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Title: "Myanmar Alin" Sunday 1 May, 2016
Date of publication: 01 May 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Sunday 1 May, 2016
Date of publication: 01 May 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Sunday 1 May, 2016
Date of publication: 01 May 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED-Two sections of YGN-MDY highway to be upgraded as part of 100-day plan... Peace mediator expresses commitment to achieving eternal peace... Conjoined twins at pelvis need donations for surgical separation... Outstanding students go on excursion to Bagan... Mon State villages urgently require donor assisted drinking water... Police, war veterans supply water to drought-hit Pauk... Pr U Htin Kyaw sends Workers’ Day message... Employee ferry accident injures 28 in Nay Pyi Taw... Fire destroyed house in Monywa... Passenger bus overturns on Loikaw-Yangon highway... Illegal saw-machinery confiscated in Yinmabin... Sales of pure peanut oil fall as substandard variants flood the market..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Authorities in negotiation with gas buyers to seek ways to achieve sufficient power supply... Two local pharma industries win Asean-Oshnet awards... Five dead, 10 in critical condition after pick-up runs into Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand... Japan dominates market for Myanmar garments... Bình Điền Fertiliser JSC to expand to regional markets... Foreign oil and gas firms to pay full compensation to farmers... Condominium prices for foreigners drop 20 per cent... Myanmar Dairy Delegation attended Israeli Expo..... "OPINION": "Fresh impetus to economic development through export promotion and import substitution"-Kyaw Thura..... ARTICLE: "ENGLISH TODAY"-Win Myint Han (F.N.I)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: Bando: The Styles of Burmese Martial Arts
Date of publication: 02 December 2014
Description/subject: "...Burma, officially Myanmar, is a relatively small South East Asian country, bordering Laos, Bangladesh, India, China and Thailand. With almost 56 million people, it is the 25th most populous country in the world. Bordering relatively larger and more influential nations, Burma has absorbed much from its neighbors. Like its cuisine, the martial arts of Burma have been influenced by India, China and Thailand. What’s interesting about Burmese martial arts is that they represent the diverse gamut of martial arts, constituting combat sports, “traditional” approaches, weapons, striking and grappling. Burmese martial arts, in the West, are usually known by the term “bando.” However, the Burmese term for its collection of martial arts is “thaing.” Bando is the proper name for one particular martial art, which, from the outside, seems to have absorbed a great deal from Chinese Kung Fu. Burmese Bando fits the description of what is considered a traditional martial art. Training is done using solo forms, two person forms and sparring. Like kung fu, the forms are based on the movements of animals: the monkey, bull, cobra, panther and eagle. Burmese Bando fighting techniques revolve around a three pronged approach to defense: evading the attack, angular reentry with strikes, followed by a joint lock or take down. Burmese Bando also features weapons training in knives, sticks, spears and swords..."
Author/creator: Pedro Olavarria
Language: English
Source/publisher: FIGHTLAND BLOG
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Martial Arts


Title: Lethwei (Burmese kickboxing, Myanmar boxing, Bare-knuckle Boxing)
Description/subject: "... Lethwei is a Burmese fighting style which is slightly similar to Muay Boran (a banned and brutal type of Muay Thai) also know as Burmese kickboxing or Myanmar traditional boxing. It originzted in Burma (Myanmar) and is many ways similar to its cousins from neighobring Southeast Asian countries such as Tomoi from Malaysia, Pradal Serey from Campodia, Lao boxing from Laos and Muay Thai from Thailand..." *More info, see the following search link: https://www.google.co.th/?gws_rd=cr,ssl&ei=TX4lV4yLLsuLuwTKw63ACQ#q=myanmar+lethwei&start=0
Language: English
Source/publisher: Full Contact Martial Arts
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.google.co.th/?gws_rd=cr,ssl&ei=kMAlV4SLN8y6uATDoKHQCA#q=myanmar+lethwei
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Martial Arts
Society and Culture > Sports


Title: Myanmar Martial Arts
Description/subject: "... Myanmar possesses a rich martial arts heritage. The martial arts was introduced into Myanmar almost 2000 years ago. Ancient writings reveal that as far back as the time of King Anawrahta (1044 - 77 A.D.) Buddhist monks were teaching the secrets of breath-control and mediation practice in addition to the principle of yielding of force – a principle that is found in arts like tai chi, aikido, and even judo. Myanmar's Martial art was named as Thaing. Thaing Thaing is a Burmese term used to classify the indigenous martial systems of ancient Myanmar. The word "Thaing" loosely translates to "total combat". There are many different forms of Thaing in Myanmar. Generally known to have originated in Northern Shan areas, it is known there as Shan Thaing. The traditional Myanmar Nantwin or The Royal Thaing has been kept secret among the practitioners who choose their students very carefully. There also is a technique known as Thaing byaungbyan or The Reversed form of Thaing, which became well-known among the public. It is a unique fighting art of mysterious origin. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmars Net
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Martial Arts


Title: BURMESE MARTIAL ARTS
Description/subject: "... Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) borders India, China and Thailand. As a result, it possesses a rich martial arts heritage. As with the fabled Shaolin Temple of China, Buddhist monks from India introduced martial arts into Myanmar a thousand years ago. Later, Chinese styles filtered their way south, merging with earlier influences to form the martial body of knowledge collectively known as Thaing. Thaing includes both unarmed arts, of which Bando is the most widely known, as well as arts of the sword, staff, spear and short sticks, Banshay. Other unarmed arts include Naban or Burmese wrestling, Lethwei or Burmese kick boxing and Thaing Byaung Byan originated from Shan State. Bando Philosophy "No system is completely unique. No system is completely independent from external and internal influences. Every system evolves over time by integration, modification and restructuring, resulting in what we then call "uniqueness." Overtime, this unique system will also change." [His Holiness the Venerable Amarapura Sayadaw, 1910] Lord Mountbatten, then the High Commissioner of His Majesty's Imperial and Colonial Forces in Asia, attended one of the club's tournaments in 1937, and after seeing the bouts, he made his historic remark, "Beautifully brutal art...I'm happy they are on our side." General Orde Wingate called the members of this private military club, "Bando Bastards."...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Combat Bando
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://what-when-how.com/martial-arts/thaing-martial-arts/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--W230L_DXo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3z8prxyIbdA
https://www.google.co.th/?gws_rd=cr,ssl&ei=J54lV7OpIsGJuwTvr6HoAQ#q=Myanmar+lethwei
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vK_Zvos4odA
http://itbba.org/
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Martial Arts


Title: Myanmar Harp Saung
Description/subject: "... Myanmar harp is said to be used starting from Pyu period. According to records, it was played abroad by Myanmar musicians in about 9 century AD. Though the shape of it has changed in the successive ages, the basic shape has not changed. The harp was used in Bagan Period (10-13 Century AD). We can still see the figure of harp in a mural at the Ananda Temple, one of famous pagodas in Bagan. One note-worthy fact in Konbaung Period (1752-1885 AD) is that professional and amateur harpists used to write letters such as "karaweik Than" (The voice of Karaweik bird), Mya Chu Than (the voice of an emerald jingle) and "Zinwazo Than" (The voice of swift bird) at the place "phala" at the back of their harps. Saung was played well at courts. It was cherished and appreciated by kings, queens, ministers and courtiers. Prominent harpists were Nat Shin Naung, the king of Taungoo, Ma Mya Galay, the queen of western palace and Myawaddy Mingyi U Sa, a minister. Myanmar songs are performed with musical instruments played on the prescribed musical scales. Myanmar musical instruments are tuned primarily on Saung musical scales. Songs such as Kyo, Bwe, Thichin Khant, etc are played on Hnyin Lone scale. Patpyo, Lei Htwe Than Kut, Lokanat than, etc are played on Aukpyan scale, Bawlei, Yodia songs are played on Palei scale, Shit Sei Paw Tay Htat and Dain songs are played on Myin Saing scale. In ancient time, three strings were used. Later, it became seven. In Konbon Period, Myawaddy Mingyi U Sa, the then noted minister invented 13 strings. Later a harpist by the name of Saya Nyein invented 14 strings. During the second world war, the then famous harpist Alanka Kyaw Zwa U Ba Than used 16 strings adding two more stings. The added two strings are called Done Kyo..."
Author/creator: U Minn Kyi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmarpedia
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3saF3iZFOw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpoUHOCPaNw
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Music and musical instuments


Title: Myanmar-Music of the legendary "Golden Land"
Description/subject: "... In general, Burmese traditional music can be divided into different categories according to the type of functions that it serves. These categories are Classical Traditions, Mahagita and Folk Traditions..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Myanmar Gamelan
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcZuaUpJtA0
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Music and musical instuments


Title: Chinlone (Cane Ball)
Date of publication: April 2014
Description/subject: "... If you have spent any time in Myanmar, you would probably have seen the usual looking combination of sport and dance known locally as Chinlone, which means “rounded basket”. The sport is said to be over 1,500-years old and was once played by Burmese kings. Known as “caneball” in English, this essentially non competitive game with no opposing team has no focus on winning or losing, but simply on the manner in which the game is played. You don’t hear that very often in the world of professional sport. Over 200 different methods of contacting the ball have been developed since the game was first invented, some of the most difficult of which are performed “blind” with the ball behind your back. The game consists of one team of six players who play a version of “keepy uppy” as they pass a woven rattan ball (the distinctive sound made by the ball as it is passed around adds to the aesthetic of the game) around in a circle (typically 22 feet in diameter) using their heads, knees and feet. One player stands in the middle of the circle to perform a solo; various moves reminiscent of dance are combined as the soloist is supported by those in the outer circle. Play stops once the ball has touched the ground before starting again as a new round. Played barefoot or in specialised shoes on dry, hard dirt (ideally, but any surface will suffice), players use six main points of contact with the ball: the top of the toes; the sole of the foot; the instep and outstep of the foot; the heel; and the knee. Of primary importance in chinlone isform, referring to the correct manner in which the hands, arms, upper body and head should be positioned. The intensely focused state of mind, said to be similar to that achieved in a Zen state of meditation and which is referred to as “jhana”, is known to be key to a successful performance..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYANMAR INSIDER
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWSCzN5CNcw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhFxzLLaYwI
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Sports


Title: Har Ngar Kaung - ဟားငါးေကာင္
Date of publication: 21 July 2014
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: ပိေတာက္ေျမ
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Burmese Humour > Burmese comedy -- videos


Title: U Shwe Yoe & Daw Moe Dance
Date of publication: 13 August 2013
Description/subject: Myanma Traditional Cultural Dance
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Myanmar International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Performing Arts
Society and Culture > Music and musical instuments


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Saturday 30 April, 2016
Date of publication: 30 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (10MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: Book Collections စာအုပ္မ်ားစုစည္းျခင္း
Description/subject: Mixed Burmese ebooks to download and read in Burmese. စာအုပ္မ်ားစုစည္းျခင္း-စာေတြ႔လက္ေတြ႔ေပါင္းစပ္ႏႈိင္ပါေစ...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Ebooks blogs


Title: Greenland Service Free Myanmar Ebook Download
Description/subject: အခမဲ႔ ေဒါင္းလုပ္လုပ္၍ဖတ္ရႈႏိႈင္သည့္ ျမန္မာစာအုပ္မ်ား...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Ebooks blogs


Title: Win Kabar Kyaw - ၀င္းကမၻာေက်ာ္
Description/subject: News, software and technology blog. သတင္း၊ ေဆာ့ဖ္၀ဲႏွင့္ နည္းပညာ
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Computer/ICT blogs


Title: Written Dhamma Today - ယေန႔ေရးေသာတရားေတာ္မ်ား
Description/subject: A good Buddhist guide links to many other Buddhist learning sites...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Buddhism blogs


Title: Myanmar Lamp ျမန္မာ့အလင္းတုိင္
Description/subject: IT news and technology including mobile telephone programs.
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html, pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Computer/ICT blogs


Title: Lwin Min Bo (Technology) - လြင္မင္းဗုိလ္ (နည္းပညာ)
Description/subject: ကြန္ျပဴတာအေျခခံနည္းပညာမ်ား...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Lwin Min Bo (Technology)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Computer/ICT blogs


Title: Blogger Discussion - ဘေလာ့ဂါႏွင့္ျမန္မာအုိင္တီနည္းပညာ
Description/subject: ဘေလာ့ဂ္နည္းပညာ... ဘေလာ့ဂ္ေရးနည္း...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Tools for bloggers


