# PaCkAgE DaTaStReAm
gmp 1 7658
# end of header
0707010001f187000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4467000000ef0000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000000c00000000gmp/pkginfoRSTATES=S s 1 2 3
ISTATES=S s 1 2 3
BASEDIR=/
CLASSES=none
CATEGORY=utility
ARCH=i386
DESC=GNU multi precision library
EMAIL=http://gmplib.org/
VENDOR=GNU
PSTAMP=9th January 2014
VERSION=5.1.1
NAME=gmp 5.1.1 i86pc 64bit Solaris 11
PKG=gmp
0707010001f186000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4467000003ed0000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000000b00000000gmp/pkgmap: 1 7658
1 d none /usr ? ? ?
1 d none /usr/local ? ? ?
1 d none /usr/local/include 0755 root root
1 f none /usr/local/include/gmp.h 0644 root root 79775 20199 1389249169
1 d none /usr/local/lib 0755 root root
1 f none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.a 0644 root root 2145604 37143 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.la 0755 root root 967 19106 1389249169
1 s none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.so=libgmp.so.10.1.1
1 s none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.so.10=libgmp.so.10.1.1
1 f none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.so.10.1.1 0755 root root 946184 64374 1389249169
1 d none /usr/local/share 0755 root root
1 d none /usr/local/share/info 0755 root root
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/dir 0644 root root 5352 55787 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/gmp.info 0644 root root 6064 49933 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/gmp.info1 0644 root root 300033 17912 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/gmp.info2 0644 root root 192883 11894 1389249169
1 i checkinstall 784 2295 1389249639
1 i pkginfo 239 17816 1389249639
07070100000000000000000000000000000000000000010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000b00000000TRAILER!!!0707010001f187000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4467000000ef0000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000000800000000pkginfoRSTATES=S s 1 2 3
ISTATES=S s 1 2 3
BASEDIR=/
CLASSES=none
CATEGORY=utility
ARCH=i386
DESC=GNU multi precision library
EMAIL=http://gmplib.org/
VENDOR=GNU
PSTAMP=9th January 2014
VERSION=5.1.1
NAME=gmp 5.1.1 i86pc 64bit Solaris 11
PKG=gmp
0707010001f186000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4467000003ed0000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000000700000000pkgmap: 1 7658
1 d none /usr ? ? ?
1 d none /usr/local ? ? ?
1 d none /usr/local/include 0755 root root
1 f none /usr/local/include/gmp.h 0644 root root 79775 20199 1389249169
1 d none /usr/local/lib 0755 root root
1 f none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.a 0644 root root 2145604 37143 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.la 0755 root root 967 19106 1389249169
1 s none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.so=libgmp.so.10.1.1
1 s none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.so.10=libgmp.so.10.1.1
1 f none /usr/local/lib/libgmp.so.10.1.1 0755 root root 946184 64374 1389249169
1 d none /usr/local/share 0755 root root
1 d none /usr/local/share/info 0755 root root
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/dir 0644 root root 5352 55787 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/gmp.info 0644 root root 6064 49933 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/gmp.info1 0644 root root 300033 17912 1389249169
1 f none /usr/local/share/info/gmp.info2 0644 root root 192883 11894 1389249169
1 i checkinstall 784 2295 1389249639
1 i pkginfo 239 17816 1389249639
0707010001f198000041ed00000000000000000000000252ce4467000000000000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000000800000000install0707010001f199000081ed00000000000000000000000152ce4467000003100000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000001500000000install/checkinstall#!/bin/sh
#
expected_bits="64"
expected_release="5.11"
expected_platform="i386"
#
release=`uname r`
platform=`uname p`
bits=`isainfo b`
#
if [ ${platform} != ${expected_platform} ]; then
echo "\n\n\n\tThis package must be installed on a ${expected_platform} architecture\n"
echo "\tAborting installation.\n\n\n"
exit 1
fi
if [ ${release} != ${expected_release} ]; then
echo "\n\n\n\tThis package must be installed on a ${expected_release} machine\n"
echo "\tAborting installation.\n\n\n"
exit 1
fi
if [ ${bits} != ${expected_bits} ]; then
echo "\n\n\n\tThis package must be installed on a ${expected_bits} bit machine\n"
echo "\tYour machine is running a ${bits} bit O.S. currently\n"
echo "\tAborting installation.\n\n\n"
exit 1
fi
exit 0
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.info2This is ../../gmp/doc/gmp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.13 from
../../gmp/doc/gmp.texi.
This manual describes how to install and use the GNU multiple precision
arithmetic library, version 5.1.1.
Copyright 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012,
2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, with the FrontCover Texts being "A GNU
Manual", and with the BackCover Texts being "You have freedom to copy
and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software". A copy of the license
is included in *note GNU Free Documentation License::.
INFODIRSECTION GNU libraries
STARTINFODIRENTRY
* gmp: (gmp). GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library.
ENDINFODIRENTRY
File: gmp.info, Node: Jacobi Symbol, Prev: Extended GCD, Up: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms
15.3.5 Jacobi Symbol

[This section is obsolete. The current Jacobi code actually uses a very
efficient algorithm.]
`mpz_jacobi' and `mpz_kronecker' are currently implemented with a
simple binary algorithm similar to that described for the GCDs (*note
Binary GCD::). They're not very fast when both inputs are large.
Lehmer's multistep improvement or a binary based multistep algorithm
is likely to be better.
When one operand fits a single limb, and that includes
`mpz_kronecker_ui' and friends, an initial reduction is done with
either `mpn_mod_1' or `mpn_modexact_1_odd', followed by the binary
algorithm on a single limb. The binary algorithm is well suited to a
single limb, and the whole calculation in this case is quite efficient.
In all the routines sign changes for the result are accumulated
using some bit twiddling, avoiding table lookups or conditional jumps.
File: gmp.info, Node: Powering Algorithms, Next: Root Extraction Algorithms, Prev: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.4 Powering Algorithms
========================
* Menu:
* Normal Powering Algorithm::
* Modular Powering Algorithm::
File: gmp.info, Node: Normal Powering Algorithm, Next: Modular Powering Algorithm, Prev: Powering Algorithms, Up: Powering Algorithms
15.4.1 Normal Powering

Normal `mpz' or `mpf' powering uses a simple binary algorithm,
successively squaring and then multiplying by the base when a 1 bit is
seen in the exponent, as per Knuth section 4.6.3. The "left to right"
variant described there is used rather than algorithm A, since it's
just as easy and can be done with somewhat less temporary memory.
File: gmp.info, Node: Modular Powering Algorithm, Prev: Normal Powering Algorithm, Up: Powering Algorithms
15.4.2 Modular Powering

Modular powering is implemented using a 2^kary sliding window
algorithm, as per "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" algorithm 14.85
(*note References::). k is chosen according to the size of the
exponent. Larger exponents use larger values of k, the choice being
made to minimize the average number of multiplications that must
supplement the squaring.
The modular multiplies and squarings use either a simple division or
the REDC method by Montgomery (*note References::). REDC is a little
faster, essentially saving N single limb divisions in a fashion similar
to an exact remainder (*note Exact Remainder::).
File: gmp.info, Node: Root Extraction Algorithms, Next: Radix Conversion Algorithms, Prev: Powering Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.5 Root Extraction Algorithms
===============================
* Menu:
* Square Root Algorithm::
* Nth Root Algorithm::
* Perfect Square Algorithm::
* Perfect Power Algorithm::
File: gmp.info, Node: Square Root Algorithm, Next: Nth Root Algorithm, Prev: Root Extraction Algorithms, Up: Root Extraction Algorithms
15.5.1 Square Root

Square roots are taken using the "Karatsuba Square Root" algorithm by
Paul Zimmermann (*note References::).
An input n is split into four parts of k bits each, so with b=2^k we
have n = a3*b^3 + a2*b^2 + a1*b + a0. Part a3 must be "normalized" so
that either the high or second highest bit is set. In GMP, k is kept
on a limb boundary and the input is left shifted (by an even number of
bits) to normalize.
The square root of the high two parts is taken, by recursive
application of the algorithm (bottoming out in a onelimb Newton's
method),
s1,r1 = sqrtrem (a3*b + a2)
This is an approximation to the desired root and is extended by a
division to give s,r,
q,u = divrem (r1*b + a1, 2*s1)
s = s1*b + q
r = u*b + a0  q^2
The normalization requirement on a3 means at this point s is either
correct or 1 too big. r is negative in the latter case, so
if r < 0 then
r = r + 2*s  1
s = s  1
The algorithm is expressed in a divide and conquer form, but as
noted in the paper it can also be viewed as a discrete variant of
Newton's method, or as a variation on the schoolboy method (no longer
taught) for square roots two digits at a time.
If the remainder r is not required then usually only a few high limbs
of r and u need to be calculated to determine whether an adjustment to
s is required. This optimization is not currently implemented.
In the Karatsuba multiplication range this algorithm is
O(1.5*M(N/2)), where M(n) is the time to multiply two numbers of n
limbs. In the FFT multiplication range this grows to a bound of
O(6*M(N/2)). In practice a factor of about 1.5 to 1.8 is found in the
Karatsuba and Toom3 ranges, growing to 2 or 3 in the FFT range.
The algorithm does all its calculations in integers and the resulting
`mpn_sqrtrem' is used for both `mpz_sqrt' and `mpf_sqrt'. The extended
precision given by `mpf_sqrt_ui' is obtained by padding with zero limbs.
File: gmp.info, Node: Nth Root Algorithm, Next: Perfect Square Algorithm, Prev: Square Root Algorithm, Up: Root Extraction Algorithms
15.5.2 Nth Root

Integer Nth roots are taken using Newton's method with the following
iteration, where A is the input and n is the root to be taken.
1 A
a[i+1] =  * (  + (n1)*a[i] )
n a[i]^(n1)
The initial approximation a[1] is generated bitwise by successively
powering a trial root with or without new 1 bits, aiming to be just
above the true root. The iteration converges quadratically when
started from a good approximation. When n is large more initial bits
are needed to get good convergence. The current implementation is not
particularly well optimized.
File: gmp.info, Node: Perfect Square Algorithm, Next: Perfect Power Algorithm, Prev: Nth Root Algorithm, Up: Root Extraction Algorithms
15.5.3 Perfect Square

A significant fraction of nonsquares can be quickly identified by
checking whether the input is a quadratic residue modulo small integers.
`mpz_perfect_square_p' first tests the input mod 256, which means
just examining the low byte. Only 44 different values occur for
squares mod 256, so 82.8% of inputs can be immediately identified as
nonsquares.
On a 32bit system similar tests are done mod 9, 5, 7, 13 and 17,
for a total 99.25% of inputs identified as nonsquares. On a 64bit
system 97 is tested too, for a total 99.62%.
These moduli are chosen because they're factors of 2^241 (or 2^481
for 64bits), and such a remainder can be quickly taken just using
additions (see `mpn_mod_34lsub1').
When nails are in use moduli are instead selected by the `genpsqr.c'
program and applied with an `mpn_mod_1'. The same 2^241 or 2^481
could be done with nails using some extra bit shifts, but this is not
currently implemented.
In any case each modulus is applied to the `mpn_mod_34lsub1' or
`mpn_mod_1' remainder and a table lookup identifies nonsquares. By
using a "modexact" style calculation, and suitably permuted tables,
just one multiply each is required, see the code for details. Moduli
are also combined to save operations, so long as the lookup tables
don't become too big. `genpsqr.c' does all the precalculations.
A square root must still be taken for any value that passes these
tests, to verify it's really a square and not one of the small fraction
of nonsquares that get through (i.e. a pseudosquare to all the tested
bases).
Clearly more residue tests could be done, `mpz_perfect_square_p' only
uses a compact and efficient set. Big inputs would probably benefit
from more residue testing, small inputs might be better off with less.
The assumed distribution of squares versus nonsquares in the input
would affect such considerations.
File: gmp.info, Node: Perfect Power Algorithm, Prev: Perfect Square Algorithm, Up: Root Extraction Algorithms
15.5.4 Perfect Power

Detecting perfect powers is required by some factorization algorithms.
Currently `mpz_perfect_power_p' is implemented using repeated Nth root
extractions, though naturally only prime roots need to be considered.
(*Note Nth Root Algorithm::.)
If a prime divisor p with multiplicity e can be found, then only
roots which are divisors of e need to be considered, much reducing the
work necessary. To this end divisibility by a set of small primes is
checked.
File: gmp.info, Node: Radix Conversion Algorithms, Next: Other Algorithms, Prev: Root Extraction Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.6 Radix Conversion
=====================
Radix conversions are less important than other algorithms. A program
dominated by conversions should probably use a different data
representation.
* Menu:
* Binary to Radix::
* Radix to Binary::
File: gmp.info, Node: Binary to Radix, Next: Radix to Binary, Prev: Radix Conversion Algorithms, Up: Radix Conversion Algorithms
15.6.1 Binary to Radix

Conversions from binary to a powerof2 radix use a simple and fast
O(N) bit extraction algorithm.
Conversions from binary to other radices use one of two algorithms.
Sizes below `GET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' use a basic O(N^2) method.
Repeated divisions by b^n are made, where b is the radix and n is the
biggest power that fits in a limb. But instead of simply using the
remainder r from such divisions, an extra divide step is done to give a
fractional limb representing r/b^n. The digits of r can then be
extracted using multiplications by b rather than divisions. Special
case code is provided for decimal, allowing multiplications by 10 to
optimize to shifts and adds.
Above `GET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' a subquadratic algorithm is
used. For an input t, powers b^(n*2^i) of the radix are calculated,
until a power between t and sqrt(t) is reached. t is then divided by
that largest power, giving a quotient which is the digits above that
power, and a remainder which is those below. These two parts are in
turn divided by the second highest power, and so on recursively. When
a piece has been divided down to less than `GET_STR_DC_THRESHOLD'
limbs, the basecase algorithm described above is used.
The advantage of this algorithm is that big divisions can make use
of the subquadratic divide and conquer division (*note Divide and
Conquer Division::), and big divisions tend to have less overheads than
lots of separate single limb divisions anyway. But in any case the
cost of calculating the powers b^(n*2^i) must first be overcome.
`GET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' and `GET_STR_DC_THRESHOLD' represent
the same basic thing, the point where it becomes worth doing a big
division to cut the input in half. `GET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD'
includes the cost of calculating the radix power required, whereas
`GET_STR_DC_THRESHOLD' assumes that's already available, which is the
case when recursing.
Since the base case produces digits from least to most significant
but they want to be stored from most to least, it's necessary to
calculate in advance how many digits there will be, or at least be sure
not to underestimate that. For GMP the number of input bits is
multiplied by `chars_per_bit_exactly' from `mp_bases', rounding up.
The result is either correct or one too big.
Examining some of the high bits of the input could increase the
chance of getting the exact number of digits, but an exact result every
time would not be practical, since in general the difference between
numbers 100... and 99... is only in the last few bits and the work to
identify 99... might well be almost as much as a full conversion.
`mpf_get_str' doesn't currently use the algorithm described here, it
multiplies or divides by a power of b to move the radix point to the
just above the highest nonzero digit (or at worst one above that
location), then multiplies by b^n to bring out digits. This is O(N^2)
and is certainly not optimal.
The r/b^n scheme described above for using multiplications to bring
out digits might be useful for more than a single limb. Some brief
experiments with it on the base case when recursing didn't give a
noticeable improvement, but perhaps that was only due to the
implementation. Something similar would work for the subquadratic
divisions too, though there would be the cost of calculating a bigger
radix power.
Another possible improvement for the subquadratic part would be to
arrange for radix powers that balanced the sizes of quotient and
remainder produced, i.e. the highest power would be an b^(n*k)
approximately equal to sqrt(t), not restricted to a 2^i factor. That
ought to smooth out a graph of times against sizes, but may or may not
be a net speedup.
File: gmp.info, Node: Radix to Binary, Prev: Binary to Radix, Up: Radix Conversion Algorithms
15.6.2 Radix to Binary

*This section needs to be rewritten, it currently describes the
algorithms used before GMP 4.3.*
Conversions from a powerof2 radix into binary use a simple and fast
O(N) bitwise concatenation algorithm.
Conversions from other radices use one of two algorithms. Sizes
below `SET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' use a basic O(N^2) method. Groups
of n digits are converted to limbs, where n is the biggest power of the
base b which will fit in a limb, then those groups are accumulated into
the result by multiplying by b^n and adding. This saves
multiprecision operations, as per Knuth section 4.4 part E (*note
References::). Some special case code is provided for decimal, giving
the compiler a chance to optimize multiplications by 10.
Above `SET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' a subquadratic algorithm is
used. First groups of n digits are converted into limbs. Then adjacent
limbs are combined into limb pairs with x*b^n+y, where x and y are the
limbs. Adjacent limb pairs are combined into quads similarly with
x*b^(2n)+y. This continues until a single block remains, that being
the result.
The advantage of this method is that the multiplications for each x
are big blocks, allowing Karatsuba and higher algorithms to be used.
But the cost of calculating the powers b^(n*2^i) must be overcome.
`SET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' usually ends up quite big, around 5000
digits, and on some processors much bigger still.
`SET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' is based on the input digits (and
tuned for decimal), though it might be better based on a limb count, so
as to be independent of the base. But that sort of count isn't used by
the base case and so would need some sort of initial calculation or
estimate.
The main reason `SET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' is so much bigger
than the corresponding `GET_STR_PRECOMPUTE_THRESHOLD' is that
`mpn_mul_1' is much faster than `mpn_divrem_1' (often by a factor of 5,
or more).
File: gmp.info, Node: Other Algorithms, Next: Assembly Coding, Prev: Radix Conversion Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.7 Other Algorithms
=====================
* Menu:
* Prime Testing Algorithm::
* Factorial Algorithm::
* Binomial Coefficients Algorithm::
* Fibonacci Numbers Algorithm::
* Lucas Numbers Algorithm::
* Random Number Algorithms::
File: gmp.info, Node: Prime Testing Algorithm, Next: Factorial Algorithm, Prev: Other Algorithms, Up: Other Algorithms
15.7.1 Prime Testing

