Endnotes

Preface

1. Bill Clinton and Al Gore, Putting People First, (New York, Times Books, 1992) pp. 23-24.

Introduction

1. Data taken from the following sources: "The average American...," Senator William Roth, vol. 138 no. 51, Cong. Rec. (April 7, 1992), p. S1; "Five out of every six Americans...," CBS News Poll, unpublished, May 27-30, 1992, released June 1, 1992; "Only 20 percent...," an ABC News-Washington Post poll, taken April 23-26, 1993, asked: "How much of the time do you trust the government in Washington to do what is right: Just about always, most of the time, or only some of the time?" Four percent said "just about always," 16 percent said "most of the time," 74 percent said "only some of the time," and 6 percent volunteered "none of the time;" 1963 figure, University of Michigan poll, cited in "From Camelot to Clinton: A Statistical Portrait of the United States," Washington Post (August 23, 1993), p. A15.

2. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), High-Risk Series: Defense Inventory Management, GAO/HR-93-12 (December 1992).

3. U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Budget of the U.S. Government FY 93 (Washington, D.C., 1992) and Budget of the U.S. Government FY 94 (Washington, D.C., 1993); and interview with Department of Housing and Urban Development Budget Officer Herbert Purcell, August 26, 1993.

4. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Education, Labor and Health and Human Services, testimony of Clarence C. Crawford, U.S. GAO, "Multiple Employment Programs: National Employment Training Strategy Needed," June 18, 1993.

5. Democratic Leadership Council, The Road to Realignment: The Democrats and the Perot Voters (Washington, D.C.: Democratic Leadership Council, July 1993), p. III-12. Pollster Stanley Greenberg asked people if they agreed that "government always manages to mess things up." Seventy-two percent of Perot voters agreed, 64 percent of Clinton voters agreed, and 66 percent of Bush voters agreed.

6. Dilulio, John J., Jr., Gerald Garvey, and Donald F. Kettl, Improving Government Performance: An Owner's Manual (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1993), p. 79.

7. Yankelovich, Daniel, American Values and Public Policy (Washington, D.C.: Democratic Leadership Council, 1992), p. 7.

8. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Transforming Organizational Structures (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office [GPO], September 1993).

9. Finegan, Jay, "Four-Star Management," Inc. (January 1987), pp. 42-51; Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), pp. 255-259; and Creech, General W. L., "Leadership and Management -- The Present and the Future,'' address presented at the Armed Services Leadership and Management Symposium (October 11-14, 1983) (available from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Installations, Pentagon, Washington, D.C.).

10. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Customer Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

11. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Regional Office, Profile of a Reinvented Government Organization (Milwaukee, WI, May 24, 1993); "The U.S. Forest Service: Decentralizing Authority," Government Executive (March 1993), pp. 23-4; and interviews with Forest Service officials.

12. The President's Fiscal 1994 budget (page 40) estimates 2.1 million Federal non-postal workers and 1.8 million military for 1994. Manpower, Inc. employs 560,000. General Motors employs 362,000.

Chapter 1--Cutting Red Tape

1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Starting Over (Washington, D.C., undated), p. 1.

2. Estimate by Office of Management and Budget.

3. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

4. Letter to Vice President Gore from Bob Peterson, Jackson, NJ (undated).

5. Department of Energy town meeting of the National Performance Review, July 13, 1993. 6. Peter, Dr. Lawrence J., Peter's Quotations: Ideas for Our Time (New York: Quill/William Morrow, 1977), p. 124.

7. Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), p. 118.

8. Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting.

9. Kondracke, Morton, "How to Aid AID," vol. 202, New Republic (February 26, 1990), pp. 20-23.

10. This estimate is derived from federal employment statistics as of September 30, 1991, provided in Office of Personnel Management publication MW 56-22.

11. $35 billion = 700,000 central staff x $50,000 in salary and benefits per person year.

12. The last year that the civilian, nonpostal workforce was under two million was 1966.

13. Haas, Lawrence J., Running on Empty: Bush, Congress, and the Politics of a Bankrupt Government (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin 1990), p. xxiii.

14. Mission-Driven Results-Oriented Budgeting.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid.

17. Unpublished case study by Pamela Varley, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, July 1993.

18. Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting.

19. Broder, David S. and Stephen Barr, "Hill's Micromanagement of Cabinet Blurs Separation of Powers," Washington Post (July 25, 1993), p. A1.

20. Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting, "BGT04: Eliminate Employment Ceilings and Floors by Managing Within Budget."

21. Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting.