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Saturday 30 April, 2016
Date of publication: 30 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (9.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Saturday 30 April, 2016
Date of publication: 30 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: HONEST BARGAINING-New govt to reinstate transparency in tender processes: Mon State minister... Bad weather blamed for rising green gram prices... Pyithu, Amyotha hluttaws to resume on 2 May... KBZ foundation provide modern machinery to its water drilling project... Paungde court drops charges against student protest supporters... Quadruplets delivered at Sagaing hospital... Elephant hides and trunks seized... 30 injured in Mandalay- Yangon bus accident... Railway employee falls off train, suffers serious injury... Yaba and heroin seized... Yaba and Marijuana seized... Six killed by falling timber logs... FMI sells K30 billion worth of shares since start of trading... Second listed company to start trading on Myanmar’ Yangon Stock Exchange in May... SME centre aims to support local entrepreneurs... Myanmar’s Securities Exchange Commission chairman to resign... Fundraising event aims to support Lisu war victims... High temperature kills hundreds of chickens in Nay Pyi Taw... Over 600 teachers to be added to Kachin State... Authorities to continue water distribution in Pauk Tsp... Ayeyawady Region in need of 45 cyclone shelters, says government..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Pyithu Hluttaw Speaker meets with foreign guests... Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Speaker meets US Ambassador, Swedish Minister and ICRC resident representative... Union Information Minister holds talks with foreign guests on media development... Japanese FM to visit Myanmar for two days... Myanmar, Mongolia look to cooperate on constitutional tribunals... Union FM meets Swedish Minister, US and Mongolian ambassadors... Myanmar migrant receives over bahts 500,000 in compensation for loss of arm... Myanmar stops exporting long-finned eel larvae to Japan... Tech entrepreneurs to be supported by Lithan Education Group..... "OPINION": "Your might is your right to make peace a reality"-Kyaw Thura..... ARTICLE: "Business and Human Rights"-Dr. Khine Khine Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: U MOE HEIN - Poetry and essays
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Three linked poems and essays: “My Sole Wish”, “A Mission”, “The Pen”.
Author/creator: U Moe Hein
Language: English
Source/publisher: U Moe Hein
Format/size: pdf (51K)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: Zarti Kabar ဇာတိကမၻာ
Description/subject: Good collections of myanmar e-books. အခမဲ႔ေဒါင္းလုပ္ဖတ္ရႈႏႈိင္သည့္ ျမန္မာစာအုပ္မ်ား...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Ebooks blogs


Title: Demo Wai Yan - ဒီမုိေ၀ယံ
Description/subject: News, photos, Dvd, Games, Software, articles and mp3 သတင္း · ဓာတ္ပံု · Dvd · Games · Software · ရုပ္သံ · ေဆာင္းပါး · အသံဖိုင္မ်ား.
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Democracy blogs


Title: BURMA BULLETIN Issue 111 - March 2016
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: KEY STORY: TRANSFER OF POWER: • New NLD govt, Tatmadaw stays put; • New president elected; • Suu Kyi takes four ministries, new possible role; • Cabinet ministers appointed... DEMOCRACY & GOVERNANCE: • Regional chief ministers controversy; • New EC appointed... ETHNIC AFFAIRS & CONFLICT: • Arakan/Rakhine state of emergency lifted; • Myanmar Peace Center dissolved; • Citizenship granted in Shan State; • Armed conflict: clashes and abuse... HUMAN RIGHTS: • UN Special Rapporteur’s latest report; • Weak UNHRC resolution on Burma; • UPR report adopted; • Persecution of Rohingya ‘not genocide’; • End political imprisonments: AI report; • Letpadan crackdown anniversary... NATURAL RESOURCES: • Jade investigation finds illegal activity; • Myitsone dam project may restart... OTHER BURMA NEWS... REPORTS.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (362K); Word (111K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/March%202016%20Burma%20Bulletin.docx
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
ML > Activism and Advocacy (groups from Burma, solidarity groups, campaigns, publications) > Online publications by Burma solidarity groups > ALTSEAN-Burma archive


Title: Atrocities Prevention Report - Targeting of and Attacks on Members of Religious Groups in the Middle East and Burma
Date of publication: 17 March 2016
Description/subject: The Situation in Burma: "The situation in Rakhine State is grim, in part due to a mix of long-term historical tensions between the Rakhine and Rohingya communities, socio-political conflict, socio-economic underdevelopment, and a long-standing marginalization of both Rakhine and Rohingya by the Government of Burma. The World Bank estimates Rakhine State has the highest poverty rate in Burma (78 percent) and is the poorest state in the country. The lack of investment by the central government has resulted in poor infrastructure and inferior social services, while lack of rule of law has led to inadequate security conditions..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of State
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by source > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. - Governmental sources (non-Myanmar)
Human Rights > Various Rights > Various rights: reports of violations in Burma > US State Dept. - reports on human rights in Burma
Human Rights > Discrimination > Race or Ethnicity: Discrimination based on > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations against specific groups > Discrimination against the Rohingya


Title: Kp3 Family (Technology) - Kp3 မိသားစု (နည္းပညာ)
Description/subject: Kp3 Family IT Blogger အေထြေထြကြန္ျပဴတာနည္းပညာဗဟုသုတႏွင့္ အခမဲ႔ေဆာ့ဖ္၀ဲမ်ား....
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Kp3 Family (Technology)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2016
RR > Blogs > Blogs in Burmese > Burma/Myanmar Computer/ICT blogs


Title: The secret of successful transfusion
Date of publication: 1991
Author/creator: Ma Thida, Translation Ohnmar Khin
Language: English
Source/publisher: Index on Censorship
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Short stories (texts)


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Friday 29 April, 2016
Date of publication: 29 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (12MB)
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Friday 29 April, 2016
Date of publication: 29 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (15MB)
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Friday 29 April, 2016
Date of publication: 29 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: PEACE IN OUR TIME-Stakeholders coming together to hold talks on national peace conference... Myanmar bans lucrative logging in bid to preserve forests... Speaker calls for coordinated efforts in government’s commitment to reconciliation, peace and development... Myanmar gold prices rise in last week of April... KBZ foundation provides cash and goods to weather affected peoples... Law Revoking the Emergency Provisions Act enacted... U Ko Ko Lwin appointed as MD of MPI... Firefighters donate blood in honour of 70th Myanmar Fire Brigade Day... Yanbye blackouts found to be due to slingshots by cattle boys... Bike lovers promote cycling practice across Myanmar... Yaba seized in Myawady... Four men charged with motorcycle theft... 22-wheel truck overturns in Penwegon...Traffic accident occurs in Kalewa... Illegal teak doors seized on train... Rice prices on the rise... New policy aims to promote trade sector for public interests... C-in-C of Defence Services meets service personnel at Pyinpongyi, Indaing stations..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Chinese Buddhist delegation arrives to observe Buddhism in Myanmar... Mongolian Ambassador presents credentials to President U Htin Kyaw... Activists rage against US expression of “Rohingya community”... Soilbuild wins tender for New Housing Project on Kaba Aye Pagoda Road... Japanese groups to invest in wood-based industry in Myanmar... Pea growers not suffering from low yield... SMEs Knowledge Awareness Workshop held in Mandalay... Myanmar’s Mr Clean says he takes ‘red tape road’ to profit..... "OPINION": "Internet access is important to modern social life"-Kyaw Thura..... ARTICLE: "Women and Peace Process"-Dr. Khine Khine Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: "Yangon Times" - ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းမ္
Description/subject: Weekly newspaper published in Burmese.
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: YANGON MEDIA GROUP LIMITED
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2016
RR > News - Burma newsletters, periodicals and news archives


Title: The Ways Of The Beards
Date of publication: 2011
Author/creator: Zeyar Lynn, Translated by ko ko thett
Language: English
Source/publisher: Bones Will Crow: A Selection Of Contemporary Burmese Poetry
Format/size: pdf (44K)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: Two Poems
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: ghost book...gun and cheese
Author/creator: Khin Aung Aye, (trans.Maung Tha Noe, ko ko thett)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Manoa, Volume 24, Number 2, 2012
Format/size: pdf (205K)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: Eyewitness to Early Reform in Myanmar
Date of publication: 2016
Description/subject: Introduction... The Historical Contexts... Australian Ambassador to Myanmar... Working Under Military Authoritarian Rule... Myanmar in 2000: Ready Or Not For Change?... Engagement Versus Disengagement... Australia’s ‘Limited Engagement’ Initiatives... Encounters with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi... Bilateral Sanctions and Successful Alternative Approaches... Early Australian Public Diplomacy Possible in Myanmar... Reflections on Coming to Terms with Myanmar: Personally and as Convener, ANU Burma/Myanmar Update 2004–13... Image Section... Bibliography.
Author/creator: Trevor Wilson
Language: English
Source/publisher: ANU Press
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
ML > Foreign Relations > Australia-Burma relations


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Thursday 28 April, 2016
Date of publication: 28 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: INCHING TOWARD PEACE-State Counsellor calls for peace conference within two months... Pyithu Hluttaw Speaker meets regional representatives in Mandalay... Rental apartments, low-cost housing must be built to reduce land prices in Mandalay... Union Civil Service Board formed... State Counsellor reexamined following eye surgeries... Thura U Shwe Mann vows to cooperate with all parties ‘for the good of the people’... Lightning, wind storm ravage Kalay... Two mines discovered in Muse... Police arrested two-digit lottery gamblers... Train runs over man in Taungdwingyi... Buildings damaged by strong gale winds in Mong Rai... Yaba and hand grenade seized in Ye Township... HOUSE in Mrauk U destroyed by fire... Teak production discontinued this year due to deforestation... Price of betel reaches record high after unseasonal rain... Sugar price rises in Muse border market... Sesame and peanut oil said to be competitive with palm oil in price... Garbage collection activity aims to conserve Hopone Reservoir... Training centre aims to raise public interest in meteorology... North Monastery to become ancient building..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Myanmar needs to prioritize resources in Union Budget: World Bank... JPN, UN sign agreement to help Myanmar... Union Minister for Information holds talk with UN Humanitarian Coordinator... President U Htin Kyaw meets foreign newlyaccredited ambassadors... Taninthayi hospitality industry attracts new FDI... C-in-C of Defence Services receives US Ambassador... Myanmar celebrates International Jazz Day..... "OPINION": "Extremes of love and hate harm peaceful coexistence"-Kyaw Thura..... ARTICLE: "Duty Bearers and Right Holders"-Dr. Khine Khine Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Thursday 28 April, 2016
Date of publication: 28 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (11MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Thursday 28 April, 2016
Date of publication: 28 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: Selected Myanmar Short Stories
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: "Myanmar has a long and rich tradition of literature that is mostly unknown to the world, since few translations are available. The collection here is a small selection from the wide choice available to the Burmese-reading public. Due to lack of time on my part, I could not read the majority that was published; there are thousands more that deserve to be presented to international readers, both short stories and novels. I beg pardon from those whose works were left out and I hope that better writers than I will do more than I ever could... The structure and form of writing in English and Bamar (or Burmese, which is both the majority race and the official language) in which the original stories were written, are somewhat different. English in general is generally concise, whereas Burmese has a varied and at times flowery vocabulary. Some editing was necessary for the sake of clarity and for this I must ask forgiveness of the writers, since unlike in the publishing houses of the west we do not have a tradition of another person editing the author’s work... My appreciation goes to U Sonny Nyein of Swiftwind Books, for giving his permission to reprint most of these stories that first appeared in their quarterly publication “Enchanting Myanmar” and to U Harry Hpone Thant for putting up the stories on his website of the same name... My heartfelt thanks go to U Than Swe of Unity Books who first published these stores and especially for the group of wonderful artists, most of them not even graphic illustrators, who created the beautiful paintings for each story... I have chosen these stories partly because they cover a wide variety of human life: marriages like tongue and teeth; love beyond the grave; the anxiety of mothers; the kindness – and unkindness - of strangers; and the snares of enticement and greed... Mainly, I chose the stories for the spirit of the people of Myanmar they portrayed. Many people may not be rich but they live with contentment, humour, compassion and pride, in the face of grim reality. They are the real representatives of the country, the true treasures of Myanmar... Enjoy. ma thanegi 2008
Author/creator: Ma Thanegi (translator)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burmese Classic.com
Format/size: pdf (12MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Short stories (texts)