The primality testing in `mpz_probab_prime_p' (*note Number Theoretic
Functions::) first does some trial division by small factors and then
uses the MillerRabin probabilistic primality testing algorithm, as
described in Knuth section 4.5.4 algorithm P (*note References::).
For an odd input n, and with n = q*2^k+1 where q is odd, this
algorithm selects a random base x and tests whether x^q mod n is 1 or
1, or an x^(q*2^j) mod n is 1, for 1<=j<=k. If so then n is probably
prime, if not then n is definitely composite.
Any prime n will pass the test, but some composites do too. Such
composites are known as strong pseudoprimes to base x. No n is a
strong pseudoprime to more than 1/4 of all bases (see Knuth exercise
22), hence with x chosen at random there's no more than a 1/4 chance a
"probable prime" will in fact be composite.
In fact strong pseudoprimes are quite rare, making the test much more
powerful than this analysis would suggest, but 1/4 is all that's proven
for an arbitrary n.
File: gmp.info, Node: Factorial Algorithm, Next: Binomial Coefficients Algorithm, Prev: Prime Testing Algorithm, Up: Other Algorithms
15.7.2 Factorial

Factorials are calculated by a combination of two algorithms. An idea is
shared among them: to compute the odd part of the factorial; a final
step takes account of the power of 2 term, by shifting.
For small n, the odd factor of n! is computed with the simple
observation that it is equal to the product of all positive odd numbers
smaller than n times the odd factor of [n/2]!, where [x] is the integer
part of x, and so on recursively. The procedure can be best illustrated
with an example,
23! = (23.21.19.17.15.13.11.9.7.5.3)(11.9.7.5.3)(5.3)2^19
Current code collects all the factors in a single list, with a loop
and no recursion, and compute the product, with no special care for
repeated chunks.
When n is larger, computation pass trough prime sieving. An helper
function is used, as suggested by Peter Luschny:
n

n!   L(p,n)
msf(n) =  =   p
[n/2]!^2.2^k p=3
Where p ranges on odd prime numbers. The exponent k is chosen to
obtain an odd integer number: k is the number of 1 bits in the binary
representation of [n/2]. The function L(p,n) can be defined as zero
when p is composite, and, for any prime p, it is computed with:

\ n
L(p,n) = / [] mod 2 <= log (n) .
 p^i p
i>0
With this helper function, we are able to compute the odd part of n!
using the recursion implied by n!=[n/2]!^2*msf(n)*2^k. The recursion
stops using the smalln algorithm on some [n/2^i].
Both the above algorithms use binary splitting to compute the
product of many small factors. At first as many products as possible
are accumulated in a single register, generating a list of factors that
fit in a machine word. This list is then split into halves, and the
product is computed recursively.
Such splitting is more efficient than repeated Nx1 multiplies since
it forms big multiplies, allowing Karatsuba and higher algorithms to be
used. And even below the Karatsuba threshold a big block of work can
be more efficient for the basecase algorithm.
File: gmp.info, Node: Binomial Coefficients Algorithm, Next: Fibonacci Numbers Algorithm, Prev: Factorial Algorithm, Up: Other Algorithms
15.7.3 Binomial Coefficients

Binomial coefficients C(n,k) are calculated by first arranging k <= n/2
using C(n,k) = C(n,nk) if necessary, and then evaluating the following
product simply from i=2 to i=k.
k (nk+i)
C(n,k) = (nk+1) * prod 
i=2 i
It's easy to show that each denominator i will divide the product so
far, so the exact division algorithm is used (*note Exact Division::).
The numerators nk+i and denominators i are first accumulated into
as many fit a limb, to save multiprecision operations, though for
`mpz_bin_ui' this applies only to the divisors, since n is an `mpz_t'
and nk+i in general won't fit in a limb at all.
File: gmp.info, Node: Fibonacci Numbers Algorithm, Next: Lucas Numbers Algorithm, Prev: Binomial Coefficients Algorithm, Up: Other Algorithms
15.7.4 Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci functions `mpz_fib_ui' and `mpz_fib2_ui' are designed for
calculating isolated F[n] or F[n],F[n1] values efficiently.
For small n, a table of single limb values in `__gmp_fib_table' is
used. On a 32bit limb this goes up to F[47], or on a 64bit limb up
to F[93]. For convenience the table starts at F[1].
Beyond the table, values are generated with a binary powering
algorithm, calculating a pair F[n] and F[n1] working from high to low
across the bits of n. The formulas used are
F[2k+1] = 4*F[k]^2  F[k1]^2 + 2*(1)^k
F[2k1] = F[k]^2 + F[k1]^2
F[2k] = F[2k+1]  F[2k1]
At each step, k is the high b bits of n. If the next bit of n is 0
then F[2k],F[2k1] is used, or if it's a 1 then F[2k+1],F[2k] is used,
and the process repeated until all bits of n are incorporated. Notice
these formulas require just two squares per bit of n.
It'd be possible to handle the first few n above the single limb
table with simple additions, using the defining Fibonacci recurrence
F[k+1]=F[k]+F[k1], but this is not done since it usually turns out to
be faster for only about 10 or 20 values of n, and including a block of
code for just those doesn't seem worthwhile. If they really mattered
it'd be better to extend the data table.
Using a table avoids lots of calculations on small numbers, and
makes small n go fast. A bigger table would make more small n go fast,
it's just a question of balancing size against desired speed. For GMP
the code is kept compact, with the emphasis primarily on a good
powering algorithm.
`mpz_fib2_ui' returns both F[n] and F[n1], but `mpz_fib_ui' is only
interested in F[n]. In this case the last step of the algorithm can
become one multiply instead of two squares. One of the following two
formulas is used, according as n is odd or even.
F[2k] = F[k]*(F[k]+2F[k1])
F[2k+1] = (2F[k]+F[k1])*(2F[k]F[k1]) + 2*(1)^k
F[2k+1] here is the same as above, just rearranged to be a multiply.
For interest, the 2*(1)^k term both here and above can be applied just
to the low limb of the calculation, without a carry or borrow into
further limbs, which saves some code size. See comments with
`mpz_fib_ui' and the internal `mpn_fib2_ui' for how this is done.
File: gmp.info, Node: Lucas Numbers Algorithm, Next: Random Number Algorithms, Prev: Fibonacci Numbers Algorithm, Up: Other Algorithms
15.7.5 Lucas Numbers

`mpz_lucnum2_ui' derives a pair of Lucas numbers from a pair of
Fibonacci numbers with the following simple formulas.
L[k] = F[k] + 2*F[k1]
L[k1] = 2*F[k]  F[k1]
`mpz_lucnum_ui' is only interested in L[n], and some work can be
saved. Trailing zero bits on n can be handled with a single square
each.
L[2k] = L[k]^2  2*(1)^k
And the lowest 1 bit can be handled with one multiply of a pair of
Fibonacci numbers, similar to what `mpz_fib_ui' does.
L[2k+1] = 5*F[k1]*(2*F[k]+F[k1])  4*(1)^k
File: gmp.info, Node: Random Number Algorithms, Prev: Lucas Numbers Algorithm, Up: Other Algorithms
15.7.6 Random Numbers

For the `urandomb' functions, random numbers are generated simply by
concatenating bits produced by the generator. As long as the generator
has good randomness properties this will produce welldistributed N bit
numbers.
For the `urandomm' functions, random numbers in a range 0<=R48 bit pieces is convenient. With
some care though six 21x32>53 bit products can be used, if one of the
lower two 21bit pieces also uses the sign bit.
For the `mpn_mul_1' family of functions on a 64bit machine, the
invariant single limb is split at the start, into 3 or 4 pieces.
Inside the loop, the bignum operand is split into 32bit pieces. Fast
conversion of these unsigned 32bit pieces to floating point is highly
machinedependent. In some cases, reading the data into the integer
unit, zeroextending to 64bits, then transferring to the floating
point unit back via memory is the only option.
Converting partial products back to 64bit limbs is usually best
done as a signed conversion. Since all values are smaller than 2^53,
signed and unsigned are the same, but most processors lack unsigned
conversions.
Here is a diagram showing 16x32 bit products for an `mpn_mul_1' or
`mpn_addmul_1' with a 64bit limb. The single limb operand V is split
into four 16bit parts. The multilimb operand U is split in the loop
into two 32bit parts.
+++++
v48v32v16v00 V operand
+++++
++++
x  u32  u00  U operand (one limb)
++

++
 u00 x v00  p00 48bit products
++
++
 u00 x v16  p16
++
++
 u00 x v32  p32
++
++
 u00 x v48  p48
++
++
 u32 x v00  r32
++
++
 u32 x v16  r48
++
++
 u32 x v32  r64
++
++
 u32 x v48  r80
++
p32 and r32 can be summed using floatingpoint addition, and
likewise p48 and r48. p00 and p16 can be summed with r64 and r80 from
the previous iteration.
For each loop then, four 49bit quantities are transferred to the
integer unit, aligned as follows,
64bits64bits
++
 p00 + r64'  i00
++
++
 p16 + r80'  i16
++
++
 p32 + r32  i32
++
++
 p48 + r48  i48
++
The challenge then is to sum these efficiently and add in a carry
limb, generating a low 64bit result limb and a high 33bit carry limb
(i48 extends 33 bits into the high half).
File: gmp.info, Node: Assembly SIMD Instructions, Next: Assembly Software Pipelining, Prev: Assembly Floating Point, Up: Assembly Coding
15.8.7 SIMD Instructions

The singleinstruction multipledata support in current microprocessors
is aimed at signal processing algorithms where each data point can be
treated more or less independently. There's generally not much support
for propagating the sort of carries that arise in GMP.
SIMD multiplications of say four 16x16 bit multiplies only do as much
work as one 32x32 from GMP's point of view, and need some shifts and
adds besides. But of course if say the SIMD form is fully pipelined
and uses less instruction decoding then it may still be worthwhile.
On the x86 chips, MMX has so far found a use in `mpn_rshift' and
`mpn_lshift', and is used in a special case for 16bit multipliers in
the P55 `mpn_mul_1'. SSE2 is used for Pentium 4 `mpn_mul_1',
`mpn_addmul_1', and `mpn_submul_1'.
File: gmp.info, Node: Assembly Software Pipelining, Next: Assembly Loop Unrolling, Prev: Assembly SIMD Instructions, Up: Assembly Coding
15.8.8 Software Pipelining

Software pipelining consists of scheduling instructions around the
branch point in a loop. For example a loop might issue a load not for
use in the present iteration but the next, thereby allowing extra
cycles for the data to arrive from memory.
Naturally this is wanted only when doing things like loads or
multiplies that take several cycles to complete, and only where a CPU
has multiple functional units so that other work can be done in the
meantime.
A pipeline with several stages will have a data value in progress at
each stage and each loop iteration moves them along one stage. This is
like juggling.
If the latency of some instruction is greater than the loop time
then it will be necessary to unroll, so one register has a result ready
to use while another (or multiple others) are still in progress.
(*note Assembly Loop Unrolling::).
File: gmp.info, Node: Assembly Loop Unrolling, Next: Assembly Writing Guide, Prev: Assembly Software Pipelining, Up: Assembly Coding
15.8.9 Loop Unrolling

Loop unrolling consists of replicating code so that several limbs are
processed in each loop. At a minimum this reduces loop overheads by a
corresponding factor, but it can also allow better register usage, for
example alternately using one register combination and then another.
Judicious use of `m4' macros can help avoid lots of duplication in the
source code.
Any amount of unrolling can be handled with a loop counter that's
decremented by N each time, stopping when the remaining count is less
than the further N the loop will process. Or by subtracting N at the
start, the termination condition becomes when the counter C is less
than 0 (and the count of remaining limbs is C+N).
Alternately for a power of 2 unroll the loop count and remainder can
be established with a shift and mask. This is convenient if also
making a computed jump into the middle of a large loop.
The limbs not a multiple of the unrolling can be handled in various
ways, for example
* A simple loop at the end (or the start) to process the excess.
Care will be wanted that it isn't too much slower than the
unrolled part.
* A set of binary tests, for example after an 8limb unrolling, test
for 4 more limbs to process, then a further 2 more or not, and
finally 1 more or not. This will probably take more code space
than a simple loop.
* A `switch' statement, providing separate code for each possible
excess, for example an 8limb unrolling would have separate code
for 0 remaining, 1 remaining, etc, up to 7 remaining. This might
take a lot of code, but may be the best way to optimize all cases
in combination with a deep pipelined loop.
* A computed jump into the middle of the loop, thus making the first
iteration handle the excess. This should make times smoothly
increase with size, which is attractive, but setups for the jump
and adjustments for pointers can be tricky and could become quite
difficult in combination with deep pipelining.
File: gmp.info, Node: Assembly Writing Guide, Prev: Assembly Loop Unrolling, Up: Assembly Coding
15.8.10 Writing Guide