22. U.S. Congress, House, Democratic Caucus, Task Force on Government Waste, The Challenge of Sound Management (Washington, D.C., June 1992).

23. Office of Personnel Management, Central Personnel Data File, unpublished analysis, March 1993. Calculations by Robert Knisely, National Performance Review.

24. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reinventing Human Resource Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

25. Ibid.

26. National Academy of Public Administration, Modernizing Federal Classification: An Opportunity for Excellence (Washington, D.C.: July 1991).

27. Reinventing Human Resource Management.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reinventing Federal Procurement (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

31. Ibid.

32. U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, Work Force Quality and Federal Procurement: An Assessment (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, July 1992), p. 21.

33. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reinventing Federal Procurement, "PROC08: Reform Information Technology Procurements" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

34. Ibid.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid.

39. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Streamlining Management Control (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

40. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Regulatory Systems (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

41. Streamlining Management Controls.

42. Department of Veterans Affairs, Management Efficiency Pilot Program, Innovative Test is Meeting All Expectations (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, March 1990).

43. Improving Regulatory Systems.

44. Streamlining Management Control.

45. Streamlining Management Control and National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Financial Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

46. Streamlining Management Control and Improving Financial Management.

47. Interview with Stephen Cleghorn, Director, Jobs for Homeless People, Washington, D.C., August 1993.

48. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Strengthening the Partnership in Intergovernmental Service Delivery (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid.

53. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Housing and Urban Development, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993)

54. Peters, Tom, Thriving on Chaos: Handbook for a Management Revolution, (New York: Harper & Row, 1989).

Chapters 2--Putting Customers First

1. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reengineering Through Information Technology (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office [GPO], September 1993).

2. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Customer Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

3. General Accounting Office (GAO), Tax and Administration 1989 Test Call Survey, GAO/GGD-90-36 (January 4, 1990) and Tax and Administration IRS Budget Request of FY94, GAO/T-GGD-93-23 (April 28, 1993).

4. Improving Customer Service.

5. Department of Health and Human Services, Report of the Inspector General, on the Social Security Administration's services, 1993.

6. Improving Customer Service.

7. Ibid.

8. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Streamlining Management Control (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

9. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Transportation (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

10. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Labor (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

11. Ibid

12. U.S. General Accounting Office, testimony of Franklin Frazier, Tax Administration: U.S. and Foreign Strategies for Preparing Noncollege Youth for Employment, GAO/T-HRD-90-31 (June 14, 1990).

13. National Performance Accompanying Reports, Health and Human Services; and Strengthening the Partnership in Intergovernmental Service Delivery (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

14. National Commission on Children, Beyond Rhetoric, A New American Agenda for Children and Families (Washington D.C., 1991), p. 314.

15. Health and Human Services.

16. Sylvester, Kathleen, "New Strategies to Save Children in Trouble," Governing (May 1990), pp. 32-37.

17. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Science Foundation (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

18. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, A Vision of Change for America (Washington D.C.: U.S. GPO, February 1993), p. 52.

19. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Commerce (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

20. Nothdurft, William, It's Time the U.S. Got Serious About Exporting (St. Paul, MN: The Northwest Area Foundation), pp. 28-31.

21. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reinventing Environmental Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

22. Ibid.

23. Department of Commerce.

24. Transforming Organizational Structures.

25. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reinventing Support Services (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

26. Ibid.

27. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Financial Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

28. Department of Commerce.

29. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Defense (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

30. Department of Labor.

31. Improving Financial Management.

32. Cummins, Keren Ware, National Technical Information Service, Reinventing Government's Role: The Turnaround of the National Technical Information Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, January 27, 1993).

33. Department of Transportation.

34. Competitiveness Policy Council, A Competitiveness Strategy for America (March 1993), p. 274. The Competitiveness Policy Council is an independent advisory committee established by Congress in 1988.

35. Reinventing Support Services.

36. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Housing and Urban Development (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

37. Department of Labor.

38. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

39. Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), pp. 304-5.

40. Housing and Urban Development.

Chapter 3-- Empowering Employees to Get Results

1. Budget of the U.S. Government FY 1994 (Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 40.

2. National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA), Revitalizing Federal Management: Managers and Their Overburdened Systems (Washington, D.C.: NAPA 1983).

3. "Department of Transportation Town Hall Meeting with Vice President Al Gore," unpublished transcript, May 11, 1993, pp. 11-12.

4. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), Office of Systems Innovation and Simplification, Survey of Federal Employees, publication OS-92-06. (Washington, D.C.: OPM, May 1992).