Title: Two Poems
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: untitled 2 (1997)...untitled 3 (undated)
Author/creator: Thitsar ni (trans, ko ko thett and James Byrne)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Manoa, Volume 24, Number 2, 2012
Format/size: pdf (250K)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: The Burden of Being Burmese (extract)
Date of publication: 2015
Description/subject: To the navel of the earth
Author/creator: Ko Ko Thet
Language: English
Source/publisher: MCCM Creations
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Wednesday 27 April, 2016
Date of publication: 27 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (9.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Wednesday 27 April, 2016
Date of publication: 27 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Wednesday 27 April, 2016
Date of publication: 27 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: State Counsellor to discuss peace initiative... Thousands of farmland confiscation cases unresolved by previous gov’t... Crops on 12,815 acres in Kyaukse damaged by hailstorms... Military helicopter crashes into reservoir, pilots rescued... Yangon Region to develop industrial zones... Patent laws to be enacted... Nay Pyi Taw Council formed... Army bristles at U Shwe Mann’s message to DSA... Six-wheel truck overturns near Sittaung Bridge... Woman charged with handbag theft... Methamphetamine,yaba confiscated in Taninthayi Region... Yaba and ice seized... Welding electrodes from Thiri Hintha Dockyard stolen... Fire breaks out near A-1 construction... Small enterprises forced to shut down their business in Mandalay Industrial Zone... Summer paddy yield high but price are dropping... Rubber price expected to rise at end of April... Emerald Rural Development Plan to be launched in 60 villages in Yangon... Myananda Lake in Ngathayauk Town drying up... Police, firemen distribute water to villages in Magwe Region..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Speaker receives Chargé d’affaires a.i. of Georgia Embassy... President U Htin Kyaw accepts credentials of ambassadors of Sweden, Ireland, Timor-Leste... President U Htin Kyaw felicitates South African counterpart... President U Htin Kyaw felicitates Netherland King... President U Htin Kyaw felicitates Netherland PM... FM Daw Aung San Suu Kyi felicitates South African counterpart... FM Daw Aung San Suu Kyi felicitates Netherland counterpart... UCSB Chairman holds talks with UNDP’s country director... Union Minister for Information holds talks with three delegations over media cooperation... Japanese companies keen to invest in Myanmar... Mine blast injures two Dutch tourists, one interpreter..... "OPINION": "Good governance versus the wish lists"-Khin Maung Aye..... ARTICLE: "Development and Human Rights"-Dr Khine Khine Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Tuesday 26 April, 2016
Date of publication: 26 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: MADB privatisation will bring more loans to farmers: MRF...Yangon chief minister seeks solution to squatter issue - Ko Moe...Sailors cautioned on Ayeyawady River transport...Myingyan Degree College offers literacy training to rural communities...Men charged for stealing Buddha icons...Alcohol-related violence occurred in Nay Pyi Taw...Five tonnes of illegal timber seized in Magwe...20-wheel cargo truck overturns in Bago...Gas explosion starts blaze in downtown Yangon...Heroin, yaba tablets seized in Hpakant...Summer courses offer maritime, aviation training to students...Bill committee to resume meetings today...Myitkyina water level at safe level...Gov’t bans cabinet members from appointing relatives as personal assistants...USDP purge violates party rules: Thura U Shwe Mann...UEC hears election complaints...Woman workers triple in minced fish processing plants...MPU Card reaches 1.8 million users...Mandalay youths crowd canals to cool off...Blackleg disease kills cattle in Kyaukphyu...Water distributed to villages in drought-stricken Myan Aung Township..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Union Minister for Information receives Indian Ambassador, OECD director...Trade between Myanmar, Bangladesh drops by $2 million...Thai investments promote tourism in Taninthayi...Magic Bus Myanmar to educate 2,500 low income youths..... "OPINION": "Good citizens make good state"-Khin Maung Aye..... ARTICLE: "Areas where India needs to do more in Myanmar"-Nehginpao Kipgen... "CHANGE"-Myat Ko Ko
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Tuesday 26 April, 2016
Date of publication: 26 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (11MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Tuesday 26 April, 2016
Date of publication: 26 April 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: The Dissident Blog
Description/subject: This and other issues carry literary texts and commentary from Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Dissident Blog
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.dissidentblog.org
https://www.dissidentblog.org/en/issues/12-2014
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma/Myanmar (mainly commentary)
Society and Culture > Literature > Burmese literature - texts, reviews, profiles, obituaries, articles, papers, bibliographies etc.


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Monday 25 April, 2016
Date of publication: 25 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: FORCE OF NATURE-Strong gales claim lives, damage buildings in Mandalay and Sagaing... Heavy rain, lightning to likely hit northwest Myanmar this week... Traders’ suggestions to be incorporated into economic policies... Football qualifier to be held in Yangon... Lanmadaw Junction overpass nearly completed... Bull killed in Bago road accident... Police attacked by timber smuggler... Fire engulfs 18 houses in Natogyi Tsp... Illegal drugs, heroin seized... Woman killed in traffic accident in Yangon... Nipa palm thatch industry vanishing for lack of workers... Waste from Myitkyina factory wreaking public health havoc... Govt planning recreation centre in Mandalay... Teachers’ federation seeks elimination of promotion exams..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Myanmar wins bronzes at Southeast Asia track and field event..... "OPINION": "Free to hurt oneself, but not others"-Khin Maung Aye..... ARTICLES: "The Telephone Sector Should Have Been Privatized Long Ago"-Khin Maung Myint... "We will be back"-Aung Myint Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5MB)
Date of entry/update: 25 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Monday 25 April, 2016
Date of publication: 25 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (12MB)
Date of entry/update: 25 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Monday 25 April, 2016
Date of publication: 25 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 25 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Sunday 24 April, 2016
Date of publication: 24 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: Sadaik - an online manuscript of all things literary in Myanmar
Description/subject: Writers... Associations... In Translation... Events... Projects......"Nobody can explain what sadaik is and why it was created better than Amitav Ghosh, “ Burma is suddenly the focus of the world’s attention, I find it saddening that the talk about the country is so much focused on politics, money and power rivalries. Myanmar’s writers, and all that they did to keep their compatriots’ spirits alive seem hardly to figure in the story, at least in the manner of its telling in the international media." Would it be possible to speak of the end of the Soviet Union without mentioning Solzhenitsyn? Can we think of the fall of the Iron Curtain without thinking of Milan Kundera and a host of other writers? The writers of Myanmar played just as significant a part in bringing about the changes that are now sweeping the country as their counterparts did in Eastern Europe and Russia. That this is so little recognized says a great deal about the world’s vision of culture in Asia. Sadaik, therefore,is a contemporary manuscript chest for the digital world; an online home for the leaves of today’s Myanmar writers. Through news articles, reviews, projects and interviews, sadaik seeks to showcase the literary community in Myanmar and the individuals and institutions that work to promote Myanmar literature and their authors from outside the country..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Sadaik
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Burmese literature - texts, reviews, profiles, obituaries, articles, papers, bibliographies etc.


Title: TO A WOMAN POET
Date of publication: 2013
Description/subject: "Zeyar Lynn lives in Rangoon. He is a poet and critic, writer, translator and language instructor. For more than two decades he has fostered a wider appreciation of postmodern and L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poetry forms into Burmese. His own collections include Distinguishing features (2006), Real/life: prose poems (2009) and Kilimanjaro (2010). He has also translated into Burmese various Western poets such as Sylvia Plath, Wisława Szymborska and John Ashbery, as well as a number of volumes on poetics."
Author/creator: Zeyar Lynn, translated by ko ko thett
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (265K; Word-14K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Zeyar_Lynn-2013-To_a_Woman_Poet-en.docx
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: THE MANDALAY GAZETTE 1885; and I TOLD YOU THERE’S A FIRE
Description/subject: Note: Poems translated from the Burmese by the author
Author/creator: ko ko thett
Language: English
Format/size: pdf-344K; Word -50K
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Ko-Ko-Thett_Two-Poems_The-Mandalay-Gazette-1885_I-Told-You-There...
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: CASHIER
Date of publication: 23 June 2013
Description/subject: "The poem is titled in English. An earlier Burmese version of the poem appeared in The Padauk Bloom Magazine, January 2012, Myanmar. Image by Htein Lin
Author/creator: Eaindra, translated by ko ko thett
Language: English
Format/size: pdf -250K; Word-50K
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Eaindra_Cashier_2013.docx
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: Burmese classical poems
Date of publication: 1966
Description/subject: CONTENTS: Short Pipe - Mae Khwe... Lu-ga-lay - Author unknown... Mountains and Forests - Author unknown... The Month of Tabaung - Author unknown... The Golden-Yellow Padauk - U Kyaw... Carved Bullock-Cart - U Ya Kyaw... Song of the Forest - Princess Hlaing-Teik-Kaung-Tin... Sea Snails - U Kyin U... The Royal Kason - U Kyaw... Jasmine - U Ponnya... Deliverance Cannot Be Far Distant - Shin Maharattathara... Military March - U Kyin U... Forest Flowers - U Kyaw... Dearly Loved Son - Author unknown... Rain - Myavadiwungyi U Sa Take to Heart (A Father's Admonition to Son) - Sahton Sayadaw Mya Man Setkya - U Ponnya... Present of a Cheroot - Mae Khwe... A Peasant - Wungyi Padethayaza... Paddy Planting Song - Author unknown... I Am Longing - Princess Hlaing Teik-Kaung-Tin... Love in Secret Encountered - Maung Thwa... I Would Smile - U Kyi... Noble Wisdom - Chaturinga Bala and Nemyo Min Tin Kyaw Khaung... Donations (Dana) - Shin Tezothara... Remorse - U Khaing... Painful As It Is - U Kyaw Thamee No Cooling of Anguish - U Kyaw Thamee... The Nature of Things (Release from Anger) - Anantasuriya.
Author/creator: Lustig, Friedrich V. - editor and translator
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Rangoon Gazette Limited VIA
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB-original; 1.5MB-reduced version)
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Poetry > Poetry of Burma - mainly texts


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Sunday 24 April, 2016
Date of publication: 24 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (10MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Sunday 24 April, 2016
Date of publication: 24 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: Peacocks, flamingos on verge of extinction: researchers... Coconut plantations sell for K400 million per acre in Rakhine State... MoI and DKK Foundation agree to open more community libraries... Minister calls for healthy competition between government and private sector... Dala to receive water purification facility worth K100 million... Wild weather wreaks havoc in Shan state... Police to educate public on human trafficking... Fire destroys a house in Thamanya village... Fridge safe-guard fails causing fire... Head on collision injures nine... Illegal logs and sawn timber seized in Sagaing... Tree falls on hut killing woman in Monywa... Young man charged with stealing motorbike... New report looks at budget policies of U Thein Sein government... Heavy rain, hailstones and power failure in Mandalay... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Govt plans to boost exports threefold in five years... First chemical residue testing lab to be built in Myanmar... Preventive measures in full swing to battle El Ninotriggered water scarcity... Police refute Bangalis news report... Operation delay to cause 100 million baht losses to Millcon Steel Plc... Prosecution will face revelers visiting southern Myanmar island... "OPINION": "Harm principle and law making" - Khin Maung Aye..... ARTICLES: "Leopard, a majestic predator: some interesting facts" - Saikat Kumar Basu Lethbridge AB Canada... "What Education Means" - Ko Myat
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: Burmese literature
Description/subject: "The literature of Burma (or Myanmar) spans over a millennium. Burmese literature was historically influenced by Indian and Thai cultures, as seen in many works, such as the Ramayana. The Burmese language, unlike other Southeast Asian languages (e.g. Thai, Khmer), adopted words primarily from Pāli rather than from Sanskrit. In addition, Burmese literature tends to reflect local folklore and culture. Burmese literature has historically been a very important aspect of Burmese life steeped in the Pali Canon of Buddhism. Traditionally, Burmese children were educated by monks in monasteries in towns and villages. During British colonial rule, instruction was formalised and unified, and often bilingual, in both English and Burmese known as Anglo-Vernacular. Burmese literature played a key role in disseminating nationalism among the Burmese during the colonial era, with writers such as Thakin Kodaw Hmaing, an outspoken critic of British colonialism in Burma. Beginning soon after self-rule, government censorship in Burma has been heavy, stifling literary expression..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Burmese literature - texts, reviews, profiles, obituaries, articles, papers, bibliographies etc.


