7.7 mm 362 Fiat (Revelli) Machine Gun, Model 1935, 8 mm 362 Dreyse Machine Gun, Model 1915, 7.92 mm 364 Bergmann Machine Gun, Model 1915, N. A., 7.92 mm 365 Components of the Bergmann Machine Gun, Model 1915, N. A 367 Machine Gun Model 13, 7.92 mm 368 German Troops Training with the MG-13 369 Villar-Perosa Aircraft Machine Gun, 9 mm 371 S. I. A. Aircraft Machine Gun, 6.5 mm 374 S. I. A. Machine Gun, 6.5 mm 375 S. I. A. Aircraft Machine Gun, 6.5 mm, Dual Flexible Mount 376 Section Drawing of S. I. A. Aircraft Machine Gun 377 Gast Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.92 mm 379 Gast Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.92 mm, with Feed Drums Removed 380 Breech Mechanism of Gast Aircraft Machine Gun 382 Gast Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.92 mm. Top View with Feed Drums in Place 383 Darne Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.5 mm. Dual Flexible Mount 384 Darne Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1918, Cal. .303 385 Darne Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.5 mm. This Is a Fixed Gun for Synchronizing 387 Darne Machine Gun, Model 1929, 7.5 mm 388 Beardmore-Farquhar Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .303 390 Beardmore-Farquhar Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .303 391 Brixia Machine Gun, 6.5 mm 393 Components of the Brixia Machine Gun, 6.5 mm 394 Brixia Machine Gun, 6.5 mm 395 Mendoza Machine Gun, 7 mm, Right Side 397 Components of the Mendoza Machine Gun 398 Mendoza Machine Gun, 7 mm, Left Side 399 Chatellerault Machine Gun, Model 1923, 7.5 mm. This is a Prototype Gun, Serial No. 11 401 Chatellerault Machine Gun, Model 1924-29, 7.5 mm 402 Components of the Chatellerault Machine Gun 404 Chatellerault Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1934-39, 7.5 mm, Fixed 405 Madsen Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.92 mm. Flexible Twin Mount 407 Madsen Machine Gun, Model 1926, 7 mm, Water Cooled 408 Madsen Tank Machine Gun, 7.5 mm 409 B. S. A. Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .50 413 Receiver, Grip and Feed of B. S. A. Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .50 414 Breda Machine Gun, Model 1924, 6.5 mm. The Operator is Loading the Weapon 416 Components of the Breda Machine Gun, Model 1924 417 Breda Machine Gun, 6.5 mm, Showing Ease of Barrel Change 418 Breda Machine Gun, Model 1930, 6.5 mm 419 Breda Machine Gun, Model 1931, 13.2 mm 420 Breda Machine Gun, Model 1937, 8 mm 421 Breda Machine Gun, Model 1938, 8 mm 421 Components of the Breda Machine Gun, Model 1938, 8 mm 422 Breda Aircraft Machine Gun, 12.7 mm 423 Furrer Machine Gun and Components, Model 1925, 7.5 mm 426 Drawing of Furrer Machine Gun Action 427 Furrer Machine Gun, Model 1925, 7.5 mm, Left Side 428 ZB Machine Gun, Model 1925, 7.92 mm 429 Section Drawing of the ZB Machine Gun 430 ZB Machine Gun, Model 1926, 7.92 mm 431 Bren Machine Gun, Mk I, Cal. .303 433 Bren Machine Gun, 7.92 mm. A Czech Weapon Adopted by the British and Manufactured for the Chinese in Canada 433 ZB Machine Gun, Model 96, 6.5 mm. A Japanese Copy of the Czech Weapon 434 ZB Machine Gun, Model 50-1932, 7.92 mm. The Only Weapon Designed by ZB Based on the Short Recoil Principle 435 ZB Machine Gun Model 53-1937, 7.92 mm 436 Besa Machine Gun, Mk II, 7.92 mm 437 ZB Machine Gun, Model 60-1938, 15 mm 438 Besa Machine Gun, Mk I, 15 mm, as Viewed from Below 439 Besa Machine Gun, Mk I, 15 mm, Top View 439 A Berthier Machine Gun, Cal. .30, Mounted as a Flexible Gun in a Curtiss Plane by the U. S. Navy, 1917 441 Vickers-Berthier Aircraft Machine Gun, Mk 1, Cal. .303 443 Vickers-Berthier Aircraft Machine Gun, Mk I, Cal. .303, Mounted on a Scarff Ring 444 Lahti Machine Gun, Model 26/32, 7.92 mm 446 Section Drawing of the Lahti Machine Gun, Model 26/32 447 Lahti Machine Gun With Drum Magazine 448 Solothurn Machine Gun, Model 1929, 7.92 mm 451 Drawings Showing Stange's Action. Top: Bolt in Battery, Locked, Ready to Fire. Center: Gun Fired, Barrel Recoil Rotating Locking Ring. Bottom: Locking Ring Fully Rotated and Bolt Unlocked 452 Solothurn Machine Gun, Model 1930, 7.92 mm 454 Rheinmetall Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 15, 7.92 mm 455 Rheinmetall Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 17, 7.92 mm 456 Components of the Rheinmetall MG-17 456 Rheinmetall Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 131, 13 mm, Fixed 458 Rheinmetall Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 131, 13 mm, Flexible 459 Scotti Aircraft Machine Gun, 7.7 mm 461 Drawing of Scotti's