5. Telephone interview with the Social Security Administration, Atlanta office, on April 1, 1993.

6. Obmascik, Mark, "Light-Bulb Change a 43-Person Task," Denver Post (November 1, 1992), p. A1.

7. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), Program Performance Measures: Federal Collection and Use of Performance Data, GAO/GGD-92-65 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office [GPO], May 1992).

8. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Transforming Organizational Structures (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

9. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), Central Personnel Data File, unpublished analysis, March 1993.

10. Peters, Tom, Thriving on Chaos: Handbook for a Management Revolution (New York: Harper & Row, 1989).

11. National Performance Review, Reinventing Government Summit Proceedings (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, June 25, 1993), p. 87.

12. OPM, Central Personnel Data File, unpublished analysis, March 1993. Calculations by Robert Knisely, National Performance Review.

13. Transforming Organizational Structures.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid.

16. National Performance Review, Town Hall Meeting Department of Transportation, unpublished transcript (Washington, D.C., May 11, 1993).

17. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Veterans Affairs (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

18. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Housing and Urban Development (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

19. GAO, Program Performance Measures.

20. 1992 Commission on the Future of the South, Heading Home: New Directions Toward Southern Progress (Research Triangle Park, NC: Southern Growth Policies Board, September 1993).

21. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Mission Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

22. Ibid.

23. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Creating Quality Leadership and Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

24. Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), p. 144.

25. Ibid., p. 145.

26. Creating Quality Leadership and Management.

27. National Commission on the Public Service (Volcker Commission), Leadership for America: Rebuilding the Public Service (Washington D.C., 1989).

28. Ibid.

29. National Performance Review, Department of Justice Town Hall Meeting, unpublished transcript, Washington, D.C., July 14, 1993.

30. National Performance Review, Executive Office of the President (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

31. National Performance Review, Reinventing Government Summit.

32. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reinventing Human Resource Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

33. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reengineering Through Information Technology (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

34. Kendrick, James E., "IT Management Focus Must Extend Beyond Tip of the Iceberg," Federal Computer Week (September 21, 1992), p. 17.

35. Reinventing Human Resource Management.

36. OPM, 1969-1991 Trends of the Federal Civilian Workforce in Accounting and Budget Occupations, Special Report. Figures represent 1991 employment in occupation series 501, 503, 505, 510-11, 525, 530, 540, 544-45, 560-61, 593, 599, and half the total number in 343.

37. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Financial Management (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, September 1993).

38. To date, Congress has appropriated $130 billion to cover the savings and loan bailout. General Accounting Office estimates project the cost will reach $500 billion over the next few decades, including interest costs.

39. Improving Financial Management.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid.

42. Barr, Stephen, "See IRS's Books. Color Them Red," Washington Post (August 18, 1993), p. A19.

43. Improving Financial Management.

44. Not all federal agencies will have audited financial statements completed by 1997, but the 1997 consolidated financial statements will footnote any discrepancies. See Improving Financial Management.

45. Telephone interview with Rick Weidman, Administrator, New York State Veterans Program (New York Department of Labor), August 20, 1993.

46. Reengineering Through Information Technology.

47. Galen, Michele, Ann Therese Palmer, Alice Cuneo, and Mark Maremont, "Work & Family," Business Week, (June 28, 1993), p. 82.

48. Reinventing Human Resource Management.

49. OPM, A Study of the Work and Family Needs of the Federal Workforce (Washington, D.C., April 1992), pp. 5, 6, 20, 26.

50. OPM, Report to Congress on the Federal Employees Leave Sharing Act of 1988 (Washington, D.C., April 30, 1993), p. 30; and A Study of the Work and Family Needs, p. 96.

51. Improving Financial Management.

52. Interview with Lani Horowitz, Administration for Children and Families, Department of Health and Human Services, August 20, 1993.

53. Interview with Tom Komarek, Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management, Department of Labor, August 20, 1993.

54. Reinventing Human Resource Management.

55. U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, A Question of Equity: Women and the Glass Ceiling in Federal Government (Washington D.C., October 1992), p. 37.

56. GAO, Quality Management in Government, GAO/GGD-93-9-BR (Washington D.C.: GAO, October, 1992).

57. GAO, Federal Labor Relations:A Program in Need of Reform, GGD-91-101(Washington, D.C.: GAO, July 1991), p. 2.

58. Reinventing Human Resource Management.

59. Ibid.

60. GAO, Federal Labor Relations, p. 76.

61. GAO, Government Management Issues, GAO/TR-93-3 (Washington, D.C.: GAO, December 1992).

62. Creating Quality Leadership and Management.

63. Reinventing Government Summit.

64. Creating Quality Leadership and Management.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid and Reinventing Human Resource Management.