Title: Hidden Words - Hidden Worlds
Description/subject: "Hidden Words, Hidden Worlds – or H2 - is a unique, nation-wide project that uses literature as a platform to support freedom of expression, creativity and social change in Burma’s ethnic nationality states. Over the past two years, in collaboration with the British Council sponsored Millennium Centres and ethnic culture and literature associations, local community members in the ethnic states have participated in short story construction workshops. Stories in the ethnic languages generated from these workshops were selected and translated into Burmese. After months of proofreading and editing an anthology of these new voices from the ethnic states was published. Titled Hidden Words, Hidden Worlds the anthology features 28 original short stories, 21 in Burmese translation, in 11 different languages and 10 distinct scripts. In what may be the biggest book launch held in Burma, over 300 people attended the celebration of the publication in September 2015. 1000 copies of the anthology have been printed, with copies being distributed for free to the ethnic states through our ethnic literature group partners and also through the mobile libraries to ensure everybody across the nation gets an opportunity to read this unique collection. Over the coming months, book launches will be held in the ethnic states, while the English translation of 14 of the stories will begin in October 2015 with a possible UK publication of the first anthology of translated ethnic nationality stories from Myanmar."
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Council - Burma
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2016
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Burmese literature - texts, reviews, profiles, obituaries, articles, papers, bibliographies etc.


Title: Foreign Investment in Myanmar: A Resource Boom but a Development Bust?
Date of publication: 03 August 2012
Description/subject: "... In February 2011 media outlets worldwide reported that China had surpassed Thailand as the largest foreign investor in Myanmar.1 China had US$8.25 billion of approved investment in fiscal year 2010–11 (which in Myanmar runs April to March), all for projects in the extractive and power sectors. It was the biggest investor in Myanmar’s FY2010–11 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) windfall of almost $20 billion — more than the previous twenty years combined.2 This was just slightly higher than Vietnam’s approved investments for the corresponding fiscal year, which totalled $19.9 billion.3 Yet the 2010–11 FDI figures exemplified a decade long trend of investment being overwhelmingly concentrated in the extractive (mining and oil and gas) and power sectors. Only 1 per cent of the FDI from FY2010–11 was outside these sectors, evidence that foreign investors saw few other viable investment opportunities in Myanmar’s challenging business climate. The majority of these investments came from neighbouring countries, most notably China, but also Thailand and South Korea. This is partly the result of Beijing’s often overstated but still sizable influence in Naypyidaw, as well as its desire to secure natural resources from abroad and bypass the strategic chokepoint that is the Straits of Malacca.4 But the source of Myanmar’s FDI is also shaped by other factors, including different home country investment patterns. China, for example, is historically a major investor in resource projects. Singapore and Japan tend to invest more in sectors such as real estate and manufacturing, yet because these projects were less viable in Myanmar for the last decade, investors from these countries have often turned elsewhere. Despite oft-cited competition for resource investment in Myanmar, India’s actual investment in the country has been miniscule, though Indian investors have in recent years spent approximately 80 per cent of their FDI on mergers and acquisitions, which are rare in Myanmar. The concentration of FDI has important implications for Myanmar’s economic development, as contrary to common perceptions FDI is not inherently or uniformly beneficial for a host country. Instead, the positives vary depending on the source and sector of investments, the forward and backward linkages they create with other parts of the economy, the number and types of jobs created, and the host country’s economic policies. Most of the FDI that has come into Myanmar in the last decade has created little direct employment and few linkages with existing industries, limiting their positive benefits. Despite this, FDI is still rightly viewed as an important part of Myanmar’s economic development. This paper reviews changes in the source country and economic sector of FDI in Myanmar using actual and approved investment data from 1989 until 2011. The data has been disaggregated by country, sector, and for select years both. It looks at FDI in two periods: the first from the passage of the Foreign Investment Law in November 1988 to the end of FY1999–2000, and the second from FY2000–01 to the present. This division was selected because it falls at the end of a decade, during a lull in both approved and actual investment (after most of the projects approved before the 1997–98 Asian Financial Crisis had been fulfilled), and around the time when the changing trends in Myanmar’s FDI were first becoming evident. The paper starts by noting some caveats of FDI figures in Myanmar. It then reviews recent literature on FDI in Myanmar, before examining the major trends in the country’s investment data. The next section compares these trends with those of Myanmar’s neighbours, Vietnam and Laos. The paper then engages with the theoretical literature on FDI to explore what these investment patterns reveal about the macro economy, and how they are shaped by geopolitics, sanctions, commercial concerns and the specific investment patterns of each home country. The paper closes with a brief examination of whether these FDI projects can contribute to broad-based economic development in Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Jared Bissinger
Language: English
Source/publisher: Macquarie University
Format/size: pdf (603K)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016
ML > Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Political, social and economic dimensions of investment in Burma
Development - focus on Sustainable and Endogenous Development > Sustainable development > Roots and Resources - global and regional experience and analysis
Economy > Industry > Extractive industries > Mining > Minerals and Mining - Burma (general articles and analyses)
Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Guidelines on investment in Burma/Myanmar


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Saturday 23 April, 2016
Date of publication: 23 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (12MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Saturday 23 April, 2016
Date of publication: 23 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Saturday 23 April, 2016
Date of publication: 23 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: Meteorologist cautions against atmospheric instability threats nationwide... Public toilets to be installed in Mandalay... District administration duties assigned to director-level service personnel... Mt.Popa wildfire engulfs MRTV relay station causing K4 million damage... 100,000 acres of land put under cultivation of summer paddy... Renovation of King Udumbara memorial grounds in Mandalay slated for completion in six months... Heat stroke claims six lives in Mandalay... High selling demand stabilises FMI shares at K32,000... Merchants in Magwe see record tomato profits... Price of RSS-3 rubber increases in local market... Low-cost housing to emerge in Dagon Seikkan Tsp by 2018... Yaba and ice seized in Heho... Dyna vehicle crashes into train in Thayet... Raw opium and Yaba seized in Nawnghkio... Police search six young attackers following attempted murder..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: STRENGTH OF THE PEOPLE-Myanmar to be made strong by using the strength of the people to push foreign policy... Pyithu Hluttaw Speaker meets Georgian, Spanish chargés d’ affaires a.i... Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Speaker meets foreign ambassadors, chargé d’ affaires a.i... Myanmar, Israel to strengthen media cooperation... Myanmar sailor dies on cargo ship in Viet Nam... ADB Japan to lend aid to Chin State communities... Malaysian manufacturers to invest in Thilawa SEZ... Rubber prices appreciate with harvest shortfalls... Myanmar to take part in international invitational junior Taekwondo tournament... Myanmar mountaineers arrive at Mt Everest camp I..... "OPINION": "Comprehensive youth policy is critical to national development" - Kyaw Thura..... ARTICLE: "Signing on to a more secure and stable world" - Federica Mogherini (European Union High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: UNEP: Sustainable Building Policies on Energy Efficiency: Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2011
Description/subject: "... The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in partnership with the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) of Singapore is preparing a regional status report within the framework of the global status reporting on sustainable buildings, launched by the United Nations Environment Programme - Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative (UNEP-SBCI). The regional status reporting will collate the current status and trends from sustainable buildings initiatives in the region, with the aim of publishing the Regional Status Report on Sustainable Building Policies in South-East Asia. The Regional Status Report on Sustainable Building Policies in South-East Asia will provide an overview of the policies and initiatives put in place in various South-East Asian countries on promoting the development of sustainable buildings, with a first focus on Energy Efficiency related initiatives. The report is being conducted by BCA’s Centre for Sustainable Buildings and Construction (CSBC). Countries participating in the Regional Status Report on Sustainable Building Policies in South-East Asia are: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, The Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The Country Report on Sustainable Building Policies on Energy Efficiency in Brunei Darussalam is part of the series of Country Reports linked to the Regional Status Report on Sustainable Building Policies in South-East Asia. The Country Report on Sustainable Building Policies on Energy Efficiency, collated as of June 2011, aims to profile country’s sustainable building policies and initiatives according to the four category classification of policy instruments developed by UNEP-SBCI, stated in the publication of the “Assessment of Policy Instruments for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Buildings, 2007”. These four types of policy instruments cover the whole range from voluntary to regulatory. The four policy instruments categories are: • Category 1: Voluntary Instruments • Category 2: Fiscal Instruments • Category 3: Regulatory Instruments • Category 4: Market-based Instruments..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Format/size: pdf (509K)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016
ML > Economy > Industry > Manufacturing > Sectors > Construction
Economy > Development > Sustainable development


Title: Fish, Rice and Agricultural Land Use in Myanmar: Preliminary findings from the Food Security Policy Project
Date of publication: 05 May 2015
Description/subject: "... Food Security Policy Project Components: • Value chains and livelihoods research • Mon State rural livelihoods and economy survey • Fish value chain • Other product and input value chains assessments • Policy Advising (e.g. Mon State Rural Development Strategy) • Training and Outreach..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton, Aung Hein, Kyan Htoo, Seng Kham, Paul Dorosh, Emily Schmidt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute (MDRI)
Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016
ML > Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Agriculture and fisheries > Agriculture in Burma/Myanmar: general and research
Agriculture and fisheries > Crops > Rice
Agriculture and fisheries > Fisheries (including aquaculture and fishing)


Title: Google site-specific search for UNFC on burmanet
Description/subject: 658 results (April 2016)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burmanet via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Internal armed conflict > Internal armed conflict in Burma > Alliances (armed and non-armed) of non-Burman ethnic groups > United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) > Searches, reports and other documents about the UNFC


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Friday 22 April, 2016
Date of publication: 22 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (11MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Friday 22 April, 2016
Date of publication: 22 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Friday 22 April, 2016
Date of publication: 22 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: SPEEDY SHUFFLE-Cabinet reform to be completed earlier than expected... Govt working to neutralise risk posed by Chin State landslide dam... Restricted movement leads to deadly boat accident in Sittwe... New Year gift of media company to be used for lake dredging... Lawyer working on farmers’ rights released... Moehnyin CSOs to protest against Myitsone dam project resumption... Bird flu touches poultry farms in Monywa, no reports of human infection... President U Htin Kyaw receives medical check-up at Nay Pyi Taw General Hospital... Shwedagon Pagoda to undergo gold foil facelift on south side... Union Information Minister holds MRTV reform talks with officials... FPPS calls on Myanmar tycoons to support new government... Mandalay residents remember late journalist U Win Tin... Strong wind hits Banmauk... Body of 17 y/o recovered from Sittaung River... Boiler explosion kills man in Monywa... Bullets prove one man’s trash, another man’s treasure... Mini-bus overturns on Yangon-Nay Pyi Taw Highway... Traffic accident injures one man... Man charged with motorcycle theft... Residents in Myeik Economic Zone receive one-storey houses... Motor vehicle law crackdown in Mawlamyine... Nationwide survey on out-of-school children to soon be performed..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: Asian Blue airline to invest US$ 70 million in Myanmar... New Hyundai model to sell with instalment payment... Japanese Yakult Company to open Yogurt Company in Thilawa SEZ... Japan and Pakistan demand Myanmar macadamia seeds... Paper Reading on study of Birds habitation in Myanmar and India to hold... Scorching temperatures dry up Bagan tourist... Koh Tao murder suspects’ appeal postponed for a month... Ooredoo to help rural Myanmar community get access to clean water..... "OPINION": "The essential ingredient to successful education reform" - Kyaw Thura..... ARTICLE: "AVIATION" - U Than Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: The Customary Ideology of Karenni People
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: "... Karenni people celebrated three kinds of pole festivals in a year. The first one is called Tya-Ee-Lu-Boe-Plya. During this festival, the people went to their paddy fields, vegetable farms, picked the premature fruits and brought it to the Ee-Lu-pole. They put the premature fruits on altar, thank god and then pray for good fruits and good harvest. The second one called Tya-Ee-Lu-Phu-Seh. In this festival they pray god to bless the teenagers with good conducts, and good healths. The third one is Tya-Ee-Lu-Du. The festival concerned to everyone. Everyone can pray the god for himself and his family. Outwardly, it appeared to other people that they are worshiping spirits because they are feeding spirits. Karenni people believe that the god had sent the various kinds of sprits in to the world to harm the human beings. In the festival, they only feed the spirits and ask its not to herm them. The essence of the festival is to remember the gratitude of the goddess of creation, and to thank the eternal god who is controlling thiws world and then to pray the god for good future..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Khai Htoe Boe Association, Ee-Lu-Phu Committee
Format/size: pdf (5MB-reduced version; 23MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/The_Custmary_Ideology_of_Karenni_People.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Land > Customary tenure
Land > Resources on land rights and tenure
Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar


Title: Myanmar Protected Areas: Context, Current Status and Challenges
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "... Protected areas (PAs) are important tools for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. PAs safeguard ecosystems and their services, such as water provision, food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation, thus improving people’s livelihoods. They preserve the integrity of spiritual and cultural values placed by indigenous people on wild areas and offer opportunities of inspiration, study and recreation. Due to a long period of isolation, Myanmar has conserved an extraordinary natural and cultural heritage that is in part represented in its protected area system. The expansion of agriculture and industry, pollution, population growth, along with uncontrolled use and extraction of resources, are causing severe environmental and ecosystem degradation. Loss of biodiversity is the most pressing environmental problem because species extinction is irreversible. Realising the urgency of Myanmar environmental challenges, several stakeholders, at national, international and regional level, have committed to support conservation and management of PAs. However, baseline information on natural resources, threats, management, staff, infrastructure, land use, tourism and research in Myanmar PAs was hardly ever updated and not systematically organised, thus limiting the subsequent planning and management of resources. Therefore, the aim of this publication is twofold: to raise awareness on the condition of the conservation of PAs and to mobilise national and international support for cost-effective initiatives, innovative approaches and targeted research in priority sites. The document provides background information on Myanmar natural features, environmental, government and non-government frameworks (Chapter 1). The core section makes available the information retrieved in the period 2009-2010 on the status of Myanmar PAs (Chapter 2) and the results of the research conducted in Lampi Island Marine National Park (Chapter 3) and Rakhine Yoma Elephant Range Wildlife Reserve (Chapter 4). Data collection, analysis and organisation were part of the larger Myanmar Environmental Project (MEP) managed by Istituto Oikos in partnership with BANCA. Conclusion and recommendations for the management of Myanmar PAs (Chapter 5) were jointly formulated by stakeholders during the MEP closing workshop held on March 17th 2011 in Yangon. The information presented in this publication is also organised in a database available to stakeholders that will be updated with new data provided by PA managers, academic institutions, environmental organisations and community-based groups working in Myanmar PAs to fill the existing gaps..."
Author/creator: Lara Beffasti, Valeria Galanti, Tint Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: Istituto Oikos, Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA)
Format/size: pdf (6.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Land > Land in Burma > Description of land in Burma/Myanmar


Title: Determinants of Local People's Perceptions and Attitudes Toward a Protected Area and Its Management: A Case Study From Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 October 2015
Description/subject: "... Without local support, the long-term existence of PAs is not assured (Wells and McShane 2004). Local people are unlikely to support PAs if they have negative perceptions and attitudes toward them (Alkan et al. 2009). An attitude is a cognitive evaluation of a particular entity with favor or disfavor, and it reflects the beliefs that people hold about the attitude object or entity (Eagly and Chaiken 1998). Beliefs are the associations that people establish between the attitude object and various attributes (Allendorf 2007). Attitudes toward PAs, conservation, or wildlife may be influenced by PA staff or management interventions, local economic needs and history, or other indirectly related socioeconomic factors such as government policy. The cognitions or thoughts that are associated with attitudes are typically termed beliefs by attitude theorists (Eagly and Chaiken 1998). Perception refers to people’s beliefs that derive from their experiences and interaction with a program or activity. Xu et al. (2006) argue that local people’s perceptions are related to costs and benefits produced by PAs, their dependence on PA resources, and their knowledge about PAs. The influences of socioeconomic characteristics on local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward an adjacent PA are often site-specific and inconsistent (Allendorf et al. 2006; Baral and Heinen 2007; Mehta and Heinen 2001; Rao et al. 2003; Shibia 2010; Shrestha and Alavalapati 2006; Xu et al. 2006). Some studies report that education is a strong predictor of attitude (Allendorf et al. 2006; Mehta and Heinen 2001; Shibia 2010; Shrestha and Alavalapati 2006; Xu et al. 2006), while others have found no correlation between educational status and people’s perceptions and attitudes (Baral and Heinen 2007; Mehta and Heinen 2001). Mehta and Heinen (2001), Allendorf et al. (2006), and Xu et al. (2006) reported that women were less likely to hold positive attitudes, whereas Baral and Heinen (2007) and Shibia (2010) found no correlation between gender and attitude. Allendorf et al. (2006) and Shrestha and Alavalapati (2006) found that individuals from larger families have negative attitudes to PAs, whereas Xu et al. (2006) reported that individuals from larger families hold positive attitudes toward PAs. Jim and Xu (2002) and Alkan et al. (2009) argue that local people’s perceptions and attitudes are shaped by their knowledge about the neighboring PA. This knowledge might include objectives, activities, size, regulations, or location of the boundary of PAs (Jim and Xu 2002; Rao et al. 2003; Xu et al. 2006). The knowledge is gained empirically through one’s perceptions, and it is the recognition of something sensed or felt (Ziadat 2010). It is important to investigate whether more knowledge of PAs would be associated with positive perceptions and attitudes toward them. We examined the effects of both knowledge and socioeconomic factors on the perceptions and attitudes of local people toward Popa Mountain Park, in central Myanmar, and its management through a questionnaire survey. Myanmar is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world, and its PAs play a crucial role in conserving the country’s rich biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). During the last 10 years the number of protected areas in Myanmar has increased from 20 to 42, covering 7.3% of total land area of the country (Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division 2008). The Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (NWCD) of the Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, is mainly responsible for PA management in Myanmar. Generally, PAs in Myanmar can be categorized into national park, marine park, wildlife sanctuary, nature reserve, and zoo park. Although Myanmar’s PAs do not fully conform to PA categories of the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), they are most similar to IUCN category IV (Aung 2007). Myanmar’s PA management rules and regulations prohibit local people from using resources within PAs. Conflicts arise as local people often have no other source of resource than the PA. Rao, Rabinowitz, and Khaing (2002) reported that nontimber forest products were extracted from 85% and fuelwood was collected from more than 50% of PAs in Myanmar. The mean annual population growth rate is 2.1% (Central Statistics Organisation 2006) and is highest in rural areas where most Myanmar PAs are located. Population increase is linked to an increase in the number of people seeking land for grazing, collecting fuelwood, and extracting timber and other forest products. The rapid growth of PAs and the huge pressures placed on them by the increasing human population are a great challenge for sustainable PA management. Popa Mountain Park (PMP) possesses a diverse forest ecosystem in central Myanmar where most forests have already disappeared. PMP was selected for the present study for two reasons: (1) a historic relationship between PMP and local communities and (2) high people’s pressure on the park resulting from the high population density together with resource scarcity in the surrounding area. The Forest Department has had great success in the reforestation of Popa Mountain, which is a high priority for forest conservation. It is important to understand local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward PMP for its sustainability. The objectives of the present study were (1) to examine the responses of local people toward the park and its management and (2) to study how local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward the PA and its management relate to their socioeconomic status and knowledge about the park..."
Author/creator: Naing Zaw Htun , Nobuya Mizoue, Shigejiro Yoshida
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF)
Format/size: pdf (352K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Description of the environment of Burma/Myanmar > The ecoregions of Burma/Myanmar
Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar


Title: Gender and Attitudes toward Protected Areas in Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 October 2015
Description/subject: "... From grassroots conservation projects to international committees on the environment, women are often underrepresented in the conservation process (Deda and Rubian 2004; Sodhi et al. 2010). Women’s participation is often limited to awareness-raising activities and labor contribution projects (Arya 2007). In their review of implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Deda and Rubian (2004) conclude that greater efforts must be made to address the gender disparity in biodiversity conservation policy and actions. Positive relationships between local residents and protected areas are critical to the long-term successful conservation of protected areas. Ensuring that women’s perspectives are included in our understanding of those relationships is not only an important component of a fair and inclusive conservation process, but also has positive practical implications for conservation of protected areas. On one hand, this is because protected areas can disproportionately impact women. For example, women have been shown to bear a greater share of the psychological and physical costs of wildlife conflicts in India (Ogra 2008). If these differences are not recognized, women may receive fewer direct benefits from conservation and be left bearing more costs (Hunter et al. 1990). On the other hand, women can make significant contributions to conservation. Westermann et al. (2005) found in natural resource management groups in 20 countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, that collaboration, solidarity, and conflict resolution were greater in groups where women were present. In Nepal and India, Agarwal (2009) found that greater women’s participation in forestry groups was correlated with better forest condition, in terms of both conservation and regeneration, and increased forest patrolling and rule compliance. Unfortunately, our understanding of gender in the context of people’s attitudes toward protected areas (PAs) is limited. Many studies limit their sample to household heads, who are most often men (e.g., Tessema et al. 2010; Vodouheˆ et al. 2010), or do not break down results by gender (e.g., Silori 2007; Rinzin et al. 2009). Studies that include gender as one of many socioeconomic characteristics that may influence people’s relationships with PAs, along with others such as education and wealth, have had mixed results. Some studies find that men have more positive attitudes toward specific protected areas (Mehta and Heinen 2001; Xu et al. 2006; King and Peralvo 2010), some find women more positive (Arjunan et al. 2006), and some find no difference (Bauer 2003; Carrus et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2006; Baral and Heinen 2007; Ferreira and Freire 2009). As described earlier, studies examine the role of gender in conservation without attention to attitudes toward protected areas or they explore the determinants of attitudes toward protected areas without a focus on gender. To our knowledge, however, there are no studies that focus on the effect of gender on attitudes toward protected areas. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by directly examining gender differences in local residents’ perceptions of protected areas in Myanmar. We explore whether men and women differ in their attitudes toward the protected areas and perceptions of protected area benefits and problems. Then we explore whether gendered differences in perceptions and socioeconomic characteristics account for any difference in women’s and men’s attitude toward the protected areas..."
Author/creator: Teri D. Allendorf, Keera Allendorf
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Illinois
Format/size: pdf (599K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Women > Articles, reports and sites relating to women of Burma