This is a guide to writing software pipelined loops for processing limb
vectors in assembly.
First determine the algorithm and which instructions are needed.
Code it without unrolling or scheduling, to make sure it works. On a
3operand CPU try to write each new value to a new register, this will
greatly simplify later steps.
Then note for each instruction the functional unit and/or issue port
requirements. If an instruction can use either of two units, like U0
or U1 then make a category "U0/U1". Count the total using each unit
(or combined unit), and count all instructions.
Figure out from those counts the best possible loop time. The goal
will be to find a perfect schedule where instruction latencies are
completely hidden. The total instruction count might be the limiting
factor, or perhaps a particular functional unit. It might be possible
to tweak the instructions to help the limiting factor.
Suppose the loop time is N, then make N issue buckets, with the
final loop branch at the end of the last. Now fill the buckets with
dummy instructions using the functional units desired. Run this to
make sure the intended speed is reached.
Now replace the dummy instructions with the real instructions from
the slow but correct loop you started with. The first will typically
be a load instruction. Then the instruction using that value is placed
in a bucket an appropriate distance down. Run the loop again, to check
it still runs at target speed.
Keep placing instructions, frequently measuring the loop. After a
few you will need to wrap around from the last bucket back to the top
of the loop. If you used the newregister for newvalue strategy above
then there will be no register conflicts. If not then take care not to
clobber something already in use. Changing registers at this time is
very error prone.
The loop will overlap two or more of the original loop iterations,
and the computation of one vector element result will be started in one
iteration of the new loop, and completed one or several iterations
later.
The final step is to create feedin and winddown code for the loop.
A good way to do this is to make a copy (or copies) of the loop at the
start and delete those instructions which don't have valid antecedents,
and at the end replicate and delete those whose results are unwanted
(including any further loads).
The loop will have a minimum number of limbs loaded and processed,
so the feedin code must test if the request size is smaller and skip
either to a suitable part of the winddown or to special code for small
sizes.
File: gmp.info, Node: Internals, Next: Contributors, Prev: Algorithms, Up: Top
16 Internals
************
*This chapter is provided only for informational purposes and the
various internals described here may change in future GMP releases.
Applications expecting to be compatible with future releases should use
only the documented interfaces described in previous chapters.*
* Menu:
* Integer Internals::
* Rational Internals::
* Float Internals::
* Raw Output Internals::
* C++ Interface Internals::
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Internals, Next: Rational Internals, Prev: Internals, Up: Internals
16.1 Integer Internals
======================
`mpz_t' variables represent integers using sign and magnitude, in space
dynamically allocated and reallocated. The fields are as follows.
`_mp_size'
The number of limbs, or the negative of that when representing a
negative integer. Zero is represented by `_mp_size' set to zero,
in which case the `_mp_d' data is unused.
`_mp_d'
A pointer to an array of limbs which is the magnitude. These are
stored "little endian" as per the `mpn' functions, so `_mp_d[0]'
is the least significant limb and `_mp_d[ABS(_mp_size)1]' is the
most significant. Whenever `_mp_size' is nonzero, the most
significant limb is nonzero.
Currently there's always at least one limb allocated, so for
instance `mpz_set_ui' never needs to reallocate, and `mpz_get_ui'
can fetch `_mp_d[0]' unconditionally (though its value is then
only wanted if `_mp_size' is nonzero).
`_mp_alloc'
`_mp_alloc' is the number of limbs currently allocated at `_mp_d',
and naturally `_mp_alloc >= ABS(_mp_size)'. When an `mpz' routine
is about to (or might be about to) increase `_mp_size', it checks
`_mp_alloc' to see whether there's enough space, and reallocates
if not. `MPZ_REALLOC' is generally used for this.
The various bitwise logical functions like `mpz_and' behave as if
negative values were twos complement. But sign and magnitude is always
used internally, and necessary adjustments are made during the
calculations. Sometimes this isn't pretty, but sign and magnitude are
best for other routines.
Some internal temporary variables are setup with `MPZ_TMP_INIT' and
these have `_mp_d' space obtained from `TMP_ALLOC' rather than the
memory allocation functions. Care is taken to ensure that these are
big enough that no reallocation is necessary (since it would have
unpredictable consequences).
`_mp_size' and `_mp_alloc' are `int', although `mp_size_t' is
usually a `long'. This is done to make the fields just 32 bits on some
64 bits systems, thereby saving a few bytes of data space but still
providing plenty of range.
File: gmp.info, Node: Rational Internals, Next: Float Internals, Prev: Integer Internals, Up: Internals
16.2 Rational Internals
=======================
`mpq_t' variables represent rationals using an `mpz_t' numerator and
denominator (*note Integer Internals::).
The canonical form adopted is denominator positive (and nonzero),
no common factors between numerator and denominator, and zero uniquely
represented as 0/1.
It's believed that casting out common factors at each stage of a
calculation is best in general. A GCD is an O(N^2) operation so it's
better to do a few small ones immediately than to delay and have to do
a big one later. Knowing the numerator and denominator have no common
factors can be used for example in `mpq_mul' to make only two cross
GCDs necessary, not four.
This general approach to common factors is badly suboptimal in the
presence of simple factorizations or little prospect for cancellation,
but GMP has no way to know when this will occur. As per *note
Efficiency::, that's left to applications. The `mpq_t' framework might
still suit, with `mpq_numref' and `mpq_denref' for direct access to the
numerator and denominator, or of course `mpz_t' variables can be used
directly.
File: gmp.info, Node: Float Internals, Next: Raw Output Internals, Prev: Rational Internals, Up: Internals
16.3 Float Internals
====================
Efficient calculation is the primary aim of GMP floats and the use of
whole limbs and simple rounding facilitates this.
`mpf_t' floats have a variable precision mantissa and a single
machine word signed exponent. The mantissa is represented using sign
and magnitude.
most least
significant significant
limb limb
_mp_d
 _mp_exp > 
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____
_________________________
. < radix point
< _mp_size >
The fields are as follows.
`_mp_size'
The number of limbs currently in use, or the negative of that when
representing a negative value. Zero is represented by `_mp_size'
and `_mp_exp' both set to zero, and in that case the `_mp_d' data
is unused. (In the future `_mp_exp' might be undefined when
representing zero.)
`_mp_prec'
The precision of the mantissa, in limbs. In any calculation the
aim is to produce `_mp_prec' limbs of result (the most significant
being nonzero).
`_mp_d'
A pointer to the array of limbs which is the absolute value of the
mantissa. These are stored "little endian" as per the `mpn'
functions, so `_mp_d[0]' is the least significant limb and
`_mp_d[ABS(_mp_size)1]' the most significant.
The most significant limb is always nonzero, but there are no
other restrictions on its value, in particular the highest 1 bit
can be anywhere within the limb.
`_mp_prec+1' limbs are allocated to `_mp_d', the extra limb being
for convenience (see below). There are no reallocations during a
calculation, only in a change of precision with `mpf_set_prec'.
`_mp_exp'
The exponent, in limbs, determining the location of the implied
radix point. Zero means the radix point is just above the most
significant limb. Positive values mean a radix point offset
towards the lower limbs and hence a value >= 1, as for example in
the diagram above. Negative exponents mean a radix point further
above the highest limb.
Naturally the exponent can be any value, it doesn't have to fall
within the limbs as the diagram shows, it can be a long way above
or a long way below. Limbs other than those included in the
`{_mp_d,_mp_size}' data are treated as zero.
The `_mp_size' and `_mp_prec' fields are `int', although the
`mp_size_t' type is usually a `long'. The `_mp_exp' field is usually
`long'. This is done to make some fields just 32 bits on some 64 bits
systems, thereby saving a few bytes of data space but still providing
plenty of precision and a very large range.
The following various points should be noted.
Low Zeros
The least significant limbs `_mp_d[0]' etc can be zero, though
such low zeros can always be ignored. Routines likely to produce
low zeros check and avoid them to save time in subsequent
calculations, but for most routines they're quite unlikely and
aren't checked.
Mantissa Size Range
The `_mp_size' count of limbs in use can be less than `_mp_prec' if
the value can be represented in less. This means low precision
values or small integers stored in a high precision `mpf_t' can
still be operated on efficiently.
`_mp_size' can also be greater than `_mp_prec'. Firstly a value is
allowed to use all of the `_mp_prec+1' limbs available at `_mp_d',
and secondly when `mpf_set_prec_raw' lowers `_mp_prec' it leaves
`_mp_size' unchanged and so the size can be arbitrarily bigger than
`_mp_prec'.
Rounding
All rounding is done on limb boundaries. Calculating `_mp_prec'
limbs with the high nonzero will ensure the application requested
minimum precision is obtained.
The use of simple "trunc" rounding towards zero is efficient,
since there's no need to examine extra limbs and increment or
decrement.
Bit Shifts
Since the exponent is in limbs, there are no bit shifts in basic
operations like `mpf_add' and `mpf_mul'. When differing exponents
are encountered all that's needed is to adjust pointers to line up
the relevant limbs.
Of course `mpf_mul_2exp' and `mpf_div_2exp' will require bit
shifts, but the choice is between an exponent in limbs which
requires shifts there, or one in bits which requires them almost
everywhere else.
Use of `_mp_prec+1' Limbs
The extra limb on `_mp_d' (`_mp_prec+1' rather than just
`_mp_prec') helps when an `mpf' routine might get a carry from its
operation. `mpf_add' for instance will do an `mpn_add' of
`_mp_prec' limbs. If there's no carry then that's the result, but
if there is a carry then it's stored in the extra limb of space and
`_mp_size' becomes `_mp_prec+1'.
Whenever `_mp_prec+1' limbs are held in a variable, the low limb
is not needed for the intended precision, only the `_mp_prec' high
limbs. But zeroing it out or moving the rest down is unnecessary.
Subsequent routines reading the value will simply take the high
limbs they need, and this will be `_mp_prec' if their target has
that same precision. This is no more than a pointer adjustment,
and must be checked anyway since the destination precision can be
different from the sources.
Copy functions like `mpf_set' will retain a full `_mp_prec+1' limbs
if available. This ensures that a variable which has `_mp_size'
equal to `_mp_prec+1' will get its full exact value copied.
Strictly speaking this is unnecessary since only `_mp_prec' limbs
are needed for the application's requested precision, but it's
considered that an `mpf_set' from one variable into another of the
same precision ought to produce an exact copy.
Application Precisions
`__GMPF_BITS_TO_PREC' converts an application requested precision
to an `_mp_prec'. The value in bits is rounded up to a whole limb
then an extra limb is added since the most significant limb of
`_mp_d' is only nonzero and therefore might contain only one bit.
`__GMPF_PREC_TO_BITS' does the reverse conversion, and removes the
extra limb from `_mp_prec' before converting to bits. The net
effect of reading back with `mpf_get_prec' is simply the precision
rounded up to a multiple of `mp_bits_per_limb'.
Note that the extra limb added here for the high only being
nonzero is in addition to the extra limb allocated to `_mp_d'.
For example with a 32bit limb, an application request for 250
bits will be rounded up to 8 limbs, then an extra added for the
high being only nonzero, giving an `_mp_prec' of 9. `_mp_d' then
gets 10 limbs allocated. Reading back with `mpf_get_prec' will
take `_mp_prec' subtract 1 limb and multiply by 32, giving 256
bits.
Strictly speaking, the fact the high limb has at least one bit
means that a float with, say, 3 limbs of 32bits each will be
holding at least 65 bits, but for the purposes of `mpf_t' it's
considered simply to be 64 bits, a nice multiple of the limb size.
File: gmp.info, Node: Raw Output Internals, Next: C++ Interface Internals, Prev: Float Internals, Up: Internals
16.4 Raw Output Internals
=========================
`mpz_out_raw' uses the following format.
+++
 size  data bytes 
+++
The size is 4 bytes written most significant byte first, being the
number of subsequent data bytes, or the twos complement negative of
that when a negative integer is represented. The data bytes are the
absolute value of the integer, written most significant byte first.
The most significant data byte is always nonzero, so the output is
the same on all systems, irrespective of limb size.
In GMP 1, leading zero bytes were written to pad the data bytes to a
multiple of the limb size. `mpz_inp_raw' will still accept this, for
compatibility.
The use of "big endian" for both the size and data fields is
deliberate, it makes the data easy to read in a hex dump of a file.
Unfortunately it also means that the limb data must be reversed when
reading or writing, so neither a big endian nor little endian system
can just read and write `_mp_d'.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface Internals, Prev: Raw Output Internals, Up: Internals
16.5 C++ Interface Internals
============================
A system of expression templates is used to ensure something like
`a=b+c' turns into a simple call to `mpz_add' etc. For `mpf_class' the
scheme also ensures the precision of the final destination is used for
any temporaries within a statement like `f=w*x+y*z'. These are
important features which a naive implementation cannot provide.
A simplified description of the scheme follows. The true scheme is
complicated by the fact that expressions have different return types.
For detailed information, refer to the source code.
To perform an operation, say, addition, we first define a "function
object" evaluating it,
struct __gmp_binary_plus
{
static void eval(mpf_t f, mpf_t g, mpf_t h) { mpf_add(f, g, h); }
};
And an "additive expression" object,
__gmp_expr<__gmp_binary_expr >
operator+(const mpf_class &f, const mpf_class &g)
{
return __gmp_expr
<__gmp_binary_expr >(f, g);
}
The seemingly redundant `__gmp_expr<__gmp_binary_expr<...>>' is used
to encapsulate any possible kind of expression into a single template
type. In fact even `mpf_class' etc are `typedef' specializations of
`__gmp_expr'.
Next we define assignment of `__gmp_expr' to `mpf_class'.
template
mpf_class & mpf_class::operator=(const __gmp_expr &expr)
{
expr.eval(this>get_mpf_t(), this>precision());
return *this;
}
template
void __gmp_expr<__gmp_binary_expr >::eval
(mpf_t f, mp_bitcnt_t precision)
{
Op::eval(f, expr.val1.get_mpf_t(), expr.val2.get_mpf_t());
}
where `expr.val1' and `expr.val2' are references to the expression's
operands (here `expr' is the `__gmp_binary_expr' stored within the
`__gmp_expr').
This way, the expression is actually evaluated only at the time of
assignment, when the required precision (that of `f') is known.
Furthermore the target `mpf_t' is now available, thus we can call
`mpf_add' directly with `f' as the output argument.
Compound expressions are handled by defining operators taking
subexpressions as their arguments, like this:
template
__gmp_expr
<__gmp_binary_expr<__gmp_expr, __gmp_expr, __gmp_binary_plus> >
operator+(const __gmp_expr &expr1, const __gmp_expr &expr2)
{
return __gmp_expr
<__gmp_binary_expr<__gmp_expr, __gmp_expr, __gmp_binary_plus> >
(expr1, expr2);
}
And the corresponding specializations of `__gmp_expr::eval':
template
void __gmp_expr
<__gmp_binary_expr<__gmp_expr, __gmp_expr, Op> >::eval
(mpf_t f, mp_bitcnt_t precision)
{
// declare two temporaries
mpf_class temp1(expr.val1, precision), temp2(expr.val2, precision);
Op::eval(f, temp1.get_mpf_t(), temp2.get_mpf_t());
}
The expression is thus recursively evaluated to any level of
complexity and all subexpressions are evaluated to the precision of `f'.
File: gmp.info, Node: Contributors, Next: References, Prev: Internals, Up: Top
Appendix A Contributors
***********************
Torbjrn Granlund wrote the original GMP library and is still the main
developer. Code not explicitly attributed to others, was contributed by
Torbjrn. Several other individuals and organizations have contributed
GMP. Here is a list in chronological order on first contribution:
Gunnar Sjdin and Hans Riesel helped with mathematical problems in
early versions of the library.
Richard Stallman helped with the interface design and revised the
first version of this manual.
Brian Beuning and Doug Lea helped with testing of early versions of
the library and made creative suggestions.
John Amanatides of York University in Canada contributed the function
`mpz_probab_prime_p'.
Paul Zimmermann wrote the REDCbased mpz_powm code, the
SchnhageStrassen FFT multiply code, and the Karatsuba square root
code. He also improved the Toom3 code for GMP 4.2. Paul sparked the
development of GMP 2, with his comparisons between bignum packages.
The ECMNET project Paul is organizing was a driving force behind many
of the optimizations in GMP 3. Paul also wrote the new GMP 4.3 nth
root code (with Torbjrn).
Ken Weber (Kent State University, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul) contributed now defunct versions of `mpz_gcd', `mpz_divexact',
`mpn_gcd', and `mpn_bdivmod', partially supported by CNPq (Brazil)
grant 3013141942.
Per Bothner of Cygnus Support helped to set up GMP to use Cygnus'
configure. He has also made valuable suggestions and tested numerous
intermediary releases.
Joachim Hollman was involved in the design of the `mpf' interface,
and in the `mpz' design revisions for version 2.
Bennet Yee contributed the initial versions of `mpz_jacobi' and
`mpz_legendre'.
Andreas Schwab contributed the files `mpn/m68k/lshift.S' and
`mpn/m68k/rshift.S' (now in `.asm' form).
Robert Harley of Inria, France and David Seal of ARM, England,
suggested clever improvements for population count. Robert also wrote
highly optimized Karatsuba and 3way Toom multiplication functions for
GMP 3, and contributed the ARM assembly code.
Torsten Ekedahl of the Mathematical department of Stockholm
University provided significant inspiration during several phases of
the GMP development. His mathematical expertise helped improve several
algorithms.
Linus Nordberg wrote the new configure system based on autoconf and
implemented the new random functions.
Kevin Ryde worked on a large number of things: optimized x86 code,
m4 asm macros, parameter tuning, speed measuring, the configure system,
function inlining, divisibility tests, bit scanning, Jacobi symbols,
Fibonacci and Lucas number functions, printf and scanf functions, perl
interface, demo expression parser, the algorithms chapter in the
manual, `gmpasmmode.el', and various miscellaneous improvements
elsewhere.
Kent Boortz made the Mac OS 9 port.
Steve Root helped write the optimized alpha 21264 assembly code.
Gerardo Ballabio wrote the `gmpxx.h' C++ class interface and the C++
`istream' input routines.
Jason Moxham rewrote `mpz_fac_ui'.
Pedro Gimeno implemented the Mersenne Twister and made other random
number improvements.
Niels Mller wrote the subquadratic GCD, extended GCD and jacobi
code, the quadratic Hensel division code, and (with Torbjrn) the new
divide and conquer division code for GMP 4.3. Niels also helped
implement the new Toom multiply code for GMP 4.3 and implemented helper
functions to simplify Toom evaluations for GMP 5.0. He wrote the