Action. Top: Bolt in Battery and Locked. Slide in Forward Position to Prevent Bolt Head from Rotating. Bottom: Slide Retracted by Gas Piston, Allowing Bolt Head to Rotate and Unlock 462 Scotti Aircraft Machine Gun, 12.7 mm 462 Bang Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .276 464 Sistar Heavy Machine Gun, 7.92 mm 465 Sistar Light Machine Gun, 6.5 mm. The Operator Is Loading the Magazine 466 Sistar Light Machine Gun, 6.5 mm. The Operator Is Charging the Weapon 467 Knorr-Bremse Machine Gun, Model 1933, 7.92 mm 469 Components of the Knorr-Bremse Machine Gun, Model 1933 470 Knorr-Bremse Machine Gun, Model 35/36, 7.92 mm 471 Mauser Machine Gun, Model 1934, 7.92 mm 473 Mauser Machine Gun, Model 1934 S, 7.92 mm 474 Comparison of Component Parts of the Mauser Machine Guns of the MG-34 Series. (A) MG-34. (B) MG-34 (Modified). (C) MG-34 S. (D) MG-34/41 476 Comparison of Mauser Machine Guns of the MG-34 Series. (A) MG-34. (B) MG-34 (Modified). (C) MG-34S. (D) MG-34/41 477 Mauser Aircraft Machine Gun Model 81, 7.92 mm, Dual Mount 478 Melvin M. Johnson, Jr., Firing the Weapon He Designed 481 Johnson Light Machine Gun, Model 1941, Cal. .30/06 482 Johnson Light Machine Gun, Model 1941, Disassembled For Paratroop Work 483 Machine Gun, Model 42, 7.92 mm 484 Components of the Machine Gun, Model 42 486 Machine Gun, Model 42, 7.92 mm. View Shows Cover Open and Barrel Release Latch Open with Barrel Partly Removed 488 Machine Gun Model FG-42, 7.92 mm 489 Section Drawing of the Machine Gun FG-42, Showing the Action Immediately After Firing. Gas from the Barrel Is Acting on the Piston which Will Rotate and Unlock the Bolt 490 Cleland Davis When He Was a Lieutenant, USN 495 A Davis Gun Mounted on a Naval Seaplane. The Gunner Has Pivoted the Breech to the Open Position for Loading 496 Davis Gun Mounted for Anti-Submarine Patrol 498 The Davis Principle Applied in World War II. The Germans Attempted Firing a 1,500-Pound Shell from this Dornier 217 499 C. O. W. 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon Mounted in a Voisin Battle Plane, 1915 500 C. O. W. 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon Mk III 501 Vickers-Armstrong 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Mounted in a Blackburn "Perth" Flying Boat 503 Fiat (Revelli) 25-mm Aircraft Cannon 506 Puteaux 37-mm Aircraft Cannon (Semi-Automatic) Mounted on a French Bombing Plane, 1916 507 Puteaux 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 509 Puteaux 37-mm Aircraft Cannon, Mounted in the Cylinder Block of a Hispano-Suiza Engine to Fire through the Propeller Hub 510 Puteaux 47-mm Aircraft Bombardment Cannon 511 Becker 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model 1918 (Flexible) 512 Semag 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon (Flexible) 513 Semag 20-mm Automatic Cannon for Infantry 514 Oerlikon 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model F (Flexible), Adopted by Germany 516 Oerlikon 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model 99 (Fixed). This Belt-Fed Weapon Was Manufactured in Japan and Used by Its Naval Air Force 517 Oerlikon 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model S. Wing Installation with Belt Feed of 125 Rounds Adopted by the German Air Force 518 Antoine Gazda Firing the Gazda 20-mm Automatic Cannon 519 Gazda 23-mm Automatic Cannon 520 Polsten 20-mm Automatic Cannon Mk. I. Drawing Shows 30-Round Magazine 521 Szakats 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model SZB 523 The Feed Mechanism of the Szakats Automatic Aircraft Cannon 524 Szakats 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model SZC 525 Baldwin 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 526 Baldwin 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon Mounted for Test in a Martin Airplane 528 Baldwin 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon. Picture Shows the Method of Mounting in Aircraft 529 The First Model of the Browning 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon Being Tested in the Foothills Above Ogden, Utah. Left to Right: Matt S. Browning, John M. Browning (the Inventor), John Browning (Son of the Inventor) and Ed Browning 531 Early Model Browning 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 533 Browning 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, M4 534 Browning 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, M9, Mounted in an A25 535 Madsen 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model 1926 (Prototype) 537 Madsen 23-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon (Flexible) 538 Components of the Madsen 23-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 539 Section Drawing of the Madsen 23-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 540 Hotchkiss 25-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon (Fixed) 542 Bolt, Lock, and Gas Piston Assembly of the Hotchkiss 25-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 543 Bolt, Lock, and Gas Piston Disassembled, Hotchkiss Automatic Aircraft Cannon Scotti 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 545 Scotti 20-mm Automatic Cannon on Anti-Aircraft Mount 546 Lübbe 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon and Feeder 548 Lübbe 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon Disassembled 549 Ehrhardt 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 550 Rheinmetall (Solothurn) 20-mm Automatic Cannon Model ST-5 on a Naval Mount 551 Rheinmetall (Solothurn) 20-mm Automatic Cannon Model ST-5, Showing Ease of Disassembly 552 Rheinmetall 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model ST-11 553 Rheinmetall (Solothurn) 20-mm Semi-Automatic Anti-Tank Cannon, Model S18-1000 553 Rheinmetall 37-mm Automatic Cannon, Flak 18 554 Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-101 556 Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-103 557 Bolt Assembly of Rheinmetall's 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-103. Left: Bolt Mechanism Disassembled. Right: Bolt Mechanism Assembled and in the Locked Position 557 Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-108 559 Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-108, Disassembled. (1) Blast Tube. (2) Back Plate Assembly. (3) Bolt Assembly. (4) Receiver and Barrel Assembly. (5 and 7) Driving Spring Assembly. (6) Charger Spring Assembly. (8) Sear Plate Assembly. (9) Feed Cover Plate Assembly 560 Marc Birkigt, Designer of the Hispano-Suiza 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Type 404 562 The Method of Locking Patented by Carl Swebilius 564 The Method of Locking Patented by Marc Birkigt 565 Section Views of the Hispano-Suiza Action 567 Hispano-Suiza "Birkigt" 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Type 404. Mounted on a Hispano-Suiza 12-Cylinder Engine to Fire through the Propeller Hub. 569 Hispano-Suiza 20/60 Automatic Aircraft Cannon. Experimental Model Manufactured by the British M. A. R. Company 571 Hispano-Suiza 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon. This is an Experimental Model Manufactured in France 573 Hispano-Suiza 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon. Top: U. S. M2. Bottom: U. S. M1 576 Hispano-Suiza Automatic Aircraft Cannon AN-M2 with Feed Mechanism, 20-mm AN-M1. Developed from the French Chatellerault Feeder 580 Comparison Drawing of the Type Designations of the 20-mm AN-M2 584 Hispano-Suiza 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model T31 587 American Armament 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon (Flexible) 594 American Armament 37-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 595 Lahti 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model L27, with Drum Feed 596 Lahti 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model L27 597 Breda 20-mm Anti-Tank Automatic Cannon 598 Bolt Assembly of the Breda 20-mm Automatic Cannon. Left: Bolt in Traveling Position. Right: Bolt Locked in Battery Position 599 Breda 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon with Cover Group Open, Exposing Feed Mechanism 600 Mauser 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model 151, Mounted for Anti-Tank Duty 602 Component Parts of the Mauser 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model 151 604 Mauser 20-mm Automatic Anti-Aircraft Cannon, Model Flak 38, with Cover 605 Bolt Assembly of the Mauser 20-mm Automatic Anti-Aircraft Cannon, Model Flak 38 606 Cal. .90 Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model T2, with Feed Mechanism 607 Cal. .90 Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model T2 608 Components of the Cal. .90 Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model T2 609 Bofors 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon 611 Bofors 20-mm Automatic Cannon, Model L/70, on a Field Carriage 612 20-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model HO5 614 20-mm Automatic Cannon, Model 98, Dual Anti-Tank Mount 615 Bolt and Bolt Extension Assembly of the 20-mm Automatic Cannon, Model 98 616
Statue at Entrance to National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.