Title: The Yadana syndrome? Big oil and principles of corporate engagement in myanmar
Date of publication: 02 January 2008
Description/subject: "... In debates about economic globalisation, the case for leading corporations to engage with some of the world's most desperate development challenges is increasingly heard. In just the last few years, the World Bank and Mandle have shown that economic globalisation can operate to the benefit of the poor, Bhagwati and Wolf have issued powerful defences of globalisation, and Friedman has urged individuals, corporations and governments to seize the opportunities present in the increasingly "flat" world in which we live.2 From the peak of the international political system, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has endorsed all these arguments by holding that it is "the absence of broad-based business activity, not its presence, that condemns much of humanity to suffering."3 To stimulate action, he sponsored the UN Global Compact, dedicated to promoting responsible corporate citizenship throughout the world, and appointed its principal author, Kennedy School Professor John Ruggie, to the position of Special Representative on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises. However, despite all the mood music lauding the contribution business can make to development, it remains an open question whether corporate engagement, and in particular inward investment, should take place in extreme contexts. On the one hand, foreign capitalist involvement in some industries, notably resource extraction, has long been seen as highly exploitative. For decades, neo-Marxist critiques of capitalist underdevelopment held sway, stressing the extent of local state dependence on foreign capitalist interests, and the catastrophic impact of corporate engagement on local economic, social and political evolution.4 Notions of captured, rentier states mired in corruption and committed to systematic exploitation of Third World populations were commonly encountered. Few other than baleful local effects, generated by unprincipled involvement on the part of foreign corporations, were recorded. Today, criticism of this kind continues to be heard in, for example, responses to the World Bank's Extractive Industries Review, released in December 2003, which itself reached rather equivocal conclusions.5 Under the influence of more recent analyses of economic globalisation and its effects, should such activity now be encouraged? As economies are opened to the forces of global capitalism, is resource extraction to be placed alongside other corporate activity as positive and constructive in its contribution to pro-poor policies? On the other hand, all forms of corporate engagement with regimes that commit gross human rights violations are widely viewed as thoroughly unprincipled. For many years now, the sanctions lobby has trained a moral spotlight on inward investment in countries dominated by violator regimes. While the condemnation, and the resultant corporate pullouts, have always been highly selective, picking up on, say, Myanmar in the Asian context but making little comment on China, they have been no less powerful for that. Indeed, informal sanctions, targeting brands and corporations with a great deal to lose from negative publicity, have often been much more potent than formal government sanctions applied by the US and some of its allies.6 Again, under the influence of the latest writings on economic globalisation, should this activity also now be endorsed? Even in the most unpromising domains, can profits and principles be secured in tandem?7 This article tackles these issues by focusing on one very specific development context: Myanmar, or the country formerly known as Burma. By almost any definition, this is a difficult environment for poverty reduction.8 It is also one of the most unpromising settings for business activity, ranking last out of the 127 countries included in the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World Index for 2003.9 Furthermore, the kinds of extreme circumstance that generate the greatest development challenges are readily found here. Global corporations are engaged in extractive activities that provoke fierce critiques. Reports published over many years by Amnesty International, EarthRights International, Human Rights Watch and other organisations document gross human rights abuse by government-backed forces in virtually all parts of a country of more than 50 million people. Within this context, the article examines one particularly controversial extractive enterprise: the Yadana gas project, in which Western oil companies have long been prime movers. The debate that encircles this project is of course not unique. It is nestled in a broader discourse about corporate engagement with rights violating regimes all over the world, and reflected in specific ethical controversies thathave flared up in recentyears.11 When companies such as Carlsberg, Heineken, Levi Strauss and Reebok pulled out of Myanmar in the early and mid-1990s, they made public the moral concerns that prompted their decisions.12 Equally, some corporations targeted by campaigners have issued ethical justifications for ongoing engagement.13 Similar divisions are visible in other spheres. While the Global Fund made a high-profile withdrawal from Myanmar in August 2005, citing intolerable official interference in its work to combat AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, key internal groups such as the National League for Democracy and the Student Generations Since 1988 now call for humanitarian intervention; and international agencies such as Save the Children USA continue to operate inside the country.14 The Yadana project is special because this single case encapsulates Western corporate involvement in resource extraction in a highly repressive context. It also has the virtue of being very well documented. The article addresses two main questions. First, is the involvement of foreignowned corporations in Myanmar's Yadana project to be welcomed? Second, with the experience gained from this involvement, can wider lessons about global corporate citizenship be drawn? To generate answers, the first section of the article provides some brief background material on the Yadana project. The second section then examines the cases made by its backers and critics, and evaluates the project from the perspective of its impact on the people of Myanmar. The third section focuses on wider lessons for corporate engagement that flow from the project, and in particular, the conditions in which inward investment in repressive settings is likely to be most constructive and positive in its effects. Applying these conditions to Myanmar, the fourth section considers ways forward for corporate involvement with the country. The article closes with a brief conclusion. The argument is that it is not possible to reach an overall evaluation of the Yadana project. However, some principles of responsible cross-border corporate engagement can be derived from it..."
Author/creator: Ian Holliday
Language: English
Source/publisher: City University of Hong Kong
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Economy > Industry > Extractive industries > Mining > Minerals and Mining - Burma (general articles and analyses)
Economy > Industry > Extractive industries > Oil and gas
Economy > Infrastructure > Energy > Non-renewable energy > Oil and gas
Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Foreign investment in oil and gas > Oil and gas pipelines
Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Foreign investment in oil and gas > Yadana Field - (Total, Chevron, PTTEP, MOGE)


Title: INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND LOCAL COMMUNITY TENURE IN THE INDCS - Status and Recommendations
Date of publication: April 2016
Description/subject: "... In December 2015, representatives of governments, civil society organizations, Indigenous Peoples’ groups, and the private sector met in Paris for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The aim of this meeting was to determine a global path forward that would limit the rise in global temperature to no more than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and allow countries to reach peak greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible. With its recognition of the crucial role that forests play in achieving targeted emissions reductions, the Paris Agreement marks a major turning point in the global struggle to combat climate change. Yet, the final Agreement lacks key considerations for the Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IP/LCs) who have customary rights to a large portion of the world’s remaining tropical forests, as well as millions of hectares of degraded forests that could capture additional carbon through restoration. Although Indigenous Peoples and civil society groups from around the world advocated throughout the negotiation process that clear provisions securing IP/LC land tenure would be essential components of any successful and equitable climate agreement, text on the rights of IP/LCs was limited to the preamble. Ultimately, the Paris Agreement failed to take into account the significance of community land rights and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) for realizing its ambitious goals. This brief presents a review of 161 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted on behalf of 188 countries for COP 21 to determine the extent to which Parties made clear commitments to strengthen or expand the tenure and natural resource management rights of IP/LCs as part of their climate change mitigation plans or associated adaptation actions. Of the 161 INDCs submitted, 131 are from countries with tropical and subtropical forests..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI)
Format/size: pdf (749K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/RRI-2016-04-Indigenous-Peoples-and-Local-Community-Tenure-in-the...
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016
ML > Climate Change > Climate Change - global: policy > Climate Change - global: policy (agreements, statements, studies, conferences etc.)
Land > Land research including land grabbing - global and regional


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Thursday 21 April, 2016
Date of publication: 21 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (12MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2016


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Thursday 21 April, 2016
Date of publication: 21 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Thursday 21 April, 2016
Date of publication: 21 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: Foreign Minister to clarify foreign policy... Media company warned over violation of anticorruption directive... Bio security fears as bird flu hits Monywa... Inle Lake faces drought... Bago villages decimated by riverbank erosion... Multi-stakeholder talks on road legislation coming in June... Mandalay sees a drop in alcohol fueled brawls during Thingyan... Haka gas explosions injure two, Monywa, kills one... Plans underway to relieve water shortages in regions, states... Four regions selected for Industrial Development Center... Mandalay to host Mandalar Open Basketball Championship... Fire destroys house in Haka... Fire destroys resort at Than Daung... Light Truck falls into ravine... Police search for jewelry thief in Mudon... Fire destroys servant quarters... Six injured in traffic accident on Haingyi to Pathein road... Police arrest illegal petrol seller... Yabba, ice and cash seized in Tamwe... Suicide in Falam... Pedigree sesame species in high demand... First phase of Bago Industrial Park City to be completed by year’s end... K200 lottery tickets not going anywhere... Myanmar’s Yangon Stock Exchange draws interest from local investors... Fire department to spend K 27 billion on new facilities... Mawlamyine to host multimedia art exhibition..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: President U Htin Kyaw felicitates British Queen over her birthday... President U Htin Kyaw felicitates British Prime Minister... Union Foreign Affairs Minister felicitates British counterpart... ‘Made in Myanmar’ to rock international market... Aquatic feed to be purchased from Viet Nam... Rohu and sturgeon to manufacture as ready-made ground fish for export... Manufacturing know-how needed for quality gems... Viettel plans $1.5 billion Myanmar telecoms investment with local firms... ASEAN puppetry exchange programme to begin in May..... "OPINION": "Recognising the people’s army" - Kyaw Thura
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: Community Forestry in Cease-Fire Zones in Kachin State, Northern Burma: Formalizing Collective Property in Contested Ethnic Areas
Date of publication: 01 July 2010
Description/subject: "... Community forests (CF) in northern Burma, particularly in Kachin State, have been sprouting up in villages since the mid-2000s, spearheaded by national NGOs. The recent watershed of CF establishment follows several contingent foundational factors: greater political stability and government control in cease-fire zones; enhanced NGO capacity, access, and effectiveness in these areas; and most prominently the recent threat of agribusiness. This paper will critically examine (inter-)national NGO‟s assistance to rural farmers in formalizing collective forestland in cease-fire zones as a resistance strategy to land dispossession from military/state-backed agribusiness concessions. My overall argument is that while CF represents a legally-sanctioned, bottom-up resistance against land dispossession – a rare phenomenon in a country such as Burma – an unintended consequence is producing forms of contested state authority and power in cease-fire zones. For instances of post-war zones with continued contentious ethnic politics and contested state authority, as is the case in northern Burma, rebuilding state-society resource relations and institutions present new political and resource use and access challenges. Data presented here is part of a broader research agenda conducted since the early-2000s on resource politics in northern Burma, with qualitative analysis for this paper based upon interviews with CF user groups, participant observation at CF workshops, interviews with Burmese NGOs, and secondary materials. This research project is a work-in-progress, and all errors are of course of my own unintentional making. CF represents a refashioned collective property regime. This novel land management strategy does not represent any sort of customary arrangement; in fact Kachin are upland swidden farmers, not strictly forest-dwelling communities. This scenario then causes conflict in that the CF joint- management plans mirror state land classification schemes that firmly delineate between „forest. and „agriculture. land uses, unlike traditional land management (much like for other rural communities) that does not clearly separate forest from agriculture. CF falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Forestry (MoF), which enables the increasingly weak MoF to stake an institutional claim against the increasingly powerful Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MoAI). In addition to symbolizing emerging state institutional struggles in cease-fire zones, newly established CF are also altering local resource use and access by villagers planting state-favored, high-value timber trees, such as infamous Burmese teak, in former swiddens – an act that uncomfortably brings colonial-dictated resource use practices into the present. Furthermore, only CF user groups can access forest products, with outsiders (non-CF members, even within the village) formally blocked from access, including for shifting cultivation. By farmers and NGOs attempting to block the expansion of large-scale agricultural plantations, they instead cultivate state authority and institutions, in this case the Forestry Department, state-recognized land management categories, and new state-governed farmers. This case study highlights the importance of seriously considering how development interventions cultivate new forms of authority and power –perceived as both legitimate and illegitimate by different actors – in post-war zones when devising collective action strategies. These same interventions also inculcate new environmental practices in farmers, shaping them into NGO-state subjects that contrast with their customary practices. In this case, NGOs assisting farmers in establishing state-authorized collective property in the form of CF does not respect customary land use, facilitates bringing in a villager-perceived illegitimate state, and is increasing food insecurity. The positives though – which may or may not outweigh the negatives – include stemming the tide of land dispossession by private companies and providing a potential platform for political mobilizing at the village level. An alternative strategy could be to push for legal recognition of customary land management, such as upland swidden cultivation, could potentially block rubber expansion while concomitantly strengthening food security, customary land use regimes, and traditional village power bases to challenge state centralization in these politically contested cease-fire ethnic areas..."
Author/creator: Kevin Woods
Language: English
Source/publisher: CAPRi
Format/size: pdf (398K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Community forestry
Agriculture and fisheries > Agricultural land confiscation/grabbing, Agribusiness
Land > Land in Burma > Tenure > Tenure insecurity in Burma (including land grabbing)


Title: Development of Environmental Management Mechanism in Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 June 2008
Description/subject: "... Officials of Myanmar recognize that with a certain development in the country, deforestation, water pollution and other adverse environmental conditions may have occurred, though off the record, from various economic and industrial sectors. Like elsewhere in the world, the demands of a growing population and a market-oriented economy have altered consumption patterns and infringed on natural resources. In the effort to keep a balance between development and environment, Myanmar has made efforts and will have to sustain them to protect the environment. Whatever the awareness and commitment, the efforts may not be perfect in achieving this comprehensive task; there is strength and so are the weaknesses. This paper is to track down the success in this aspect and identify the challenges that may be awaiting..."
Author/creator: Myo Nyunt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Yangon Technical University
Format/size: pdf (160K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar


Title: Hoolock Gibbon and Biodiversity Survey on Khe Shor Ter Mountain, Nattaung Range, Luthaw Township, Mudraw District, Karen State, Myanmar
Date of publication: October 2010
Description/subject: "... The survey on the Hoolock Gibbon and biodiversity was conducted by the Karen Environmental Social Action Network (KESAN), with technical support from the People Resources and Conservation Foundation (PRCF). Funding was provided to the PRCF by the Gibbon Conservation Alliance. The survey is a contribution to the project Myanmar Hoolock Gibbon Conservation Status Review project, which is jointly implemented by the PRCF, Fauna & Flora International (FFI), and the Myanmar Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA). Methods and approach are generally speaking those being adopted for the Status Review, to allow comparison between all survey sites throughout Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Saw Blaw Htoo, Mark E Grindley
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Environmental Social Action Network (KESAN)
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Environment > The regional environment > Studies of the regional environment
Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar: description > Fauna of Burma's forests


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (English)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... This is a resource for organisations and individuals advocating about sustainable development issues in Burma. This resource provides information about the concept of sustainable development and about the government of Burma’s commitments and responsibilities when it comes to sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that does not damage the environment or the country’s natural resources, and that meets people’s needs, including the needs of the most vulnerable communities. Sustainable development relates to many aspects of the natural world and of people’s lives. These aspects include: biodiversity (variety in the natural environment), land (including mining), forests, agriculture, water, energy, and the economy..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB); ppt (4.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar
Economy > Development > Sustainable development