original version of mpn_mulmod_bnm1, and he is the main author of the
minigmp package used for gmp bootstrapping.
Alberto Zanoni and Marco Bodrato suggested the unbalanced multiply
strategy, and found the optimal strategies for evaluation and
interpolation in Toom multiplication.
Marco Bodrato helped implement the new Toom multiply code for GMP
4.3 and implemented most of the new Toom multiply and squaring code for
5.0. He is the main author of the current mpn_mulmod_bnm1 and
mpn_mullo_n. Marco also wrote the functions mpn_invert and
mpn_invertappr. He is the author of the current combinatorial
functions: binomial, factorial, multifactorial, primorial.
David Harvey suggested the internal function `mpn_bdiv_dbm1',
implementing division relevant to Toom multiplication. He also worked
on fast assembly sequences, in particular on a fast AMD64
`mpn_mul_basecase'. He wrote the internal middle product functions
`mpn_mulmid_basecase', `mpn_toom42_mulmid', `mpn_mulmid_n' and related
helper routines.
Martin Boij wrote `mpn_perfect_power_p'.
Marc Glisse improved `gmpxx.h': use fewer temporaries (faster),
specializations of `numeric_limits' and `common_type', C++11 features
(move constructors, explicit bool conversion, UDL), make the conversion
from `mpq_class' to `mpz_class' explicit, optimize operations where one
argument is a small compiletime constant, replace some heap
allocations by stack allocations. He also fixed the eofbit handling of
C++ streams, and removed one division from `mpq/aors.c'.
(This list is chronological, not ordered after significance. If you
have contributed to GMP but are not listed above, please tell
about the omission!)
The development of floating point functions of GNU MP 2, were
supported in part by the ESPRITBRA (Basic Research Activities) 6846
project POSSO (POlynomial System SOlving).
The development of GMP 2, 3, and 4 was supported in part by the IDA
Center for Computing Sciences.
Thanks go to Hans Thorsen for donating an SGI system for the GMP
test system environment.
File: gmp.info, Node: References, Next: GNU Free Documentation License, Prev: Contributors, Up: Top
Appendix B References
*********************
B.1 Books
=========
* Jonathan M. Borwein and Peter B. Borwein, "Pi and the AGM: A Study
in Analytic Number Theory and Computational Complexity", Wiley,
1998.
* Richard Crandall and Carl Pomerance, "Prime Numbers: A
Computational Perspective", 2nd edition, SpringerVerlag, 2005.
`http://www.math.dartmouth.edu/~carlp/'
* Henri Cohen, "A Course in Computational Algebraic Number Theory",
Graduate Texts in Mathematics number 138, SpringerVerlag, 1993.
`http://www.math.ubordeaux.fr/~cohen/'
* Donald E. Knuth, "The Art of Computer Programming", volume 2,
"Seminumerical Algorithms", 3rd edition, AddisonWesley, 1998.
`http://wwwcsfaculty.stanford.edu/~knuth/taocp.html'
* John D. Lipson, "Elements of Algebra and Algebraic Computing", The
Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company Inc, 1981.
* Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot and Scott A. Vanstone,
"Handbook of Applied Cryptography",
`http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/hac/'
* Richard M. Stallman and the GCC Developer Community, "Using the
GNU Compiler Collection", Free Software Foundation, 2008,
available online `http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/', and in the GCC
package `ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/'
B.2 Papers
==========
* Yves Bertot, Nicolas Magaud and Paul Zimmermann, "A Proof of GMP
Square Root", Journal of Automated Reasoning, volume 29, 2002, pp.
225252. Also available online as INRIA Research Report 4475,
June 2002, `http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/07/21/13/PDF/RR4475.pdf'
* Christoph Burnikel and Joachim Ziegler, "Fast Recursive Division",
MaxPlanckInstitut fuer Informatik Research Report MPII981022,
`http://data.mpisb.mpg.de/internet/reports.nsf/NumberView/19981022'
* Torbjrn Granlund and Peter L. Montgomery, "Division by Invariant
Integers using Multiplication", in Proceedings of the SIGPLAN
PLDI'94 Conference, June 1994. Also available
`http://gmplib.org/~tege/divcnstpldi94.pdf'.
* Niels Mller and Torbjrn Granlund, "Improved division by invariant
integers", IEEE Transactions on Computers, 11 June 2010.
`http://gmplib.org/~tege/divisionpaper.pdf'
* Torbjrn Granlund and Niels Mller, "Division of integers large and
small", to appear.
* Tudor Jebelean, "An algorithm for exact division", Journal of
Symbolic Computation, volume 15, 1993, pp. 169180. Research
report version available
`ftp://ftp.risc.unilinz.ac.at/pub/techreports/1992/9235.ps.gz'
* Tudor Jebelean, "Exact Division with Karatsuba Complexity 
Extended Abstract", RISCLinz technical report 9631,
`ftp://ftp.risc.unilinz.ac.at/pub/techreports/1996/9631.ps.gz'
* Tudor Jebelean, "Practical Integer Division with Karatsuba
Complexity", ISSAC 97, pp. 339341. Technical report available
`ftp://ftp.risc.unilinz.ac.at/pub/techreports/1996/9629.ps.gz'
* Tudor Jebelean, "A Generalization of the Binary GCD Algorithm",
ISSAC 93, pp. 111116. Technical report version available
`ftp://ftp.risc.unilinz.ac.at/pub/techreports/1993/9301.ps.gz'
* Tudor Jebelean, "A DoubleDigit LehmerEuclid Algorithm for
Finding the GCD of Long Integers", Journal of Symbolic
Computation, volume 19, 1995, pp. 145157. Technical report
version also available
`ftp://ftp.risc.unilinz.ac.at/pub/techreports/1992/9269.ps.gz'
* Werner Krandick and Tudor Jebelean, "Bidirectional Exact Integer
Division", Journal of Symbolic Computation, volume 21, 1996, pp.
441455. Early technical report version also available
`ftp://ftp.risc.unilinz.ac.at/pub/techreports/1994/9450.ps.gz'
* Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura, "Mersenne Twister: A
623dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number
generator", ACM Transactions on Modelling and Computer Simulation,
volume 8, January 1998, pp. 330. Available online
`http://www.math.sci.hiroshimau.ac.jp/~mmat/MT/ARTICLES/mt.ps.gz'
(or .pdf)
* R. Moenck and A. Borodin, "Fast Modular Transforms via Division",
Proceedings of the 13th Annual IEEE Symposium on Switching and
Automata Theory, October 1972, pp. 9096. Reprinted as "Fast
Modular Transforms", Journal of Computer and System Sciences,
volume 8, number 3, June 1974, pp. 366386.
* Niels Mller, "On Schnhage's algorithm and subquadratic integer
GCD computation", in Mathematics of Computation, volume 77,
January 2008, pp. 589607.
* Peter L. Montgomery, "Modular Multiplication Without Trial
Division", in Mathematics of Computation, volume 44, number 170,
April 1985.
* Arnold Schnhage and Volker Strassen, "Schnelle Multiplikation
grosser Zahlen", Computing 7, 1971, pp. 281292.
* Kenneth Weber, "The accelerated integer GCD algorithm", ACM
Transactions on Mathematical Software, volume 21, number 1, March
1995, pp. 111122.
* Paul Zimmermann, "Karatsuba Square Root", INRIA Research Report
3805, November 1999,
`http://hal.inria.fr/inria00072854/PDF/RR3805.pdf'
* Paul Zimmermann, "A Proof of GMP Fast Division and Square Root
Implementations",
`http://www.loria.fr/~zimmerma/papers/proofdivsqrt.ps.gz'
* Dan Zuras, "On Squaring and Multiplying Large Integers", ARITH11:
IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic, 1993, pp. 260 to 271.
Reprinted as "More on Multiplying and Squaring Large Integers",
IEEE Transactions on Computers, volume 43, number 8, August 1994,
pp. 899908.
File: gmp.info, Node: GNU Free Documentation License, Next: Concept Index, Prev: References, Up: Top
Appendix C GNU Free Documentation License
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File: gmp.info, Node: Concept Index, Next: Function Index, Prev: GNU Free Documentation License, Up: Top
Concept Index
*************
[index]
* Menu:
* #include: Headers and Libraries.
(line 6)
* build: Build Options. (line 52)
* disablefft: Build Options. (line 314)
* disableshared: Build Options. (line 45)
* disablestatic: Build Options. (line 45)
* enablealloca: Build Options. (line 275)
* enableassert: Build Options. (line 320)
* enablecxx: Build Options. (line 227)
* enablefat: Build Options. (line 162)
* enableprofiling <1>: Build Options. (line 324)
* enableprofiling: Profiling. (line 6)
* execprefix: Build Options. (line 32)
* host: Build Options. (line 66)
* prefix: Build Options. (line 32)
* finstrumentfunctions: Profiling. (line 66)
* 2exp functions: Efficiency. (line 43)
* 68000: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 80)
* 80x86: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 127)
* ABI <1>: Build Options. (line 169)
* ABI: ABI and ISA. (line 6)
* About this manual: Introduction to GMP. (line 58)
* AC_CHECK_LIB: Autoconf. (line 11)
* AIX <1>: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 7)
* AIX: ABI and ISA. (line 169)
* Algorithms: Algorithms. (line 6)
* alloca: Build Options. (line 275)
* Allocation of memory: Custom Allocation. (line 6)
* AMD64: ABI and ISA. (line 44)
* Anonymous FTP of latest version: Introduction to GMP. (line 38)
* Application Binary Interface: ABI and ISA. (line 6)
* Arithmetic functions <1>: Rational Arithmetic. (line 6)
* Arithmetic functions <2>: Float Arithmetic. (line 6)
* Arithmetic functions: Integer Arithmetic. (line 6)
* ARM: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 20)
* Assembly cache handling: Assembly Cache Handling.
(line 6)
* Assembly carry propagation: Assembly Carry Propagation.
(line 6)
* Assembly code organisation: Assembly Code Organisation.
(line 6)
* Assembly coding: Assembly Coding. (line 6)
* Assembly floating Point: Assembly Floating Point.
(line 6)
* Assembly loop unrolling: Assembly Loop Unrolling.
(line 6)
* Assembly SIMD: Assembly SIMD Instructions.
(line 6)
* Assembly software pipelining: Assembly Software Pipelining.
(line 6)
* Assembly writing guide: Assembly Writing Guide.
(line 6)
* Assertion checking <1>: Build Options. (line 320)
* Assertion checking: Debugging. (line 79)
* Assignment functions <1>: Assigning Integers. (line 6)
* Assignment functions <2>: Initializing Rationals.
(line 6)
* Assignment functions <3>: Assigning Floats. (line 6)
* Assignment functions <4>: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Assignment functions: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Autoconf: Autoconf. (line 6)
* Basics: GMP Basics. (line 6)
* Binomial coefficient algorithm: Binomial Coefficients Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Binomial coefficient functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 124)
* Binutils strip: Known Build Problems.
(line 28)
* Bit manipulation functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 6)
* Bit scanning functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 38)
* Bit shift left: Integer Arithmetic. (line 35)
* Bit shift right: Integer Division. (line 53)
* Bits per limb: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 7)
* Bug reporting: Reporting Bugs. (line 6)
* Build directory: Build Options. (line 19)
* Build notes for binary packaging: Notes for Package Builds.
(line 6)
* Build notes for particular systems: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 6)
* Build options: Build Options. (line 6)
* Build problems known: Known Build Problems.
(line 6)
* Build system: Build Options. (line 52)
* Building GMP: Installing GMP. (line 6)
* Bus error: Debugging. (line 7)
* C compiler: Build Options. (line 180)
* C++ compiler: Build Options. (line 251)
* C++ interface: C++ Class Interface. (line 6)
* C++ interface internals: C++ Interface Internals.
(line 6)
* C++ istream input: C++ Formatted Input. (line 6)
* C++ ostream output: C++ Formatted Output.
(line 6)
* C++ support: Build Options. (line 227)
* CC: Build Options. (line 180)
* CC_FOR_BUILD: Build Options. (line 214)
* CFLAGS: Build Options. (line 180)
* Checker: Debugging. (line 115)
* checkergcc: Debugging. (line 122)
* Code organisation: Assembly Code Organisation.
(line 6)
* Compaq C++: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 25)
* Comparison functions <1>: Comparing Rationals. (line 6)
* Comparison functions <2>: Float Comparison. (line 6)
* Comparison functions: Integer Comparisons. (line 6)
* Compatibility with older versions: Compatibility with older versions.
(line 6)
* Conditions for copying GNU MP: Copying. (line 6)
* Configuring GMP: Installing GMP. (line 6)
* Congruence algorithm: Exact Remainder. (line 30)
* Congruence functions: Integer Division. (line 124)
* Constants: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 6)
* Contributors: Contributors. (line 6)
* Conventions for parameters: Parameter Conventions.
(line 6)
* Conventions for variables: Variable Conventions.
(line 6)
* Conversion functions <1>: Converting Integers. (line 6)
* Conversion functions <2>: Converting Floats. (line 6)
* Conversion functions: Rational Conversions.
(line 6)
* Copying conditions: Copying. (line 6)
* CPPFLAGS: Build Options. (line 206)
* CPU types <1>: Introduction to GMP. (line 24)
* CPU types: Build Options. (line 108)
* Cross compiling: Build Options. (line 66)
* Custom allocation: Custom Allocation. (line 6)
* CXX: Build Options. (line 251)
* CXXFLAGS: Build Options. (line 251)
* Cygwin: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 43)
* Darwin: Known Build Problems.
(line 51)
* Debugging: Debugging. (line 6)
* Demonstration programs: Demonstration Programs.
(line 6)
* Digits in an integer: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 23)
* Divisibility algorithm: Exact Remainder. (line 30)
* Divisibility functions: Integer Division. (line 124)
* Divisibility testing: Efficiency. (line 91)
* Division algorithms: Division Algorithms. (line 6)
* Division functions <1>: Rational Arithmetic. (line 22)
* Division functions <2>: Float Arithmetic. (line 33)
* Division functions: Integer Division. (line 6)
* DJGPP <1>: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 43)
* DJGPP: Known Build Problems.
(line 18)
* DLLs: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 56)
* DocBook: Build Options. (line 347)
* Documentation formats: Build Options. (line 340)
* Documentation license: GNU Free Documentation License.
(line 6)
* DVI: Build Options. (line 343)
* Efficiency: Efficiency. (line 6)
* Emacs: Emacs. (line 6)
* Exact division functions: Integer Division. (line 102)
* Exact remainder: Exact Remainder. (line 6)
* Example programs: Demonstration Programs.
(line 6)
* Exec prefix: Build Options. (line 32)
* Execution profiling <1>: Profiling. (line 6)
* Execution profiling: Build Options. (line 324)
* Exponentiation functions <1>: Float Arithmetic. (line 41)
* Exponentiation functions: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 6)
* Export: Integer Import and Export.
(line 45)
* Expression parsing demo: Demonstration Programs.
(line 18)
* Extended GCD: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 49)
* Factor removal functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 105)
* Factorial algorithm: Factorial Algorithm. (line 6)
* Factorial functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 113)
* Factorization demo: Demonstration Programs.
(line 25)
* Fast Fourier Transform: FFT Multiplication. (line 6)
* Fat binary: Build Options. (line 162)
* FFT multiplication <1>: Build Options. (line 314)
* FFT multiplication: FFT Multiplication. (line 6)
* Fibonacci number algorithm: Fibonacci Numbers Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Fibonacci sequence functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 132)
* Float arithmetic functions: Float Arithmetic. (line 6)
* Float assignment functions <1>: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Float assignment functions: Assigning Floats. (line 6)
* Float comparison functions: Float Comparison. (line 6)
* Float conversion functions: Converting Floats. (line 6)
* Float functions: Floatingpoint Functions.
(line 6)
* Float initialization functions <1>: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Float initialization functions: Initializing Floats. (line 6)
* Float input and output functions: I/O of Floats. (line 6)
* Float internals: Float Internals. (line 6)
* Float miscellaneous functions: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 6)
* Float random number functions: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 27)
* Float rounding functions: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 9)
* Float sign tests: Float Comparison. (line 33)
* Floating point mode: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 34)
* Floatingpoint functions: Floatingpoint Functions.
(line 6)
* Floatingpoint number: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 21)
* fnccheck: Profiling. (line 77)
* Formatted input: Formatted Input. (line 6)
* Formatted output: Formatted Output. (line 6)
* Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License.
(line 6)
* frexp <1>: Converting Integers. (line 42)
* frexp: Converting Floats. (line 23)
* FTP of latest version: Introduction to GMP. (line 38)
* Function classes: Function Classes. (line 6)
* FunctionCheck: Profiling. (line 77)
* GCC Checker: Debugging. (line 115)
* GCD algorithms: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms.
(line 6)
* GCD extended: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 49)
* GCD functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 32)
* GDB: Debugging. (line 58)
* Generic C: Build Options. (line 153)
* GMP Perl module: Demonstration Programs.
(line 35)
* GMP version number: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 12)
* gmp.h: Headers and Libraries.
(line 6)
* gmpxx.h: C++ Interface General.
(line 8)
* GNU Debugger: Debugging. (line 58)
* GNU Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License.
(line 6)
* GNU strip: Known Build Problems.
(line 28)
* gprof: Profiling. (line 41)
* Greatest common divisor algorithms: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms.
(line 6)
* Greatest common divisor functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 32)
* Hardware floating point mode: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 34)
* Headers: Headers and Libraries.
(line 6)
* Heap problems: Debugging. (line 24)
* Home page: Introduction to GMP. (line 34)
* Host system: Build Options. (line 66)
* HPUX: ABI and ISA. (line 107)
* HPPA: ABI and ISA. (line 68)
* I/O functions <1>: I/O of Floats. (line 6)
* I/O functions <2>: I/O of Rationals. (line 6)
* I/O functions: I/O of Integers. (line 6)
* i386: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 127)
* IA64: ABI and ISA. (line 107)
* Import: Integer Import and Export.
(line 11)
* Inplace operations: Efficiency. (line 57)
* Include files: Headers and Libraries.
(line 6)
* infolookupsymbol: Emacs. (line 6)
* Initialization functions <1>: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Initialization functions <2>: Random State Initialization.
(line 6)
* Initialization functions <3>: Initializing Floats. (line 6)
* Initialization functions <4>: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Initialization functions <5>: Initializing Rationals.
(line 6)
* Initialization functions: Initializing Integers.
(line 6)
* Initializing and clearing: Efficiency. (line 21)
* Input functions <1>: I/O of Integers. (line 6)
* Input functions <2>: I/O of Rationals. (line 6)
* Input functions <3>: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 6)
* Input functions: I/O of Floats. (line 6)
* Install prefix: Build Options. (line 32)
* Installing GMP: Installing GMP. (line 6)
* Instruction Set Architecture: ABI and ISA. (line 6)
* instrumentfunctions: Profiling. (line 66)
* Integer: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 6)
* Integer arithmetic functions: Integer Arithmetic. (line 6)
* Integer assignment functions <1>: Assigning Integers. (line 6)
* Integer assignment functions: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Integer bit manipulation functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 6)
* Integer comparison functions: Integer Comparisons. (line 6)
* Integer conversion functions: Converting Integers. (line 6)
* Integer division functions: Integer Division. (line 6)
* Integer exponentiation functions: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 6)
* Integer export: Integer Import and Export.
(line 45)
* Integer functions: Integer Functions. (line 6)
* Integer import: Integer Import and Export.
(line 11)
* Integer initialization functions <1>: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 6)