67. Interview with Robert DeGrasse, Special Assistant to Hazel O'Leary, Secretary of Energy, August 22, 1993.

68. Reinventing Government Summit.

Chapter 4--Cutting Back To Basics

1. Letter and personal communications with Bruce Bair, Schoenchen, KS, May 24, 1993.

2. La Franiere, Sharon, "Hair That Defies Cutting; Subsidy Program Seems a Lock in Budget," Washington Post, April 6, 1993, p. A1.

3. Gladwell, Malcolm, "Epicurean Niche Barely Survives a Boiling Dispute," Washington Post, August 20, 1993, p. A21.

4. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office [GPO], September 1993).

5. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Transforming Organizational Structures (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

6. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

7. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), U.S. Department of Agriculture: Farm Agencies' Field Structure Needs Major Overhaul, RCED-91-09 (Washington, D.C.: January 1991), p. 10.

8. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Housing and Urban Development (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

9. Ibid.

10. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Energy (Washington, D.C.: September 1993).

11. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Defense (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

12. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Small Business Administration (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

13. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, U.S. Agency for International Development, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

14. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of State (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid.

17. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Energy (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

18. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Transportation (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

19. Department of Defense.

20. National Performance Review, Accompanying Report, Reinventing Federal Procurement (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993). 21. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Intelligence Community (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

22. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Labor (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

23. GAO, Dislocated Workers: Comparison of Assistance Programs, Briefing Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO/HRD-92-153BR (Washington D.C., September 1992), p. 2.

24. Department of Agriculture and Department of Labor.

25. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Education (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

26. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Health and Human Services (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

27. Ibid.

28. Department of State.

29. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Commerce (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

30. Health and Human Services.

31. Ibid.

32. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Justice (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

33. Department of Agriculture.

34. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Inspector General, International Affairs, Commodity Programs, and Science and Education Division, Report on Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (Washington D.C.: Department of Agriculture, May 1993), p. 11.

35. Department of Transportation.

36. U.S. General Accounting Office, Highway Demonstration Projects: Improved Selection and Funding Controls Are Needed (Washington, DC: GAO, 1991), pp. 1-6.

37. Department of Transportation.

38. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of the Interior (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

39. Ibid.

40. Health and Human Services.

41. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Department of Veterans Affairs (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

42. Department of Defense.

43. Department of Energy.

44. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Fact Sheet on Reform of Federal Power Marketing Administration Debt Repayment Practices (Washington D.C., 1990), p. 3.

45. OMB, Status Report on Credit Management and Debt Collection, Report to Congress (Washington D.C., 1993), p. 1.

46. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Financial Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

47. Department of Justice.

48. Department of the Interior.

49. Housing and Urban Development.

50. Department of Labor.

51. Ibid.

52. Health and Human Services.

53. GAO, SSA's Processing of Continuing Disability Reviews, testimony of Jane L. Ross before the House Select Committee on Aging, GAO/T-HRD-93-3 (March 9, 1993), p. 3.

54. Health and Human Services.

55. Ibid.

56. GAO, Federal Benefit Payments: Agencies Need Death Information from Social Security to Avoid Erroneous Payments, GAO/HRD-9-3 (Washington D.C., February 1991).

57. National Performance Review Accompanying Reports: Department of the Treasury and the Resolution Trust Corporation; Department of the Interior; Improving Financial Management; and, Department of Defense (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

58. Improving Financial Management.

59. Ibid.

60. Department of State.

61. Department of the Treasury.

62. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Reengineering Through Information Technology (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

63. Ibid.

64. Department of Labor.

65. Ibid.

66.Health and Human Services.

67. Department of the Interior.

68. Department of the Treasury.

69. Ibid.

70. National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Rethinking Program Design (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, September 1993).

71. Moe, Ronald C., "Reorganizing the Executive Branch," in The Twentieth Century: Landmark Commissions, 92-293 GOV (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, March 19, 1992), p. 50.

72. Pritzker, David M., "Working Together for Better Regulations," vol. 5, no. 2, Natural Resources and the Environment (Fall 1990).

73. Department of Labor and Health and Human Services, and National Performance Review Accompanying Report, Improving Regulatory Systems (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, September 1993).

74. Department of Labor and Improving Regulatory Systems.

75. Improving Regulatory Systems.