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: ဤနုိးေဆာ္မႈမ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရး က႑မ်ားတြင္ပါ၀င္မည့္ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား၊ တသီးပုဂၢလမ်ားအတြက္ အခ်က္အလက္ရင္းျမစ္မ်ားပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤအခ်က္အလက္ ရင္းျမစ္မ်ားသည္ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးအယူအဆ၊ ျမန္မာ အစိုးရ၏ တာ၀န္၀တၱရားမ်ားႏွင့္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္ရွိသည့္အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကိုေဖာ္ျပသည္။ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးသည္ ႏိုင္ငံ၏သဘာ၀သယံဇာတအရင္းအျမစ္ႏွင့္ ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ကို ထိခုိက္ပ်က္စီးေစမႈ မရွိဘဲ လူသားတုိ႔၏လုိအပ္ခ်က္၊ အထူးသျဖင့္ အမွန္တကယ္အကာအကြယ့္မဲ့ဒုကၡေရာက္လ်က္ရွိေသာ လူမႈအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား၏ လိုအပ္ခ်က္ကို တိုက္႐ိုက္အက်ဳိးသက္ေရာက္ေစမည့္ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရး ျဖစ္သည္။ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးသည္ သဘာ၀ကမၻာေျမႀကီး ႏွင့္ လူေနထိုင္မႈဘ၀တို႔ကို က႑ေပါင္းစံုျဖင့္ ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ က႑ေပါင္းစံုဟုဆိုရာတြင္ ဇီ၀မ်ိဳးကြဲမ်ား (သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္အတြင္း ကြဲျပားမႈအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး)၊ ေျမယာ (သတၱဳတြင္းတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း အပါအ၀င္)၊ သစ္ေတာမ်ား၊ စိုက္ပ်ဳိးေရး၊ ေရ၊ စြမ္းအင္ႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရးတို႔ျဖစ္သည္။...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Economy > Development > Sustainable development


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Shan)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... This is a resource for organisations and individuals advocating about sustainable development issues in Burma. This resource provides information about the concept of sustainable development and about the government of Burma’s commitments and responsibilities when it comes to sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that does not damage the environment or the country’s natural resources, and that meets people’s needs, including the needs of the most vulnerable communities. Sustainable development relates to many aspects of the natural world and of people’s lives. These aspects include: biodiversity (variety in the natural environment), land (including mining), forests, agriculture, water, energy, and the economy..."
Language: Shan
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar
Economy > Development > Sustainable development


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Kachin)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Ndai gaw uhpung uhpawng ni hte tinghkrai hku nna myen mung Kata n amazing bawng ring lam a matu sut nhprang laika rai nga ai. Ndai sut nhprang laika gaw, matut manoi kyem mazing bawng ring masa a shiga hte dai mazing bawng ring lam galaw sa wa yang myen mungdan a ap nawng ai hte lit la ai shiga hpe jaw nga ai. Madi shadaw kyem mazing bawng ring masa gaw makau grup yin hpe n jahten shaza ai (sh) mungdan a shingra nhprang sut rai hpe n jahten ai bawngring lam rai nna grau jahten shaza hkrum ai shinggyim uhpawng ni mada’ shawa masha ni hta ra ai lam ni hpe jahkum shatsup ya nga ai. Kawn” mazing bawng ring lam gaw shingra mungkan hte shinggyim masha ni a asak hkrung lam hta na nsam maka law law hte matut mahkai nga ai. Ndai nsam maka kumla ni hta lawm ai gaw sakhkrung hpan hkum (grup yin nga ai arai amyu baw hkum sumhpa), lamu ga (ja maw, sut nhprang maw ni lawm ai), nam maling hkai sun, hka tsam n-gun hte sut masa ni rai nga ma ai.
Language: Kachin
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (869K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Land > Land in Burma > Law and policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Economy > Development > Sustainable development


Title: Preparing for Myamar's Environment-Friendly Reform
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "... Myanmar is a predominantly agricultural country in Mekong River Basin, also known as Burma, the second largest country in mainland South-East Asia, known as the ‘‘Asia’s Barn’’ in the past years, once the world’s largest exporter of rice. Myanmar is a resource-rich country that has abundant arable land, timber, mineral resources, natural gas and oil, which made it one of the best developing countries in South-East Asia until the early 1960s. Myanmar’s total area is 676 578 km2. Forest area is 317 730 km2, 48.32% of land area; other wooded land accounts for 30.59% of land area; other land accounts for 21.09% of land area, and inland water area is 19 030 km2 (FAO, 2010). Extensive changes in altitude and latitude produced a seemingly unparalleled abundance of habitats and species. Myanmar occupied completely or partially nine of the Global 200 Eco-regions (Olson and Dinerstein, 2002). Indo-Burma includes most of Myanmar is described as one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots (Myers et al., 2000). There is no doubt that Myanmar has an unmatched level of biological diversity. Myanmar has 7000 plant species, has 1027 known bird species, 4 of which are endemic, and 19 others are restricted range birds. Myanmar is also home to 300 known species of mammals, 425 reptile and amphibian species, and 350 freshwater fish, especially the endangered species such as the one-horned rhinoceros, the Irrawaddy Dolphin and the Gurney’s Pitta (BEWG, 2011)..."
Author/creator: Changjian Wang, Fei Wang, Qiang Wang, Degang Yang, Lianrong Li, Xinlin Zhang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Format/size: pdf (234K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016
ML > Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar
Law and Constitution > Administration > Environmental laws, decrees, regulations etc. > Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to the environment (commentary)


Title: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") Wednesday 20 April, 2016
Date of publication: 20 April 2016
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") archive > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2016


Title: "The Global New Light of Myanmar" Wednesday 20 April, 2016
Date of publication: 20 April 2016
Description/subject: DOMESTIC NEWS: Stock market overshadows real estate... Mandalay to fight to curb betel chewing... Pontoon bridges to become International standard port within three months... Exam successes abound in Kyimyindine... Visitors flock to Kyaing Taung waterfall on New Year Day... Sustainable Milinda library opened on April 17... President U Htin Kyaw, wife Daw Su Su Lwin make food donation in Thongwa Tsp... Daw Aung San Suu Kyi comforts patients at Nay Pyi Taw General Hospital... Water shortages hit Keng Tung’s hillside residents... Exceeding speed limit injures 11... Pedestrian seriously injured in traffic accident... Vehicle turned over on Yangon- Nay Pyi Taw Highway... Traffic accident damages vehicle... Police arrest snatcher in Pyigyidagun... Car accident injures 21 passengers... Four die of suffocation in Natogyi... Freight loaders in short supply on previous years... Pea exports see higher profits this FY... Water supplied for villagers in Bago Region... Wethtigan police clear weeds... Restoration of Shwedagon’s Buddha images set to begin... More children with type-1 diabetes... Needy amputees to receive free prosthetic legs... Fly-over money to go to much needed rural development..... EXTERNAL RELATIONS: IFC investment in port will boost transport sector... MWEA sends delegate to international market analysis training program in Viet Nam... First Pulitzer Prize winner Myanmar... India’s demand for Myanmar beans sees prices soar... Logistical barriers hurting Myanmar-Korea ground sesame exports... Jovago’s Myanmar hotel network to hit four figures... US$60 billion needed to improve Myanmar’s transport infrastructure..... "OPINION": "Let’s work together to reform the education system" - Aye Min Soe..... ARTICLE: "ENGLISH, WHY SHOULD WE LEARN IT? - ENGLISH, A LIVING LANGUAGE IN A LIVING WORLD." - U KHIN MAUNG (A retired diplomat)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global New Light of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
RR > News - Daily newspapers produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar (archive from June 2003) > "The [Global] New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Global New Light of Myanmar" 2016


Title: Seafood from slaves
Description/subject: An AP investigation helps free slaves in the 21st century... "Over the course of 18 months, Associated Press journalists located men held in cages, tracked ships and stalked refrigerated trucks to expose the abusive practices of the fishing industry in Southeast Asia. The reporters’ dogged effort led to the release of more than 2,000 slaves and traced the seafood they caught to supermarkets and pet food providers across the U.S. For this investigation, AP has won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. The articles are presented here in their entirety..."
Author/creator: Esther Htusan, Margie Mason, Robin McDowell and Martha Mendoza
Language: English
Source/publisher: Associated Press (AP)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://interactives.ap.org/2015/seafood-from-slaves/
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Trafficking and smuggling of people > Trafficking: global, regional and national reports
Human Rights > Labour Rights > Labour rights: reports of violations in Burma and the region > Forced Labour > Non-ILO Reports on forced labour, including forced portering, in Burma and the region


Title: The History of Taungya Plantation Forestry and Its Rise and Fall in the Tharrawaddy Forest Division of Myanmar (1869-1994)
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: "... In some areas of Myanmar (formerly Burma), trees are planted amongst agricultural crops in hill-farms (taungya). This "taungya system" is one method of restoring tree cover and can also be regarded as a forerunner of agroforestry. The system is widely believed to have originated in the Tharrawaddy forest division of Myanmar, but the actual location of its origin is likely to be the Kaboung forest area. The taungya system was first devised by Dr. DIETRICH BRANDIS, an early German botanist-turned-forester in Myanmar, in the mid 1800s after he observed the taungya of the Karen hill people. Taungya teak plantations expanded in the Tharrawaddy forest division from 1869 as teak grows well there and the facilities for teak timber extraction are good. However, the annual establishment rate in Tharrawaddy has fluctuated greatly. The establishment of taungya plantations has gone through three periods of growth and decline. The growth phase of the first period began in 1869 when Imperial foresters succeeded in employing the hill Karen to plant teak in their taungyas, and was followed by a decline from 1906 when the scattered taungya plantation became difficult to manage. The second period began from 1918-19 when concentrated regeneration under the Uniform System was introduced into the division. This period's decline started in 1930 and was caused by the farmers' revolution. The third period began in 1948, but the thirty years to 1979 were politically and socially unstable, so there was very little planting throughout this time. The growth in plantation establishment began in early 1980 when the government focused on reforestation to boost timber production, but it decline came in the late 1980s and was primarily caused by socioeconomic and government policy changes. Higher wages for taungya workers and more productive agricultural techniques for taungya crops are now necessary if taungya plantation management is to be successful in the future..."
Author/creator: San Win, Minoru Kumazaki
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan Society of Forest Planning
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Forest management - scientific and general
Agriculture and fisheries > Shifting ("swidden", "jhum", "taungya") cultivation - Burma/Myanmar


Title: Silvicultural, Inventory and Harvest Guidelines for Community Managed Forests: Some Recommendations for Discussion
Date of publication: October 2014
Description/subject: ..."This Working Paper examines options for improved sustainability and economic viability for community forest in Myanmar (See also Wode et al 2014). It was prepared under an EU-FAO Regional FLEGT Programme project implemented by Fauna & Flora International that is exploring opportunities and constraints for commercial timber production from community forests. The paper is written in the form of a draft ‘Guide for Forest Management’ that could be applied by Forest User Groups who have been handed over natural forest resources for sustainable long-term management and protection under a Community Forest (CF) certificate and with a CF management plan available. It is not a substitute for government regulations or departmental guidance, and is intended to promote discussion on sustainable forest management in the context of legal CF in Myanmar"...
Author/creator: Bjoern Wode
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Conservation and Development Program (MCDP)
Format/size: pdf (4.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Community forestry
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Conservation forest management
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Forest management - scientific and general


Title: Rapid Assessment of Options for Independent Sustainability Certification for Community Forestry in Myanmar
Date of publication: October 2014
Description/subject: "... We here examine several options for independent certification of community forests with a view to legal timber harvest. A number of certification standards and types have been developed world-wide, with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC; www.pefc.org) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC; info.fsc.org) being the most widely recognised standards for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) and Chain of Custody (CoC) certification. This report considers the suitability of both systems in the context of nationally recognised community forest management in Myanmar, through the conduct of a rapid field assessment of the constraints and opportunities in two forest user group networks in Tanintharyi region and Kachin State. Certification concepts and our initial findings were presented in a roundtable meeting in Yangon in August hosted jointly with EcoDev and the Myanmar Timber Merchants Association, and attended by RECOFTC, Myanmar Forest Certification Committee, IUCN and other stakeholders. The presentations are reproduced in Annex 1 and 2. Our rapid field evaluation shows that, in the case study sites, an external review by an accredited timber certifier – either Forest Stewardship Council or the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification – would currently cost more than the benefits it will bring to the to smallholders. The main constraints are that; a) managed areas are currently too small (
Author/creator: Bjoern Wode, Robert Oberndorf, Mark E Grindley
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Conservation and Development Program (MCDP)
Format/size: pdf (8.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Community forestry
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Production forest management
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Timber trade