* Integer initialization functions: Initializing Integers.
(line 6)
* Integer input and output functions: I/O of Integers. (line 6)
* Integer internals: Integer Internals. (line 6)
* Integer logical functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 6)
* Integer miscellaneous functions: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 6)
* Integer random number functions: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 6)
* Integer root functions: Integer Roots. (line 6)
* Integer sign tests: Integer Comparisons. (line 28)
* Integer special functions: Integer Special Functions.
(line 6)
* Interix: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 51)
* Internals: Internals. (line 6)
* Introduction: Introduction to GMP. (line 6)
* Inverse modulo functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 74)
* IRIX <1>: Known Build Problems.
(line 38)
* IRIX: ABI and ISA. (line 132)
* ISA: ABI and ISA. (line 6)
* istream input: C++ Formatted Input. (line 6)
* Jacobi symbol algorithm: Jacobi Symbol. (line 6)
* Jacobi symbol functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 81)
* Karatsuba multiplication: Karatsuba Multiplication.
(line 6)
* Karatsuba square root algorithm: Square Root Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Kronecker symbol functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 93)
* Language bindings: Language Bindings. (line 6)
* Latest version of GMP: Introduction to GMP. (line 38)
* LCM functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 69)
* Least common multiple functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 69)
* Legendre symbol functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 84)
* libgmp: Headers and Libraries.
(line 22)
* libgmpxx: Headers and Libraries.
(line 27)
* Libraries: Headers and Libraries.
(line 22)
* Libtool: Headers and Libraries.
(line 33)
* Libtool versioning: Notes for Package Builds.
(line 9)
* License conditions: Copying. (line 6)
* Limb: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 31)
* Limb size: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 7)
* Linear congruential algorithm: Random Number Algorithms.
(line 25)
* Linear congruential random numbers: Random State Initialization.
(line 32)
* Linking: Headers and Libraries.
(line 22)
* Logical functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 6)
* Lowlevel functions: Lowlevel Functions. (line 6)
* Lucas number algorithm: Lucas Numbers Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Lucas number functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 143)
* MacOS X: Known Build Problems.
(line 51)
* Mailing lists: Introduction to GMP. (line 45)
* Malloc debugger: Debugging. (line 30)
* Malloc problems: Debugging. (line 24)
* Memory allocation: Custom Allocation. (line 6)
* Memory management: Memory Management. (line 6)
* Mersenne twister algorithm: Random Number Algorithms.
(line 17)
* Mersenne twister random numbers: Random State Initialization.
(line 13)
* MINGW: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 43)
* MIPS: ABI and ISA. (line 132)
* Miscellaneous float functions: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 6)
* Miscellaneous integer functions: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 6)
* MMX: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 133)
* Modular inverse functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 74)
* Most significant bit: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 34)
* MPN_PATH: Build Options. (line 328)
* MS Windows: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 43)
* MSDOS: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 43)
* Multithreading: Reentrancy. (line 6)
* Multiplication algorithms: Multiplication Algorithms.
(line 6)
* Nails: Lowlevel Functions. (line 485)
* Native compilation: Build Options. (line 52)
* NeXT: Known Build Problems.
(line 57)
* Next prime function: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 25)
* Nomenclature: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 6)
* NonUnix systems: Build Options. (line 11)
* Nth root algorithm: Nth Root Algorithm. (line 6)
* Number sequences: Efficiency. (line 147)
* Number theoretic functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 6)
* Numerator and denominator: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 6)
* obstack output: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 81)
* OpenBSD: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 86)
* Optimizing performance: Performance optimization.
(line 6)
* ostream output: C++ Formatted Output.
(line 6)
* Other languages: Language Bindings. (line 6)
* Output functions <1>: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 6)
* Output functions <2>: I/O of Rationals. (line 6)
* Output functions <3>: I/O of Floats. (line 6)
* Output functions: I/O of Integers. (line 6)
* Packaged builds: Notes for Package Builds.
(line 6)
* Parameter conventions: Parameter Conventions.
(line 6)
* Parsing expressions demo: Demonstration Programs.
(line 15)
* Particular systems: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 6)
* Past GMP versions: Compatibility with older versions.
(line 6)
* PDF: Build Options. (line 343)
* Perfect power algorithm: Perfect Power Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Perfect power functions: Integer Roots. (line 27)
* Perfect square algorithm: Perfect Square Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Perfect square functions: Integer Roots. (line 36)
* perl: Demonstration Programs.
(line 35)
* Perl module: Demonstration Programs.
(line 35)
* Postscript: Build Options. (line 343)
* Power/PowerPC <1>: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 92)
* Power/PowerPC: Known Build Problems.
(line 63)
* Powering algorithms: Powering Algorithms. (line 6)
* Powering functions <1>: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 6)
* Powering functions: Float Arithmetic. (line 41)
* PowerPC: ABI and ISA. (line 167)
* Precision of floats: Floatingpoint Functions.
(line 6)
* Precision of hardware floating point: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 34)
* Prefix: Build Options. (line 32)
* Prime testing algorithms: Prime Testing Algorithm.
(line 6)
* Prime testing functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 7)
* Primorial functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 118)
* printf formatted output: Formatted Output. (line 6)
* Probable prime testing functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 7)
* prof: Profiling. (line 24)
* Profiling: Profiling. (line 6)
* Radix conversion algorithms: Radix Conversion Algorithms.
(line 6)
* Random number algorithms: Random Number Algorithms.
(line 6)
* Random number functions <1>: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 27)
* Random number functions <2>: Random Number Functions.
(line 6)
* Random number functions: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 6)
* Random number seeding: Random State Seeding.
(line 6)
* Random number state: Random State Initialization.
(line 6)
* Random state: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 46)
* Rational arithmetic: Efficiency. (line 113)
* Rational arithmetic functions: Rational Arithmetic. (line 6)
* Rational assignment functions: Initializing Rationals.
(line 6)
* Rational comparison functions: Comparing Rationals. (line 6)
* Rational conversion functions: Rational Conversions.
(line 6)
* Rational initialization functions: Initializing Rationals.
(line 6)
* Rational input and output functions: I/O of Rationals. (line 6)
* Rational internals: Rational Internals. (line 6)
* Rational number: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 16)
* Rational number functions: Rational Number Functions.
(line 6)
* Rational numerator and denominator: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 6)
* Rational sign tests: Comparing Rationals. (line 27)
* Raw output internals: Raw Output Internals.
(line 6)
* Reallocations: Efficiency. (line 30)
* Reentrancy: Reentrancy. (line 6)
* References: References. (line 6)
* Remove factor functions: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 105)
* Reporting bugs: Reporting Bugs. (line 6)
* Root extraction algorithm: Nth Root Algorithm. (line 6)
* Root extraction algorithms: Root Extraction Algorithms.
(line 6)
* Root extraction functions <1>: Integer Roots. (line 6)
* Root extraction functions: Float Arithmetic. (line 37)
* Root testing functions: Integer Roots. (line 36)
* Rounding functions: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 9)
* Sample programs: Demonstration Programs.
(line 6)
* Scan bit functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 38)
* scanf formatted input: Formatted Input. (line 6)
* SCO: Known Build Problems.
(line 38)
* Seeding random numbers: Random State Seeding.
(line 6)
* Segmentation violation: Debugging. (line 7)
* Sequent Symmetry: Known Build Problems.
(line 68)
* Services for Unix: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 51)
* Shared library versioning: Notes for Package Builds.
(line 9)
* Sign tests <1>: Integer Comparisons. (line 28)
* Sign tests <2>: Comparing Rationals. (line 27)
* Sign tests: Float Comparison. (line 33)
* Size in digits: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 23)
* Small operands: Efficiency. (line 7)
* Solaris <1>: Known Build Problems.
(line 72)
* Solaris <2>: ABI and ISA. (line 199)
* Solaris: Known Build Problems.
(line 78)
* Sparc: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 109)
* Sparc V9: ABI and ISA. (line 199)
* Special integer functions: Integer Special Functions.
(line 6)
* Square root algorithm: Square Root Algorithm.
(line 6)
* SSE2: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 133)
* Stack backtrace: Debugging. (line 50)
* Stack overflow <1>: Build Options. (line 275)
* Stack overflow: Debugging. (line 7)
* Static linking: Efficiency. (line 14)
* stdarg.h: Headers and Libraries.
(line 17)
* stdio.h: Headers and Libraries.
(line 11)
* Stripped libraries: Known Build Problems.
(line 28)
* Sun: ABI and ISA. (line 199)
* SunOS: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 121)
* Systems: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 6)
* Temporary memory: Build Options. (line 275)
* Texinfo: Build Options. (line 340)
* Text input/output: Efficiency. (line 153)
* Thread safety: Reentrancy. (line 6)
* Toom multiplication <1>: Other Multiplication.
(line 6)
* Toom multiplication <2>: Toom 3Way Multiplication.
(line 6)
* Toom multiplication <3>: Higher degree Toom'n'half.
(line 6)
* Toom multiplication: Toom 4Way Multiplication.
(line 6)
* Types: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 6)
* ui and si functions: Efficiency. (line 50)
* Unbalanced multiplication: Unbalanced Multiplication.
(line 6)
* Upward compatibility: Compatibility with older versions.
(line 6)
* Useful macros and constants: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 6)
* Userdefined precision: Floatingpoint Functions.
(line 6)
* Valgrind: Debugging. (line 130)
* Variable conventions: Variable Conventions.
(line 6)
* Version number: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 12)
* Web page: Introduction to GMP. (line 34)
* Windows: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 56)
* x86: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 127)
* x87: Notes for Particular Systems.
(line 34)
* XML: Build Options. (line 347)
File: gmp.info, Node: Function Index, Prev: Concept Index, Up: Top
Function and Type Index
***********************
[index]
* Menu:
* __GMP_CC: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 23)
* __GMP_CFLAGS: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 24)
* __GNU_MP_VERSION: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 10)
* __GNU_MP_VERSION_MINOR: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 11)
* __GNU_MP_VERSION_PATCHLEVEL: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 12)
* _mpz_realloc: Integer Special Functions.
(line 51)
* abs <1>: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 49)
* abs <2>: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 83)
* abs: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 47)
* ceil: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 84)
* cmp <1>: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 51)
* cmp <2>: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 49)
* cmp <3>: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 50)
* cmp: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 86)
* floor: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 93)
* gmp_asprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 65)
* gmp_errno: Random State Initialization.
(line 55)
* GMP_ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENT: Random State Initialization.
(line 55)
* GMP_ERROR_UNSUPPORTED_ARGUMENT: Random State Initialization.
(line 55)
* gmp_fprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 29)
* gmp_fscanf: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 25)
* GMP_LIMB_BITS: Lowlevel Functions. (line 515)
* GMP_NAIL_BITS: Lowlevel Functions. (line 513)
* GMP_NAIL_MASK: Lowlevel Functions. (line 523)
* GMP_NUMB_BITS: Lowlevel Functions. (line 514)
* GMP_NUMB_MASK: Lowlevel Functions. (line 524)
* GMP_NUMB_MAX: Lowlevel Functions. (line 532)
* gmp_obstack_printf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 79)
* gmp_obstack_vprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 81)
* gmp_printf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 24)
* GMP_RAND_ALG_DEFAULT: Random State Initialization.
(line 49)
* GMP_RAND_ALG_LC: Random State Initialization.
(line 49)
* gmp_randclass: C++ Interface Random Numbers.
(line 7)
* gmp_randclass::get_f: C++ Interface Random Numbers.
(line 46)
* gmp_randclass::get_z_bits: C++ Interface Random Numbers.
(line 38)
* gmp_randclass::get_z_range: C++ Interface Random Numbers.
(line 42)
* gmp_randclass::gmp_randclass: C++ Interface Random Numbers.
(line 13)
* gmp_randclass::seed: C++ Interface Random Numbers.
(line 33)
* gmp_randclear: Random State Initialization.
(line 62)
* gmp_randinit: Random State Initialization.
(line 47)
* gmp_randinit_default: Random State Initialization.
(line 7)
* gmp_randinit_lc_2exp: Random State Initialization.
(line 18)
* gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size: Random State Initialization.
(line 32)
* gmp_randinit_mt: Random State Initialization.
(line 13)
* gmp_randinit_set: Random State Initialization.
(line 43)
* gmp_randseed: Random State Seeding.
(line 7)
* gmp_randseed_ui: Random State Seeding.
(line 9)
* gmp_randstate_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 46)
* gmp_scanf: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 21)
* gmp_snprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 46)
* gmp_sprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 34)
* gmp_sscanf: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 29)
* gmp_urandomb_ui: Random State Miscellaneous.
(line 8)
* gmp_urandomm_ui: Random State Miscellaneous.
(line 14)
* gmp_vasprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 66)
* gmp_version: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 18)
* gmp_vfprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 30)
* gmp_vfscanf: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 26)
* gmp_vprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 25)
* gmp_vscanf: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 22)
* gmp_vsnprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 48)
* gmp_vsprintf: Formatted Output Functions.
(line 35)
* gmp_vsscanf: Formatted Input Functions.
(line 31)
* hypot: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 94)
* mp_bitcnt_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 42)
* mp_bits_per_limb: Useful Macros and Constants.
(line 7)
* mp_exp_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 27)
* mp_get_memory_functions: Custom Allocation. (line 90)
* mp_limb_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 31)
* mp_set_memory_functions: Custom Allocation. (line 18)
* mp_size_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 37)
* mpf_abs: Float Arithmetic. (line 47)
* mpf_add: Float Arithmetic. (line 7)
* mpf_add_ui: Float Arithmetic. (line 9)
* mpf_ceil: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 7)
* mpf_class: C++ Interface General.
(line 20)
* mpf_class::fits_sint_p: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 87)
* mpf_class::fits_slong_p: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 88)
* mpf_class::fits_sshort_p: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 89)
* mpf_class::fits_uint_p: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 90)
* mpf_class::fits_ulong_p: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 91)
* mpf_class::fits_ushort_p: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 92)
* mpf_class::get_d: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 95)
* mpf_class::get_mpf_t: C++ Interface General.
(line 66)
* mpf_class::get_prec: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 115)
* mpf_class::get_si: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 96)
* mpf_class::get_str: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 98)
* mpf_class::get_ui: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 99)
* mpf_class::mpf_class: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 12)
* mpf_class::operator=: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 60)
* mpf_class::set_prec: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 116)
* mpf_class::set_prec_raw: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 117)
* mpf_class::set_str: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 101)
* mpf_class::swap: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 104)
* mpf_clear: Initializing Floats. (line 37)
* mpf_clears: Initializing Floats. (line 41)
* mpf_cmp: Float Comparison. (line 7)
* mpf_cmp_d: Float Comparison. (line 8)
* mpf_cmp_si: Float Comparison. (line 10)
* mpf_cmp_ui: Float Comparison. (line 9)
* mpf_div: Float Arithmetic. (line 29)
* mpf_div_2exp: Float Arithmetic. (line 53)
* mpf_div_ui: Float Arithmetic. (line 33)
* mpf_eq: Float Comparison. (line 17)
* mpf_fits_sint_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 20)
* mpf_fits_slong_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 18)
* mpf_fits_sshort_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 22)
* mpf_fits_uint_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 19)
* mpf_fits_ulong_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 17)
* mpf_fits_ushort_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 21)
* mpf_floor: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 8)
* mpf_get_d: Converting Floats. (line 7)
* mpf_get_d_2exp: Converting Floats. (line 16)
* mpf_get_default_prec: Initializing Floats. (line 12)
* mpf_get_prec: Initializing Floats. (line 62)
* mpf_get_si: Converting Floats. (line 27)
* mpf_get_str: Converting Floats. (line 37)
* mpf_get_ui: Converting Floats. (line 28)
* mpf_init: Initializing Floats. (line 19)
* mpf_init2: Initializing Floats. (line 26)
* mpf_init_set: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 16)
* mpf_init_set_d: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 19)
* mpf_init_set_si: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 18)
* mpf_init_set_str: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 25)
* mpf_init_set_ui: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign.
(line 17)
* mpf_inits: Initializing Floats. (line 31)
* mpf_inp_str: I/O of Floats. (line 39)
* mpf_integer_p: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 14)
* mpf_mul: Float Arithmetic. (line 19)
* mpf_mul_2exp: Float Arithmetic. (line 50)
* mpf_mul_ui: Float Arithmetic. (line 21)
* mpf_neg: Float Arithmetic. (line 44)
* mpf_out_str: I/O of Floats. (line 19)
* mpf_pow_ui: Float Arithmetic. (line 41)
* mpf_random2: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 37)
* mpf_reldiff: Float Comparison. (line 29)
* mpf_set: Assigning Floats. (line 10)
* mpf_set_d: Assigning Floats. (line 13)
* mpf_set_default_prec: Initializing Floats. (line 7)
* mpf_set_prec: Initializing Floats. (line 65)
* mpf_set_prec_raw: Initializing Floats. (line 72)
* mpf_set_q: Assigning Floats. (line 15)
* mpf_set_si: Assigning Floats. (line 12)