Title: Market Research and Enterprise Development for Community Forestry in Myanmar
Date of publication: September 2011
Description/subject: "... Pyoe Pin is a programme aimed at strengthening civil society in Myanmar. The programme is supported by DFID, the British Department for International Cooperation and implemented through the British council in partnership with local NGOs. Community Forestry (CF) is a key element of the programme, as it is seen as pathway to increasing the participation of civil society in influencing policy and practice with regards to communities. access and sustainable use of forestry land. CF can also improve forestry conservation and enhance the livelihoods of communities. CF has been a national development tool since 1995, when the Ministry of Forestry issued instructions for the issuing of Community Forest certificates. In Kachin state in northern Myanmar bordering China, Pyoe Pin has been working with two local NGOs (ECODEV and Shalom Foundation), who are in turn engaging with forest villages, to increase their awareness of appropriate forest usage and management, through assisting these communities to apply for community forest certificates. These certificates provide community rights to forest products and tenure for 30 years. Working through 120 villages, 54 Forest User Groups (FUGs) consisting of about 40,000 people have been created, who are replanting degraded forest areas, and also balancing their livelihood needs with greater understanding of sustainability. So far, 31,445 acres have been prepared for CF, but aside from 3000 of these acres, the rest has not yet been granted the lease, largely a result of lack of institutional support for this process as government prioritizes commercial allocations of land over community allocations for CF. As yet, CF has not shown significant direct economic impacts, but it is hoped that income from forest products, produced by and for the communities engaged, will have an impact on the incomes of the communities and households involved. One of the challenges has been how to increase the commercial viability and impact of CF by bringing greater alignment between commercial and community priorities. Some parts of the CF Instruction have hindered the maximization of economic benefits that can be gained by CF as they limit community rights to harvesting and selling at minimal levels. In addition, both private sector and Government have not considered CF as a potential partner for sourcing raw materials. But the environment is ripe for undertaking analysis and piloting of alternative models. There is a new Minister of Forestry, formerly head of Myanmar Timber Enterprise, who has experience in extensive forest-based commercial ventures. In addition, a recent national CF workshop was the first of the kind to bring experts from around the region to discuss findings from a national-level appraisal of CF in Myanmar since inception 15 years ago. In this context, Pyoe Pin envisages to develop a pilot project that will seek to demonstrate: 1. the value of CF as a real national development tool for the poorest communities, and to increase institutional support for its realization. 2. CF can be a commercially viable business partner for private sector 3. that it is important that communities who apply for CF status should be supported with the expedient granting of leases 4. that CF Instructions need to be revised to allow communities to commercialize their CF Towards these objectives, Pyoe Pin started to identify CF products that could have the greatest market potential and feasibility of being taken up by community forestry, which can then supply the products to larger domestic and possibly even international markets. An initial brainstorming session with foresters from NGOs and research institutes and businessmen from the Timber Market Association in December 2010 identified a preliminary shortlist of forest products. This selection was mainly based on secondary sources of information on market potential to help narrow down a more appropriate list for additional value-chain analysis..."
Author/creator: Foppes, J., Moe Aung, Paing Soe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Pyoe Pin
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Community forestry
Development - focus on Sustainable and Endogenous Development > Rural development in Burma/Myanmar
Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Production forest management


Title: Lessons Learned from Civil Society Efforts to Promote Community (Forest) Resource Rights and other Rights in Voluntary Partnership Agreements
Date of publication: 29 October 2013
Description/subject: "... The 2003 European Union (EU) Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan represents an attempt to link forest governance reforms in timber producing countries with market incentives for legally produced timber. Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) are bilateral trade agreements signed between the EU and a timber producing country, and are a key element of the FLEGT Action Plan. Each VPA has been drafted to reflect the realities and priorities of the producer country, and the negotiation process for each agreement has directly involved national civil society representatives, often for the first time in the forest sector. Civil society in VPA countries and internationally have sought to use the VPA negotiation process to advance community resource rights and other rights. The main objective of this paper is to examine the experiences and efforts of civil society in promoting a rights-based agenda through their engagement in VPA negotiations. It draws on experiences from the six countries that have completed negotiations: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Indonesia, Liberia and Republic of Congo. In most cases it is too early to see tangible ‘on the ground’ evidence as regards stronger community resource rights. It will only be possible to assess the effects when the VPA and its Legality Assurance System (LAS) are being fully implemented and FLEGT licences are issued. Positive effects will also depend on strong implementation of the EU Timber Regulation since this provides the basic market incentive for reform by producer country governments. However, according to the responses received from civil society key informants in VPA countries it is possible to identify considerable progress as regards procedural rights: • It was found that all the VPA processes examined have resulted in significant advances for transparency, especially around concession allocation, logging operations, forest fees and other sensitive information. Transparency in terms of process also improved during VPA negotiations, with civil society organisations (CSOs) gaining insights into, and influence over, policy processes, including legal reform, usually for the first time in the forest sector. • CSOs in most countries regard the VPA process as having been very important for getting customary and other rights onto the agenda, and/or for expanding the political space available to promote rights. This is why procedural rights are fundamental and a pre-condition for progress on substantive rights. VPA negotiations have provided an entry point or platform for raising politically contested rights issues, with some CSOs identifying a small but noticeable shift in government (or forest department) attitudes to community rights. • In four of the countries a formal role for civil society in independent monitoring of VPA implementation has been established. This has been regarded as a major achievement by civil society since the potential for on the ground realisation of rights negotiated in a VPA is strongly related to how well its implementation is monitored - this puts pressure on loggers to respect community rights, and on governments to promote compliance by the private sector. • In some cases the VPA has endorsed legislation with significant rights implications, for example, in Ghana and Central African Republic (CAR). These laws would have little hope of being operationalised without the need to comply with a VPA legality assurance system. • In all VPA processes the review of forest legislation has highlighted gaps or inconsistencies, for instance nonexistent or weak implementing measures for essential laws, conflicting laws, or a failure to recognize customary rights in statutory law. VPA processes have helped clarify the rights status of communities in and around forests, a key first step towards improving them. • VPA processes have also been useful as a conduit for capacity building of CSOs, for example in undertaking independent monitoring activities. According to questionnaire responses, civil society key informants in most VPA countries felt that their capacity to defend community rights has been strengthened as a result of their participation in the VPA process. • There are also early signs that governments that have signed VPAs are more sensitive about forest governance and rights issues because of concerns about their reputation in the eyes of European importers. CSO advocacy campaigns will be able to exploit this sensitivity. On the other hand it must be acknowledged that in terms of promotion of tenure or community resource rights, the VPA process has its limitations. Most energy in the VPA implementation phase has gone into the technicalities of setting up the LAS, with much less attention paid to the rights-based agenda. In general, the VPA mainly affects rights linked to commercial timber production and trade, although some of the legal reforms mandated by VPAs include reforms to core statutory documents such as the Forest Code. There is also a requirement in VPAs that relevant national legislation is adjusted to incorporate international law, which should result in increased recognition of customary rights. It is also recognised that there are major challenges to implementation, primarily the political will required to implement reforms that will impact on the political economy status quo. In some cases there has been a hiatus following successful negotiation of a VPA - civil society actors have sometimes lost their focus, and the state has taken the opportunity to retrench as regards vested interests and pre-VPA attitudes. In sum, the main advances have been in terms of procedural rights - transparency, participation, consultation, monitoring and FPIC – rather than substantive rights. On the other hand these advances in procedural rights can be seen as being very significant in most of the countries, where, prior to the VPA process, civil society had very weak procedural rights. It can be argued that stronger procedural rights are a pre-condition for progress on substantive rights. Civil society can also see that by being linked to a legal instrument like the LAS there is at least a hope that for the first time advances on paper as regards community resource and other rights can be transmitted to practice. The main conclusion of this paper is therefore that, for the countries examined, the prospects for community resource rights (and other rights) are more hopeful than if there had been no VPA process. As pointed out by a Ghanaian civil society informant “it is safe to conclude that without the VPA, farmers and forest communities will be worse off. The legally binding framework of the permits regime, access to information and reform agenda when complimented with proper implementation and monitoring by all stakeholders will increase community rights.”...
Author/creator: Lindsay Duffield, Michael Richards,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Trends
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Community forestry
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Forest management > Production forest management
Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > The forests of Burma/Myanmar: policy, law and regulations > Forest tenure > Forest Tenure (general)


Title: Facilitating Decentralized Policy for Sustainable Forest Governance in Myanmar: Lessons from the Philippines
Date of publication: 2010
Description/subject: "... In Myanmar, people's participation has been prioritized as an imperative of national forest policy in 1995 endorsed by the community forestry instructions (DFIs). Today, there are about 42,148 ha of community forestry (CF) management by 572 user groups (USGs). In CF management, the people are engaging three types of activities: (1) to preserve of improve the production system such as planting trees and promoting the growth of trees, (2) to use forest resources for subsistence needs, (3) to get cash by selling the timber harvested or furniture made by the timber. Initial participation by the people and their continuation of CF activities are considered to be indispensable for sustainable forest management. In practice, however, the improvement of forest management and protection are often threatened because of difficulties in continuing the activities even though initial participation was achieved. Providing secure property rights is among the major factors that contribute to continuing CF activities. Thus the objectives of the dissertation are (1) to find out the factors affecting initial participation of USG members in management actitities in Myanmar, (2) to assess the role of property rights in sustaining CF activities in the Philippines, and (3) to draw implications for Myanmar policy in terms of property rights issues from the case of the Philippines..."
Author/creator: Ei Ei Swe Hlaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Tokyo
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Forests and forest peoples > Forests and forest peoples worldwide > Forests and forest peoples - technical analysis
Forests and forest peoples > Forests and forest peoples worldwide > Forests and forest peoples - standards


Title: "RiA" (Root Investigative Agency)
Description/subject: Root Investigative Agency (RiA) is a registered news agency of Sittwe, Arakan State, in Burma (Myanmar). RIA reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing focused in the Western Myanmar in Burmese language. the RiA aims to not only produce investigative projects but also provide a place for the listeners, viewers and readers to discuss the stories, submit ideas for investigative reports, and peruse the produced data.
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: "RiA"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.facebook.com/RootAgency/info/?tab=page_info
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Information services in Burma/Myanmar > Media - use of media by Burmese
News - Burma news sources focussed on non-Burman peoples
News - Burma/Myanmar news sources in Burmese (current sites) > Burma/Myanmar news sources in Burmese (online news and articles)


Title: Suu Kyi Talks ‘Peace’ On Burmese New Year; Ethnic Leaders Respond By KYAW KHA/ THE IRRAWADDY| Wednesday, April 20, 2016 |
Date of publication: 20 April 2016
Description/subject: "Aung San Suu Kyi, the de facto leader of Burma, highlighted internal peace and constitutional change in her speech to the people on the Burmese New Year. In reference to the 2015 nationwide ceasefire agreement (NCA), she said she appreciated the initiative undertaken by the previous government and that she would strive to include in the accord the organizations that her National League for Democracy-led (NLD) government deem appropriate for inclusion. Under the former administration, only eight—out of the country’s more than 20 non-state armed groups—signed the NCA; some organizations were excluded outright from becoming signatories. Through peace conferences, Suu Kyi said her government would strive to build a “genuine federal democratic union” and that the military-drafted 2008 Constitution needs to be amended for this to be achieved. This process of constitutional change would not adversely affect Burma’s people, she promised. The Irrawaddy’s Kyaw Kha spoke with three leaders belonging to ethnic nationalities or organizations that opted out of signing the NCA for its lack of inclusivity. In the commentary below, they explain their reactions to Suu Kyi’s speech and their expectations for renewing Burma’s peace process under an NLD administration..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Kha
Language: English (translated from the Burmese)
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016
ML > Internal armed conflict > Internal armed conflict in Burma > Peace processes, ceasefires and ceasefire talks (websites, documents, reports and studies)