* mpf_set_str: Assigning Floats. (line 18)
* mpf_set_ui: Assigning Floats. (line 11)
* mpf_set_z: Assigning Floats. (line 14)
* mpf_sgn: Float Comparison. (line 33)
* mpf_sqrt: Float Arithmetic. (line 36)
* mpf_sqrt_ui: Float Arithmetic. (line 37)
* mpf_sub: Float Arithmetic. (line 12)
* mpf_sub_ui: Float Arithmetic. (line 16)
* mpf_swap: Assigning Floats. (line 52)
* mpf_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 21)
* mpf_trunc: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 9)
* mpf_ui_div: Float Arithmetic. (line 31)
* mpf_ui_sub: Float Arithmetic. (line 14)
* mpf_urandomb: Miscellaneous Float Functions.
(line 27)
* mpn_add: Lowlevel Functions. (line 69)
* mpn_add_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 64)
* mpn_add_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 54)
* mpn_addmul_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 148)
* mpn_and_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 427)
* mpn_andn_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 442)
* mpn_cmp: Lowlevel Functions. (line 284)
* mpn_com: Lowlevel Functions. (line 467)
* mpn_copyd: Lowlevel Functions. (line 476)
* mpn_copyi: Lowlevel Functions. (line 472)
* mpn_divexact_by3: Lowlevel Functions. (line 229)
* mpn_divexact_by3c: Lowlevel Functions. (line 231)
* mpn_divmod: Lowlevel Functions. (line 224)
* mpn_divmod_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 208)
* mpn_divrem: Lowlevel Functions. (line 182)
* mpn_divrem_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 206)
* mpn_gcd: Lowlevel Functions. (line 289)
* mpn_gcd_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 299)
* mpn_gcdext: Lowlevel Functions. (line 305)
* mpn_get_str: Lowlevel Functions. (line 352)
* mpn_hamdist: Lowlevel Functions. (line 416)
* mpn_ior_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 432)
* mpn_iorn_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 447)
* mpn_lshift: Lowlevel Functions. (line 260)
* mpn_mod_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 255)
* mpn_mul: Lowlevel Functions. (line 114)
* mpn_mul_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 133)
* mpn_mul_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 103)
* mpn_nand_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 452)
* mpn_neg: Lowlevel Functions. (line 98)
* mpn_nior_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 457)
* mpn_perfect_square_p: Lowlevel Functions. (line 422)
* mpn_popcount: Lowlevel Functions. (line 412)
* mpn_random: Lowlevel Functions. (line 401)
* mpn_random2: Lowlevel Functions. (line 402)
* mpn_rshift: Lowlevel Functions. (line 272)
* mpn_scan0: Lowlevel Functions. (line 386)
* mpn_scan1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 394)
* mpn_set_str: Lowlevel Functions. (line 367)
* mpn_sqr: Lowlevel Functions. (line 125)
* mpn_sqrtrem: Lowlevel Functions. (line 334)
* mpn_sub: Lowlevel Functions. (line 90)
* mpn_sub_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 85)
* mpn_sub_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 76)
* mpn_submul_1: Lowlevel Functions. (line 159)
* mpn_tdiv_qr: Lowlevel Functions. (line 171)
* mpn_xnor_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 462)
* mpn_xor_n: Lowlevel Functions. (line 437)
* mpn_zero: Lowlevel Functions. (line 479)
* mpq_abs: Rational Arithmetic. (line 31)
* mpq_add: Rational Arithmetic. (line 7)
* mpq_canonicalize: Rational Number Functions.
(line 22)
* mpq_class: C++ Interface General.
(line 19)
* mpq_class::canonicalize: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 43)
* mpq_class::get_d: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 52)
* mpq_class::get_den: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 66)
* mpq_class::get_den_mpz_t: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 76)
* mpq_class::get_mpq_t: C++ Interface General.
(line 65)
* mpq_class::get_num: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 65)
* mpq_class::get_num_mpz_t: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 75)
* mpq_class::get_str: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 53)
* mpq_class::mpq_class: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 23)
* mpq_class::set_str: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 54)
* mpq_class::swap: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 57)
* mpq_clear: Initializing Rationals.
(line 16)
* mpq_clears: Initializing Rationals.
(line 20)
* mpq_cmp: Comparing Rationals. (line 7)
* mpq_cmp_si: Comparing Rationals. (line 17)
* mpq_cmp_ui: Comparing Rationals. (line 15)
* mpq_denref: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 18)
* mpq_div: Rational Arithmetic. (line 22)
* mpq_div_2exp: Rational Arithmetic. (line 25)
* mpq_equal: Comparing Rationals. (line 33)
* mpq_get_d: Rational Conversions.
(line 7)
* mpq_get_den: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 24)
* mpq_get_num: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 23)
* mpq_get_str: Rational Conversions.
(line 22)
* mpq_init: Initializing Rationals.
(line 7)
* mpq_inits: Initializing Rationals.
(line 12)
* mpq_inp_str: I/O of Rationals. (line 26)
* mpq_inv: Rational Arithmetic. (line 34)
* mpq_mul: Rational Arithmetic. (line 15)
* mpq_mul_2exp: Rational Arithmetic. (line 18)
* mpq_neg: Rational Arithmetic. (line 28)
* mpq_numref: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 17)
* mpq_out_str: I/O of Rationals. (line 18)
* mpq_set: Initializing Rationals.
(line 24)
* mpq_set_d: Rational Conversions.
(line 17)
* mpq_set_den: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 26)
* mpq_set_f: Rational Conversions.
(line 18)
* mpq_set_num: Applying Integer Functions.
(line 25)
* mpq_set_si: Initializing Rationals.
(line 31)
* mpq_set_str: Initializing Rationals.
(line 36)
* mpq_set_ui: Initializing Rationals.
(line 29)
* mpq_set_z: Initializing Rationals.
(line 25)
* mpq_sgn: Comparing Rationals. (line 27)
* mpq_sub: Rational Arithmetic. (line 11)
* mpq_swap: Initializing Rationals.
(line 56)
* mpq_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 16)
* mpz_2fac_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 111)
* mpz_abs: Integer Arithmetic. (line 42)
* mpz_add: Integer Arithmetic. (line 7)
* mpz_add_ui: Integer Arithmetic. (line 9)
* mpz_addmul: Integer Arithmetic. (line 25)
* mpz_addmul_ui: Integer Arithmetic. (line 27)
* mpz_and: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 11)
* mpz_array_init: Integer Special Functions.
(line 11)
* mpz_bin_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 122)
* mpz_bin_uiui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 124)
* mpz_cdiv_q: Integer Division. (line 13)
* mpz_cdiv_q_2exp: Integer Division. (line 24)
* mpz_cdiv_q_ui: Integer Division. (line 17)
* mpz_cdiv_qr: Integer Division. (line 15)
* mpz_cdiv_qr_ui: Integer Division. (line 21)
* mpz_cdiv_r: Integer Division. (line 14)
* mpz_cdiv_r_2exp: Integer Division. (line 25)
* mpz_cdiv_r_ui: Integer Division. (line 19)
* mpz_cdiv_ui: Integer Division. (line 23)
* mpz_class: C++ Interface General.
(line 18)
* mpz_class::fits_sint_p: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 50)
* mpz_class::fits_slong_p: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 51)
* mpz_class::fits_sshort_p: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 52)
* mpz_class::fits_uint_p: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 53)
* mpz_class::fits_ulong_p: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 54)
* mpz_class::fits_ushort_p: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 55)
* mpz_class::get_d: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 56)
* mpz_class::get_mpz_t: C++ Interface General.
(line 64)
* mpz_class::get_si: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 57)
* mpz_class::get_str: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 58)
* mpz_class::get_ui: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 59)
* mpz_class::mpz_class: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 7)
* mpz_class::set_str: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 60)
* mpz_class::swap: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 64)
* mpz_clear: Initializing Integers.
(line 49)
* mpz_clears: Initializing Integers.
(line 53)
* mpz_clrbit: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 54)
* mpz_cmp: Integer Comparisons. (line 7)
* mpz_cmp_d: Integer Comparisons. (line 8)
* mpz_cmp_si: Integer Comparisons. (line 9)
* mpz_cmp_ui: Integer Comparisons. (line 10)
* mpz_cmpabs: Integer Comparisons. (line 18)
* mpz_cmpabs_d: Integer Comparisons. (line 19)
* mpz_cmpabs_ui: Integer Comparisons. (line 20)
* mpz_com: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 20)
* mpz_combit: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 57)
* mpz_congruent_2exp_p: Integer Division. (line 124)
* mpz_congruent_p: Integer Division. (line 121)
* mpz_congruent_ui_p: Integer Division. (line 123)
* mpz_divexact: Integer Division. (line 101)
* mpz_divexact_ui: Integer Division. (line 102)
* mpz_divisible_2exp_p: Integer Division. (line 112)
* mpz_divisible_p: Integer Division. (line 110)
* mpz_divisible_ui_p: Integer Division. (line 111)
* mpz_even_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 18)
* mpz_export: Integer Import and Export.
(line 45)
* mpz_fac_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 110)
* mpz_fdiv_q: Integer Division. (line 27)
* mpz_fdiv_q_2exp: Integer Division. (line 38)
* mpz_fdiv_q_ui: Integer Division. (line 31)
* mpz_fdiv_qr: Integer Division. (line 29)
* mpz_fdiv_qr_ui: Integer Division. (line 35)
* mpz_fdiv_r: Integer Division. (line 28)
* mpz_fdiv_r_2exp: Integer Division. (line 39)
* mpz_fdiv_r_ui: Integer Division. (line 33)
* mpz_fdiv_ui: Integer Division. (line 37)
* mpz_fib2_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 132)
* mpz_fib_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 130)
* mpz_fits_sint_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 10)
* mpz_fits_slong_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 8)
* mpz_fits_sshort_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 12)
* mpz_fits_uint_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 9)
* mpz_fits_ulong_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 7)
* mpz_fits_ushort_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 11)
* mpz_gcd: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 32)
* mpz_gcd_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 39)
* mpz_gcdext: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 49)
* mpz_get_d: Converting Integers. (line 27)
* mpz_get_d_2exp: Converting Integers. (line 35)
* mpz_get_si: Converting Integers. (line 18)
* mpz_get_str: Converting Integers. (line 46)
* mpz_get_ui: Converting Integers. (line 11)
* mpz_getlimbn: Integer Special Functions.
(line 60)
* mpz_hamdist: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 29)
* mpz_import: Integer Import and Export.
(line 11)
* mpz_init: Initializing Integers.
(line 26)
* mpz_init2: Initializing Integers.
(line 33)
* mpz_init_set: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 27)
* mpz_init_set_d: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 30)
* mpz_init_set_si: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 29)
* mpz_init_set_str: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 34)
* mpz_init_set_ui: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign.
(line 28)
* mpz_inits: Initializing Integers.
(line 29)
* mpz_inp_raw: I/O of Integers. (line 61)
* mpz_inp_str: I/O of Integers. (line 30)
* mpz_invert: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 74)
* mpz_ior: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 14)
* mpz_jacobi: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 81)
* mpz_kronecker: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 89)
* mpz_kronecker_si: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 90)
* mpz_kronecker_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 91)
* mpz_lcm: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 68)
* mpz_lcm_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 69)
* mpz_legendre: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 84)
* mpz_lucnum2_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 143)
* mpz_lucnum_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 141)
* mpz_mfac_uiui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 113)
* mpz_mod: Integer Division. (line 91)
* mpz_mod_ui: Integer Division. (line 93)
* mpz_mul: Integer Arithmetic. (line 19)
* mpz_mul_2exp: Integer Arithmetic. (line 35)
* mpz_mul_si: Integer Arithmetic. (line 20)
* mpz_mul_ui: Integer Arithmetic. (line 22)
* mpz_neg: Integer Arithmetic. (line 39)
* mpz_nextprime: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 25)
* mpz_odd_p: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 17)
* mpz_out_raw: I/O of Integers. (line 45)
* mpz_out_str: I/O of Integers. (line 18)
* mpz_perfect_power_p: Integer Roots. (line 27)
* mpz_perfect_square_p: Integer Roots. (line 36)
* mpz_popcount: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 23)
* mpz_pow_ui: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 31)
* mpz_powm: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 8)
* mpz_powm_sec: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 18)
* mpz_powm_ui: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 10)
* mpz_primorial_ui: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 118)
* mpz_probab_prime_p: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 7)
* mpz_random: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 42)
* mpz_random2: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 51)
* mpz_realloc2: Initializing Integers.
(line 57)
* mpz_remove: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 105)
* mpz_root: Integer Roots. (line 7)
* mpz_rootrem: Integer Roots. (line 13)
* mpz_rrandomb: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 31)
* mpz_scan0: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 37)
* mpz_scan1: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 38)
* mpz_set: Assigning Integers. (line 10)
* mpz_set_d: Assigning Integers. (line 13)
* mpz_set_f: Assigning Integers. (line 15)
* mpz_set_q: Assigning Integers. (line 14)
* mpz_set_si: Assigning Integers. (line 12)
* mpz_set_str: Assigning Integers. (line 21)
* mpz_set_ui: Assigning Integers. (line 11)
* mpz_setbit: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 51)
* mpz_sgn: Integer Comparisons. (line 28)
* mpz_si_kronecker: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 92)
* mpz_size: Integer Special Functions.
(line 68)
* mpz_sizeinbase: Miscellaneous Integer Functions.
(line 23)
* mpz_sqrt: Integer Roots. (line 17)
* mpz_sqrtrem: Integer Roots. (line 20)
* mpz_sub: Integer Arithmetic. (line 12)
* mpz_sub_ui: Integer Arithmetic. (line 14)
* mpz_submul: Integer Arithmetic. (line 30)
* mpz_submul_ui: Integer Arithmetic. (line 32)
* mpz_swap: Assigning Integers. (line 37)
* mpz_t: Nomenclature and Types.
(line 6)
* mpz_tdiv_q: Integer Division. (line 41)
* mpz_tdiv_q_2exp: Integer Division. (line 52)
* mpz_tdiv_q_ui: Integer Division. (line 45)
* mpz_tdiv_qr: Integer Division. (line 43)
* mpz_tdiv_qr_ui: Integer Division. (line 49)
* mpz_tdiv_r: Integer Division. (line 42)
* mpz_tdiv_r_2exp: Integer Division. (line 53)
* mpz_tdiv_r_ui: Integer Division. (line 47)
* mpz_tdiv_ui: Integer Division. (line 51)
* mpz_tstbit: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 60)
* mpz_ui_kronecker: Number Theoretic Functions.
(line 93)
* mpz_ui_pow_ui: Integer Exponentiation.
(line 33)
* mpz_ui_sub: Integer Arithmetic. (line 16)
* mpz_urandomb: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 14)
* mpz_urandomm: Integer Random Numbers.
(line 23)
* mpz_xor: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.
(line 17)
* operator"" <1>: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 30)
* operator"" <2>: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 56)
* operator"": C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 38)
* operator%: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 35)
* operator/: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 34)
* operator<<: C++ Formatted Output.
(line 20)
* operator>> <1>: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 85)
* operator>>: C++ Formatted Input. (line 25)
* sgn <1>: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 56)
* sgn <2>: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 62)
* sgn: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 102)
* sqrt <1>: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 63)
* sqrt: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 103)
* swap <1>: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 105)
* swap <2>: C++ Interface Integers.
(line 65)
* swap: C++ Interface Rationals.
(line 58)
* trunc: C++ Interface Floats.
(line 106)
Local Variables:
coding: iso88591
End:
0707010001f195000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4291000017b00000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000002300000000root/usr/local/share/info/gmp.infoThis is ../../gmp/doc/gmp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.13 from
../../gmp/doc/gmp.texi.
This manual describes how to install and use the GNU multiple precision
arithmetic library, version 5.1.1.
Copyright 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012,
2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, with the FrontCover Texts being "A GNU
Manual", and with the BackCover Texts being "You have freedom to copy
and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software". A copy of the license
is included in *note GNU Free Documentation License::.
INFODIRSECTION GNU libraries
STARTINFODIRENTRY
* gmp: (gmp). GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library.
ENDINFODIRENTRY
Indirect:
gmp.info1: 997
gmp.info2: 299989
Tag Table:
(Indirect)
Node: Top997
Node: Copying3183
Node: Introduction to GMP5034
Node: Installing GMP7745
Node: Build Options8477
Node: ABI and ISA24261
Node: Notes for Package Builds33832
Node: Notes for Particular Systems36919
Node: Known Build Problems43516
Node: Performance optimization47050
Node: GMP Basics48179
Node: Headers and Libraries48827
Node: Nomenclature and Types50251
Node: Function Classes52247
Node: Variable Conventions53781
Node: Parameter Conventions55390
Node: Memory Management57446
Node: Reentrancy58574
Node: Useful Macros and Constants60447
Node: Compatibility with older versions61438
Node: Demonstration Programs62349
Node: Efficiency64214
Node: Debugging71838
Node: Profiling78754
Node: Autoconf82745
Node: Emacs84524
Node: Reporting Bugs85130
Node: Integer Functions87673
Node: Initializing Integers88449
Node: Assigning Integers90825
Node: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign92412
Node: Converting Integers94037
Node: Integer Arithmetic96961
Node: Integer Division98547
Node: Integer Exponentiation104857
Node: Integer Roots106297
Node: Number Theoretic Functions107971
Node: Integer Comparisons115256
Node: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling116634
Node: I/O of Integers119181
Node: Integer Random Numbers122150
Node: Integer Import and Export124761
Node: Miscellaneous Integer Functions128771
Node: Integer Special Functions130631
Node: Rational Number Functions133718
Node: Initializing Rationals134911
Node: Rational Conversions137372
Node: Rational Arithmetic139104
Node: Comparing Rationals140408
Node: Applying Integer Functions141774
Node: I/O of Rationals143257
Node: Floatingpoint Functions145299
Node: Initializing Floats148184
Node: Assigning Floats152271
Node: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign154838
Node: Converting Floats156366
Node: Float Arithmetic159616
Node: Float Comparison161629
Node: I/O of Floats163209
Node: Miscellaneous Float Functions165892
Node: Lowlevel Functions167834
Node: Random Number Functions192351
Node: Random State Initialization193419
Node: Random State Seeding196278
Node: Random State Miscellaneous197667
Node: Formatted Output198309
Node: Formatted Output Strings198554
Node: Formatted Output Functions203933
Node: C++ Formatted Output208008
Node: Formatted Input210690
Node: Formatted Input Strings210926
Node: Formatted Input Functions215578
Node: C++ Formatted Input218547
Node: C++ Class Interface220450
Node: C++ Interface General221444
Node: C++ Interface Integers224514
Node: C++ Interface Rationals228229
Node: C++ Interface Floats232246
Node: C++ Interface Random Numbers238250
Node: C++ Interface Limitations240652
Node: Custom Allocation243472
Node: Language Bindings247691
Node: Algorithms251646
Node: Multiplication Algorithms252346
Node: Basecase Multiplication253435
Node: Karatsuba Multiplication255343
Node: Toom 3Way Multiplication258969
Node: Toom 4Way Multiplication265388
Node: Higher degree Toom'n'half266767
Node: FFT Multiplication268052
Node: Other Multiplication273387
Node: Unbalanced Multiplication275861
Node: Division Algorithms276649
Node: Single Limb Division277028
Node: Basecase Division279918
Node: Divide and Conquer Division281121
Node: BlockWise Barrett Division283190
Node: Exact Division283842
Node: Exact Remainder287007
Node: Small Quotient Division289257
Node: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms290855
Node: Binary GCD291152
Node: Lehmer's Algorithm294001
Node: Subquadratic GCD296220
Node: Extended GCD298677
Node: Jacobi Symbol299989
Node: Powering Algorithms301004
Node: Normal Powering Algorithm301267
Node: Modular Powering Algorithm301795
Node: Root Extraction Algorithms302577
Node: Square Root Algorithm302892
Node: Nth Root Algorithm305033
Node: Perfect Square Algorithm305818
Node: Perfect Power Algorithm307905
Node: Radix Conversion Algorithms308526
Node: Binary to Radix308902
Node: Radix to Binary312832
Node: Other Algorithms314920
Node: Prime Testing Algorithm315272
Node: Factorial Algorithm316456
Node: Binomial Coefficients Algorithm318846
Node: Fibonacci Numbers Algorithm319740
Node: Lucas Numbers Algorithm322214
Node: Random Number Algorithms322935
Node: Assembly Coding325057
Node: Assembly Code Organisation326017
Node: Assembly Basics326984
Node: Assembly Carry Propagation328134
Node: Assembly Cache Handling329965
Node: Assembly Functional Units332126
Node: Assembly Floating Point333739
Node: Assembly SIMD Instructions337517
Node: Assembly Software Pipelining338499
Node: Assembly Loop Unrolling339561
Node: Assembly Writing Guide341776
Node: Internals344541
Node: Integer Internals345053
Node: Rational Internals347309
Node: Float Internals348547
Node: Raw Output Internals355961
Node: C++ Interface Internals357155
Node: Contributors360441
Node: References366191
Node: GNU Free Documentation License371946
Node: Concept Index397115
Node: Function Index443004
End Tag Table
Local Variables:
coding: iso88591
End:
0707010001f196000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4291000494010000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000002500000000root/usr/local/share/info/gmp.info1This is ../../gmp/doc/gmp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.13 from
../../gmp/doc/gmp.texi.
This manual describes how to install and use the GNU multiple precision
arithmetic library, version 5.1.1.
Copyright 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012,
2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, with the FrontCover Texts being "A GNU
Manual", and with the BackCover Texts being "You have freedom to copy
and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software". A copy of the license
is included in *note GNU Free Documentation License::.
INFODIRSECTION GNU libraries
STARTINFODIRENTRY
* gmp: (gmp). GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library.
ENDINFODIRENTRY
File: gmp.info, Node: Top, Next: Copying, Prev: (dir), Up: (dir)
GNU MP
******
This manual describes how to install and use the GNU multiple
precision arithmetic library, version 5.1.1.
Copyright 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012,
2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, with the FrontCover Texts being "A GNU
Manual", and with the BackCover Texts being "You have freedom to copy
and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software". A copy of the license
is included in *note GNU Free Documentation License::.
* Menu:
* Copying:: GMP Copying Conditions (LGPL).
* Introduction to GMP:: Brief introduction to GNU MP.
* Installing GMP:: How to configure and compile the GMP library.
* GMP Basics:: What every GMP user should know.
* Reporting Bugs:: How to usefully report bugs.
* Integer Functions:: Functions for arithmetic on signed integers.
* Rational Number Functions:: Functions for arithmetic on rational numbers.
* Floatingpoint Functions:: Functions for arithmetic on floats.
* Lowlevel Functions:: Fast functions for natural numbers.
* Random Number Functions:: Functions for generating random numbers.
* Formatted Output:: `printf' style output.
* Formatted Input:: `scanf' style input.
* C++ Class Interface:: Class wrappers around GMP types.
* Custom Allocation:: How to customize the internal allocation.
* Language Bindings:: Using GMP from other languages.
* Algorithms:: What happens behind the scenes.
* Internals:: How values are represented behind the scenes.
* Contributors:: Who brings you this library?
* References:: Some useful papers and books to read.
* GNU Free Documentation License::
* Concept Index::
* Function Index::
File: gmp.info, Node: Copying, Next: Introduction to GMP, Prev: Top, Up: Top
GNU MP Copying Conditions
*************************
This library is "free"; this means that everyone is free to use it and
free to redistribute it on a free basis. The library is not in the
public domain; it is copyrighted and there are restrictions on its
distribution, but these restrictions are designed to permit everything
that a good cooperating citizen would want to do. What is not allowed
is to try to prevent others from further sharing any version of this
library that they might get from you.
Specifically, we want to make sure that you have the right to give
away copies of the library, that you receive source code or else can
get it if you want it, that you can change this library or use pieces
of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.
To make sure that everyone has such rights, we have to forbid you to
deprive anyone else of these rights. For example, if you distribute
copies of the GNU MP library, you must give the recipients all the
rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or
can get the source code. And you must tell them their rights.
Also, for our own protection, we must make certain that everyone
finds out that there is no warranty for the GNU MP library. If it is
modified by someone else and passed on, we want their recipients to
know that what they have is not what we distributed, so that any
problems introduced by others will not reflect on our reputation.
The precise conditions of the license for the GNU MP library are
found in the Lesser General Public License version 3 that accompanies
the source code, see `COPYING.LIB'. Certain demonstration programs are
provided under the terms of the plain General Public License version 3,
see `COPYING'.
File: gmp.info, Node: Introduction to GMP, Next: Installing GMP, Prev: Copying, Up: Top
1 Introduction to GNU MP
************************
GNU MP is a portable library written in C for arbitrary precision
arithmetic on integers, rational numbers, and floatingpoint numbers.
It aims to provide the fastest possible arithmetic for all applications
that need higher precision than is directly supported by the basic C
types.
Many applications use just a few hundred bits of precision; but some
applications may need thousands or even millions of bits. GMP is
designed to give good performance for both, by choosing algorithms
based on the sizes of the operands, and by carefully keeping the
overhead at a minimum.
The speed of GMP is achieved by using fullwords as the basic
arithmetic type, by using sophisticated algorithms, by including
carefully optimized assembly code for the most common inner loops for
many different CPUs, and by a general emphasis on speed (as opposed to
simplicity or elegance).
There is assembly code for these CPUs: ARM, DEC Alpha 21064, 21164,
and 21264, AMD 29000, AMD K6, K62, Athlon, and Athlon64, Hitachi
SuperH and SH2, HPPA 1.0, 1.1 and 2.0, Intel Pentium, Pentium
Pro/II/III, Pentium 4, generic x86, Intel IA64, i960, Motorola
MC68000, MC68020, MC88100, and MC88110, Motorola/IBM PowerPC 32 and 64,
National NS32000, IBM POWER, MIPS R3000, R4000, SPARCv7, SuperSPARC,
generic SPARCv8, UltraSPARC, DEC VAX, and Zilog Z8000. Some
optimizations also for Cray vector systems, Clipper, IBM ROMP (RT), and
Pyramid AP/XP.
For uptodate information on GMP, please see the GMP web pages at
`http://gmplib.org/'
The latest version of the library is available at
`ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gmp/'
Many sites around the world mirror `ftp.gnu.org', please use a mirror
near you, see `http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html' for a full list.
There are three public mailing lists of interest. One for release
announcements, one for general questions and discussions about usage of
the GMP library and one for bug reports. For more information, see
`http://gmplib.org/mailman/listinfo/'.
The proper place for bug reports is . See
*note Reporting Bugs:: for information about reporting bugs.
1.1 How to use this Manual
==========================
Everyone should read *note GMP Basics::. If you need to install the
library yourself, then read *note Installing GMP::. If you have a
system with multiple ABIs, then read *note ABI and ISA::, for the
compiler options that must be used on applications.
The rest of the manual can be used for later reference, although it
is probably a good idea to glance through it.
File: gmp.info, Node: Installing GMP, Next: GMP Basics, Prev: Introduction to GMP, Up: Top
2 Installing GMP
****************
GMP has an autoconf/automake/libtool based configuration system. On a
Unixlike system a basic build can be done with
./configure
make
Some selftests can be run with
make check
And you can install (under `/usr/local' by default) with
make install
If you experience problems, please report them to
. See *note Reporting Bugs::, for information on
what to include in useful bug reports.
* Menu:
* Build Options::
* ABI and ISA::
* Notes for Package Builds::
* Notes for Particular Systems::
* Known Build Problems::
* Performance optimization::
File: gmp.info, Node: Build Options, Next: ABI and ISA, Prev: Installing GMP, Up: Installing GMP
2.1 Build Options
=================
All the usual autoconf configure options are available, run `./configure
help' for a summary. The file `INSTALL.autoconf' has some generic
installation information too.
Tools
`configure' requires various Unixlike tools. See *note Notes for
Particular Systems::, for some options on nonUnix systems.
It might be possible to build without the help of `configure',
certainly all the code is there, but unfortunately you'll be on
your own.
Build Directory
To compile in a separate build directory, `cd' to that directory,
and prefix the configure command with the path to the GMP source
directory. For example
cd /my/build/dir
/my/sources/gmp5.1.1/configure
Not all `make' programs have the necessary features (`VPATH') to
support this. In particular, SunOS and Slowaris `make' have bugs
that make them unable to build in a separate directory. Use GNU
`make' instead.
`prefix' and `execprefix'
The `prefix' option can be used in the normal way to direct GMP
to install under a particular tree. The default is `/usr/local'.
`execprefix' can be used to direct architecturedependent files
like `libgmp.a' to a different location. This can be used to share
architectureindependent parts like the documentation, but
separate the dependent parts. Note however that `gmp.h' and
`mp.h' are architecturedependent since they encode certain
aspects of `libgmp', so it will be necessary to ensure both
`$prefix/include' and `$exec_prefix/include' are available to the
compiler.
`disableshared', `disablestatic'
By default both shared and static libraries are built (where
possible), but one or other can be disabled. Shared libraries
result in smaller executables and permit code sharing between
separate running processes, but on some CPUs are slightly slower,
having a small cost on each function call.
Native Compilation, `build=CPUVENDOROS'
For normal native compilation, the system can be specified with
`build'. By default `./configure' uses the output from running
`./config.guess'. On some systems `./config.guess' can determine
the exact CPU type, on others it will be necessary to give it
explicitly. For example,
./configure build=ultrasparcsunsolaris2.7
In all cases the `OS' part is important, since it controls how
libtool generates shared libraries. Running `./config.guess' is
the simplest way to see what it should be, if you don't know
already.
Cross Compilation, `host=CPUVENDOROS'
When crosscompiling, the system used for compiling is given by
`build' and the system where the library will run is given by
`host'. For example when using a FreeBSD Athlon system to build
GNU/Linux m68k binaries,
./configure build=athlonpcfreebsd3.5 host=m68kmaclinuxgnu
Compiler tools are sought first with the host system type as a
prefix. For example `m68kmaclinuxgnuranlib' is tried, then
plain `ranlib'. This makes it possible for a set of
crosscompiling tools to coexist with native tools. The prefix
is the argument to `host', and this can be an alias, such as
`m68klinux'. But note that tools don't have to be setup this
way, it's enough to just have a `PATH' with a suitable
crosscompiling `cc' etc.
Compiling for a different CPU in the same family as the build
system is a form of crosscompilation, though very possibly this
would merely be special options on a native compiler. In any case
`./configure' avoids depending on being able to run code on the
build system, which is important when creating binaries for a
newer CPU since they very possibly won't run on the build system.
In all cases the compiler must be able to produce an executable
(of whatever format) from a standard C `main'. Although only
object files will go to make up `libgmp', `./configure' uses
linking tests for various purposes, such as determining what
functions are available on the host system.
Currently a warning is given unless an explicit `build' is used
when crosscompiling, because it may not be possible to correctly
guess the build system type if the `PATH' has only a
crosscompiling `cc'.
Note that the `target' option is not appropriate for GMP. It's
for use when building compiler tools, with `host' being where
they will run, and `target' what they'll produce code for.
Ordinary programs or libraries like GMP are only interested in the
`host' part, being where they'll run. (Some past versions of
GMP used `target' incorrectly.)
CPU types
In general, if you want a library that runs as fast as possible,
you should configure GMP for the exact CPU type your system uses.
However, this may mean the binaries won't run on older members of
the family, and might run slower on other members, older or newer.
The best idea is always to build GMP for the exact machine type
you intend to run it on.
The following CPUs have specific support. See `configure.in' for
details of what code and compiler options they select.
* Alpha: alpha, alphaev5, alphaev56, alphapca56, alphapca57,
alphaev6, alphaev67, alphaev68 alphaev7
* Cray: c90, j90, t90, sv1
* HPPA: hppa1.0, hppa1.1, hppa2.0, hppa2.0n, hppa2.0w, hppa64
* IA64: ia64, itanium, itanium2
* MIPS: mips, mips3, mips64
* Motorola: m68k, m68000, m68010, m68020, m68030, m68040,
m68060, m68302, m68360, m88k, m88110
* POWER: power, power1, power2, power2sc
* PowerPC: powerpc, powerpc64, powerpc401, powerpc403,
powerpc405, powerpc505, powerpc601, powerpc602, powerpc603,
powerpc603e, powerpc604, powerpc604e, powerpc620, powerpc630,
powerpc740, powerpc7400, powerpc7450, powerpc750, powerpc801,
powerpc821, powerpc823, powerpc860, powerpc970
* SPARC: sparc, sparcv8, microsparc, supersparc, sparcv9,
ultrasparc, ultrasparc2, ultrasparc2i, ultrasparc3, sparc64
* x86 family: i386, i486, i586, pentium, pentiummmx, pentiumpro,
pentium2, pentium3, pentium4, k6, k62, k63, athlon, amd64,
viac3, viac32
* Other: a29k, arm, clipper, i960, ns32k, pyramid, sh, sh2, vax,
z8k
CPUs not listed will use generic C code.
Generic C Build
If some of the assembly code causes problems, or if otherwise
desired, the generic C code can be selected with the configure
`disableassembly'.
Note that this will run quite slowly, but it should be portable
and should at least make it possible to get something running if
all else fails.
Fat binary, `enablefat'
Using `enablefat' selects a "fat binary" build on x86, where
optimized low level subroutines are chosen at runtime according to
the CPU detected. This means more code, but gives good
performance on all x86 chips. (This option might become available
for more architectures in the future.)
`ABI'
On some systems GMP supports multiple ABIs (application binary
interfaces), meaning data type sizes and calling conventions. By
default GMP chooses the best ABI available, but a particular ABI
can be selected. For example
./configure host=mips64sgiirix6 ABI=n32
See *note ABI and ISA::, for the available choices on relevant
CPUs, and what applications need to do.
`CC', `CFLAGS'
By default the C compiler used is chosen from among some likely
candidates, with `gcc' normally preferred if it's present. The
usual `CC=whatever' can be passed to `./configure' to choose
something different.
For various systems, default compiler flags are set based on the
CPU and compiler. The usual `CFLAGS="whatever"' can be passed to
`./configure' to use something different or to set good flags for
systems GMP doesn't otherwise know.
The `CC' and `CFLAGS' used are printed during `./configure', and
can be found in each generated `Makefile'. This is the easiest way
to check the defaults when considering changing or adding
something.
Note that when `CC' and `CFLAGS' are specified on a system
supporting multiple ABIs it's important to give an explicit
`ABI=whatever', since GMP can't determine the ABI just from the
flags and won't be able to select the correct assembly code.
If just `CC' is selected then normal default `CFLAGS' for that
compiler will be used (if GMP recognises it). For example
`CC=gcc' can be used to force the use of GCC, with default flags
(and default ABI).
`CPPFLAGS'
Any flags like `D' defines or `I' includes required by the
preprocessor should be set in `CPPFLAGS' rather than `CFLAGS'.
Compiling is done with both `CPPFLAGS' and `CFLAGS', but
preprocessing uses just `CPPFLAGS'. This distinction is because
most preprocessors won't accept all the flags the compiler does.
Preprocessing is done separately in some configure tests.
`CC_FOR_BUILD'
Some buildtime programs are compiled and run to generate
hostspecific data tables. `CC_FOR_BUILD' is the compiler used
for this. It doesn't need to be in any particular ABI or mode, it
merely needs to generate executables that can run. The default is
to try the selected `CC' and some likely candidates such as `cc'
and `gcc', looking for something that works.
No flags are used with `CC_FOR_BUILD' because a simple invocation
like `cc foo.c' should be enough. If some particular options are
required they can be included as for instance `CC_FOR_BUILD="cc
whatever"'.
C++ Support, `enablecxx'
C++ support in GMP can be enabled with `enablecxx', in which
case a C++ compiler will be required. As a convenience
`enablecxx=detect' can be used to enable C++ support only if a
compiler can be found. The C++ support consists of a library
`libgmpxx.la' and header file `gmpxx.h' (*note Headers and
Libraries::).
A separate `libgmpxx.la' has been adopted rather than having C++
objects within `libgmp.la' in order to ensure dynamic linked C
programs aren't bloated by a dependency on the C++ standard
library, and to avoid any chance that the C++ compiler could be
required when linking plain C programs.
`libgmpxx.la' will use certain internals from `libgmp.la' and can
only be expected to work with `libgmp.la' from the same GMP
version. Future changes to the relevant internals will be
accompanied by renaming, so a mismatch will cause unresolved
symbols rather than perhaps mysterious misbehaviour.
In general `libgmpxx.la' will be usable only with the C++ compiler
that built it, since name mangling and runtime support are usually
incompatible between different compilers.
`CXX', `CXXFLAGS'
When C++ support is enabled, the C++ compiler and its flags can be
set with variables `CXX' and `CXXFLAGS' in the usual way. The
default for `CXX' is the first compiler that works from a list of
likely candidates, with `g++' normally preferred when available.
The default for `CXXFLAGS' is to try `CFLAGS', `CFLAGS' without
`g', then for `g++' either `g O2' or `O2', or for other
compilers `g' or nothing. Trying `CFLAGS' this way is convenient
when using `gcc' and `g++' together, since the flags for `gcc' will
usually suit `g++'.
It's important that the C and C++ compilers match, meaning their
startup and runtime support routines are compatible and that they
generate code in the same ABI (if there's a choice of ABIs on the
system). `./configure' isn't currently able to check these things
very well itself, so for that reason `disablecxx' is the
default, to avoid a build failure due to a compiler mismatch.
Perhaps this will change in the future.
Incidentally, it's normally not good enough to set `CXX' to the
same as `CC'. Although `gcc' for instance recognises `foo.cc' as
C++ code, only `g++' will invoke the linker the right way when
building an executable or shared library from C++ object files.
Temporary Memory, `enablealloca='
GMP allocates temporary workspace using one of the following three
methods, which can be selected with for instance
`enablealloca=mallocreentrant'.
* `alloca'  C library or compiler builtin.
* `mallocreentrant'  the heap, in a reentrant fashion.
* `mallocnotreentrant'  the heap, with global variables.
For convenience, the following choices are also available.
`disablealloca' is the same as `no'.
* `yes'  a synonym for `alloca'.
* `no'  a synonym for `mallocreentrant'.
* `reentrant'  `alloca' if available, otherwise
`mallocreentrant'. This is the default.
* `notreentrant'  `alloca' if available, otherwise
`mallocnotreentrant'.
`alloca' is reentrant and fast, and is recommended. It actually
allocates just small blocks on the stack; larger ones use
mallocreentrant.
`mallocreentrant' is, as the name suggests, reentrant and thread
safe, but `mallocnotreentrant' is faster and should be used if
reentrancy is not required.
The two malloc methods in fact use the memory allocation functions
selected by `mp_set_memory_functions', these being `malloc' and
friends by default. *Note Custom Allocation::.
An additional choice `enablealloca=debug' is available, to help
when debugging memory related problems (*note Debugging::).
FFT Multiplication, `disablefft'
By default multiplications are done using Karatsuba, 3way Toom,
higher degree Toom, and Fermat FFT. The FFT is only used on large
to very large operands and can be disabled to save code size if
desired.
Assertion Checking, `enableassert'
This option enables some consistency checking within the library.
This can be of use while debugging, *note Debugging::.
Execution Profiling, `enableprofiling=prof/gprof/instrument'
Enable profiling support, in one of various styles, *note
Profiling::.
`MPN_PATH'
Various assembly versions of each mpn subroutines are provided.
For a given CPU, a search is made though a path to choose a
version of each. For example `sparcv8' has
MPN_PATH="sparc32/v8 sparc32 generic"
which means look first for v8 code, then plain sparc32 (which is
v7), and finally fall back on generic C. Knowledgeable users with
special requirements can specify a different path. Normally this
is completely unnecessary.
Documentation
The source for the document you're now reading is `doc/gmp.texi',
in Texinfo format, see *note Texinfo: (texinfo)Top.
Info format `doc/gmp.info' is included in the distribution. The
usual automake targets are available to make PostScript, DVI, PDF
and HTML (these will require various TeX and Texinfo tools).
DocBook and XML can be generated by the Texinfo `makeinfo' program
too, see *note Options for `makeinfo': (texinfo)makeinfo options.
Some supplementary notes can also be found in the `doc'
subdirectory.
File: gmp.info, Node: ABI and ISA, Next: Notes for Package Builds, Prev: Build Options, Up: Installing GMP
2.2 ABI and ISA
===============
ABI (Application Binary Interface) refers to the calling conventions
between functions, meaning what registers are used and what sizes the
various C data types are. ISA (Instruction Set Architecture) refers to
the instructions and registers a CPU has available.
Some 64bit ISA CPUs have both a 64bit ABI and a 32bit ABI
defined, the latter for compatibility with older CPUs in the family.
GMP supports some CPUs like this in both ABIs. In fact within GMP
`ABI' means a combination of chip ABI, plus how GMP chooses to use it.
For example in some 32bit ABIs, GMP may support a limb as either a
32bit `long' or a 64bit `long long'.
By default GMP chooses the best ABI available for a given system,
and this generally gives significantly greater speed. But an ABI can
be chosen explicitly to make GMP compatible with other libraries, or
particular application requirements. For example,
./configure ABI=32
In all cases it's vital that all object code used in a given program
is compiled for the same ABI.
Usually a limb is implemented as a `long'. When a `long long' limb
is used this is encoded in the generated `gmp.h'. This is convenient
for applications, but it does mean that `gmp.h' will vary, and can't be
just copied around. `gmp.h' remains compiler independent though, since
all compilers for a particular ABI will be expected to use the same
limb type.
Currently no attempt is made to follow whatever conventions a system
has for installing library or header files built for a particular ABI.
This will probably only matter when installing multiple builds of GMP,
and it might be as simple as configuring with a special `libdir', or it
might require more than that. Note that builds for different ABIs need
to done separately, with a fresh `./configure' and `make' each.
AMD64 (`x86_64')
On AMD64 systems supporting both 32bit and 64bit modes for
applications, the following ABI choices are available.
`ABI=64'
The 64bit ABI uses 64bit limbs and pointers and makes full
use of the chip architecture. This is the default.
Applications will usually not need special compiler flags,
but for reference the option is
gcc m64
`ABI=32'
The 32bit ABI is the usual i386 conventions. This will be
slower, and is not recommended except for interoperating
with other code not yet 64bit capable. Applications must be
compiled with
gcc m32
(In GCC 2.95 and earlier there's no `m32' option, it's the
only mode.)
HPPA 2.0 (`hppa2.0*', `hppa64')
`ABI=2.0w'
The 2.0w ABI uses 64bit limbs and pointers and is available
on HPUX 11 or up. Applications must be compiled with
gcc [built for 2.0w]
cc +DD64
`ABI=2.0n'
The 2.0n ABI means the 32bit HPPA 1.0 ABI and all its normal
calling conventions, but with 64bit instructions permitted
within functions. GMP uses a 64bit `long long' for a limb.
This ABI is available on hppa64 GNU/Linux and on HPUX 10 or
higher. Applications must be compiled with
gcc [built for 2.0n]
cc +DA2.0 +e
Note that current versions of GCC (eg. 3.2) don't generate
64bit instructions for `long long' operations and so may be
slower than for 2.0w. (The GMP assembly code is the same
though.)
`ABI=1.0'
HPPA 2.0 CPUs can run all HPPA 1.0 and 1.1 code in the 32bit
HPPA 1.0 ABI. No special compiler options are needed for
applications.
All three ABIs are available for CPU types `hppa2.0w', `hppa2.0'
and `hppa64', but for CPU type `hppa2.0n' only 2.0n or 1.0 are
considered.
Note that GCC on HPUX has no options to choose between 2.0n and
2.0w modes, unlike HP `cc'. Instead it must be built for one or
the other ABI. GMP will detect how it was built, and skip to the
corresponding `ABI'.
IA64 under HPUX (`ia64**hpux*', `itanium**hpux*')
HPUX supports two ABIs for IA64. GMP performance is the same in
both.
`ABI=32'
In the 32bit ABI, pointers, `int's and `long's are 32 bits
and GMP uses a 64 bit `long long' for a limb. Applications
can be compiled without any special flags since this ABI is
the default in both HP C and GCC, but for reference the flags
are
gcc milp32
cc +DD32
`ABI=64'
In the 64bit ABI, `long's and pointers are 64 bits and GMP
uses a `long' for a limb. Applications must be compiled with
gcc mlp64
cc +DD64
On other IA64 systems, GNU/Linux for instance, `ABI=64' is the
only choice.
MIPS under IRIX 6 (`mips**irix[6789]')
IRIX 6 always has a 64bit MIPS 3 or better CPU, and supports ABIs
o32, n32, and 64. n32 or 64 are recommended, and GMP performance
will be the same in each. The default is n32.
`ABI=o32'
The o32 ABI is 32bit pointers and integers, and no 64bit
operations. GMP will be slower than in n32 or 64, this
option only exists to support old compilers, eg. GCC 2.7.2.
Applications can be compiled with no special flags on an old
compiler, or on a newer compiler with
gcc mabi=32
cc 32
`ABI=n32'
The n32 ABI is 32bit pointers and integers, but with a
64bit limb using a `long long'. Applications must be
compiled with
gcc mabi=n32
cc n32
`ABI=64'
The 64bit ABI is 64bit pointers and integers. Applications
must be compiled with
gcc mabi=64
cc 64
Note that MIPS GNU/Linux, as of kernel version 2.2, doesn't have
the necessary support for n32 or 64 and so only gets a 32bit limb
and the MIPS 2 code.
PowerPC 64 (`powerpc64', `powerpc620', `powerpc630', `powerpc970', `power4', `power5')
`ABI=mode64'
The AIX 64 ABI uses 64bit limbs and pointers and is the
default on PowerPC 64 `**aix*' systems. Applications must
be compiled with
gcc maix64
xlc q64
On 64bit GNU/Linux, BSD, and Mac OS X/Darwin systems, the
applications must be compiled with
gcc m64
`ABI=mode32'
The `mode32' ABI uses a 64bit `long long' limb but with the
chip still in 32bit mode and using 32bit calling
conventions. This is the default for systems where the true
64bit ABI is unavailable. No special compiler options are
typically needed for applications. This ABI is not available
under AIX.
`ABI=32'
This is the basic 32bit PowerPC ABI, with a 32bit limb. No
special compiler options are needed for applications.
GMP's speed is greatest for the `mode64' ABI, the `mode32' ABI is
2nd best. In `ABI=32' only the 32bit ISA is used and this
doesn't make full use of a 64bit chip.
Sparc V9 (`sparc64', `sparcv9', `ultrasparc*')
`ABI=64'
The 64bit V9 ABI is available on the various BSD sparc64
ports, recent versions of Sparc64 GNU/Linux, and Solaris 2.7
and up (when the kernel is in 64bit mode). GCC 3.2 or
higher, or Sun `cc' is required. On GNU/Linux, depending on
the default `gcc' mode, applications must be compiled with
gcc m64
On Solaris applications must be compiled with
gcc m64 mptr64 Wa,xarch=v9 mcpu=v9
cc xarch=v9
On the BSD sparc64 systems no special options are required,
since 64bits is the only ABI available.
`ABI=32'
For the basic 32bit ABI, GMP still uses as much of the V9
ISA as it can. In the Sun documentation this combination is
known as "v8plus". On GNU/Linux, depending on the default
`gcc' mode, applications may need to be compiled with
gcc m32
On Solaris, no special compiler options are required for
applications, though using something like the following is
recommended. (`gcc' 2.8 and earlier only support `mv8'
though.)
gcc mv8plus
cc xarch=v8plus
GMP speed is greatest in `ABI=64', so it's the default where
available. The speed is partly because there are extra registers
available and partly because 64bits is considered the more
important case and has therefore had better code written for it.
Don't be confused by the names of the `m' and `x' compiler
options, they're called `arch' but effectively control both ABI
and ISA.
On Solaris 2.6 and earlier, only `ABI=32' is available since the
kernel doesn't save all registers.
On Solaris 2.7 with the kernel in 32bit mode, a normal native
build will reject `ABI=64' because the resulting executables won't
run. `ABI=64' can still be built if desired by making it look
like a crosscompile, for example
./configure build=none host=sparcv9sunsolaris2.7 ABI=64
File: gmp.info, Node: Notes for Package Builds, Next: Notes for Particular Systems, Prev: ABI and ISA, Up: Installing GMP
2.3 Notes for Package Builds
============================
GMP should present no great difficulties for packaging in a binary
distribution.
Libtool is used to build the library and `versioninfo' is set
appropriately, having started from `3:0:0' in GMP 3.0 (*note Library
interface versions: (libtool)Versioning.).
The GMP 4 series will be upwardly binary compatible in each release
and will be upwardly binary compatible with all of the GMP 3 series.
Additional function interfaces may be added in each release, so on
systems where libtool versioning is not fully checked by the loader an
auxiliary mechanism may be needed to express that a dynamic linked
application depends on a new enough GMP.
An auxiliary mechanism may also be needed to express that
`libgmpxx.la' (from `enablecxx', *note Build Options::) requires
`libgmp.la' from the same GMP version, since this is not done by the
libtool versioning, nor otherwise. A mismatch will result in
unresolved symbols from the linker, or perhaps the loader.
When building a package for a CPU family, care should be taken to use
`host' (or `build') to choose the least common denominator among
the CPUs which might use the package. For example this might mean plain
`sparc' (meaning V7) for SPARCs.
For x86s, `enablefat' sets things up for a fat binary build,
making a runtime selection of optimized low level routines. This is a
good choice for packaging to run on a range of x86 chips.
Users who care about speed will want GMP built for their exact CPU
type, to make best use of the available optimizations. Providing a way
to suitably rebuild a package may be useful. This could be as simple
as making it possible for a user to omit `build' (and `host') so
`./config.guess' will detect the CPU. But a way to manually specify a
`build' will be wanted for systems where `./config.guess' is inexact.
On systems with multiple ABIs, a packaged build will need to decide
which among the choices is to be provided, see *note ABI and ISA::. A
given run of `./configure' etc will only build one ABI. If a second
ABI is also required then a second run of `./configure' etc must be
made, starting from a clean directory tree (`make distclean').
As noted under "ABI and ISA", currently no attempt is made to follow
system conventions for install locations that vary with ABI, such as
`/usr/lib/sparcv9' for `ABI=64' as opposed to `/usr/lib' for `ABI=32'.
A package build can override `libdir' and other standard variables as
necessary.
Note that `gmp.h' is a generated file, and will be architecture and
ABI dependent. When attempting to install two ABIs simultaneously it
will be important that an application compile gets the correct `gmp.h'
for its desired ABI. If compiler include paths don't vary with ABI
options then it might be necessary to create a `/usr/include/gmp.h'
which tests preprocessor symbols and chooses the correct actual `gmp.h'.
File: gmp.info, Node: Notes for Particular Systems, Next: Known Build Problems, Prev: Notes for Package Builds, Up: Installing GMP
2.4 Notes for Particular Systems
================================
AIX 3 and 4
On systems `**aix[34]*' shared libraries are disabled by
default, since some versions of the native `ar' fail on the
convenience libraries used. A shared build can be attempted with
./configure enableshared disablestatic
Note that the `disablestatic' is necessary because in a shared
build libtool makes `libgmp.a' a symlink to `libgmp.so',
apparently for the benefit of old versions of `ld' which only
recognise `.a', but unfortunately this is done even if a fully
functional `ld' is available.
ARM
On systems `arm***', versions of GCC up to and including 2.95.3
have a bug in unsigned division, giving wrong results for some
operands. GMP `./configure' will demand GCC 2.95.4 or later.
Compaq C++
Compaq C++ on OSF 5.1 has two flavours of `iostream', a standard
one and an old prestandard one (see `man iostream_intro'). GMP
can only use the standard one, which unfortunately is not the
default but must be selected by defining `__USE_STD_IOSTREAM'.
Configure with for instance
./configure enablecxx CPPFLAGS=D__USE_STD_IOSTREAM
Floating Point Mode
On some systems, the hardware floating point has a control mode
which can set all operations to be done in a particular precision,
for instance single, double or extended on x86 systems (x87
floating point). The GMP functions involving a `double' cannot be
expected to operate to their full precision when the hardware is
in single precision mode. Of course this affects all code,
including application code, not just GMP.
MSDOS and MS Windows
On an MSDOS system DJGPP can be used to build GMP, and on an MS
Windows system Cygwin, DJGPP and MINGW can be used. All three are
excellent ports of GCC and the various GNU tools.
`http://www.cygwin.com/'
`http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/'
`http://www.mingw.org/'
Microsoft also publishes an Interix "Services for Unix" which can
be used to build GMP on Windows (with a normal `./configure'), but
it's not free software.
MS Windows DLLs
On systems `**cygwin*', `**mingw*' and `**pw32*' by default
GMP builds only a static library, but a DLL can be built instead
using
./configure disablestatic enableshared
Static and DLL libraries can't both be built, since certain export
directives in `gmp.h' must be different.
A MINGW DLL build of GMP can be used with Microsoft C. Libtool
doesn't install a `.lib' format import library, but it can be
created with MS `lib' as follows, and copied to the install
directory. Similarly for `libmp' and `libgmpxx'.
cd .libs
lib /def:libgmp3.dll.def /out:libgmp3.lib
MINGW uses the C runtime library `msvcrt.dll' for I/O, so
applications wanting to use the GMP I/O routines must be compiled
with `cl /MD' to do the same. If one of the other C runtime
library choices provided by MS C is desired then the suggestion is
to use the GMP string functions and confine I/O to the application.
Motorola 68k CPU Types
`m68k' is taken to mean 68000. `m68020' or higher will give a
performance boost on applicable CPUs. `m68360' can be used for
CPU32 series chips. `m68302' can be used for "Dragonball" series
chips, though this is merely a synonym for `m68000'.
OpenBSD 2.6
`m4' in this release of OpenBSD has a bug in `eval' that makes it
unsuitable for `.asm' file processing. `./configure' will detect
the problem and either abort or choose another m4 in the `PATH'.
The bug is fixed in OpenBSD 2.7, so either upgrade or use GNU m4.
Power CPU Types
In GMP, CPU types `power*' and `powerpc*' will each use
instructions not available on the other, so it's important to
choose the right one for the CPU that will be used. Currently GMP
has no assembly code support for using just the common instruction
subset. To get executables that run on both, the current
suggestion is to use the generic C code (`disableassembly'),
possibly with appropriate compiler options (like `mcpu=common' for
`gcc'). CPU `rs6000' (which is not a CPU but a family of
workstations) is accepted by `config.sub', but is currently
equivalent to `disableassembly'.
Sparc CPU Types
`sparcv8' or `supersparc' on relevant systems will give a
significant performance increase over the V7 code selected by plain
`sparc'.
Sparc App Regs
The GMP assembly code for both 32bit and 64bit Sparc clobbers the
"application registers" `g2', `g3' and `g4', the same way that the
GCC default `mappregs' does (*note SPARC Options: (gcc)SPARC
Options.).
This makes that code unsuitable for use with the special V9
`mcmodel=embmedany' (which uses `g4' as a data segment pointer),
and for applications wanting to use those registers for special
purposes. In these cases the only suggestion currently is to
build GMP with `disableassembly' to avoid the assembly code.
SunOS 4
`/usr/bin/m4' lacks various features needed to process `.asm'
files, and instead `./configure' will automatically use
`/usr/5bin/m4', which we believe is always available (if not then
use GNU m4).
x86 CPU Types
`i586', `pentium' or `pentiummmx' code is good for its intended P5
Pentium chips, but quite slow when run on Intel P6 class chips
(PPro, PII, PIII). `i386' is a better choice when making
binaries that must run on both.
x86 MMX and SSE2 Code
If the CPU selected has MMX code but the assembler doesn't support
it, a warning is given and nonMMX code is used instead. This
will be an inferior build, since the MMX code that's present is
there because it's faster than the corresponding plain integer
code. The same applies to SSE2.
Old versions of `gas' don't support MMX instructions, in particular
version 1.92.3 that comes with FreeBSD 2.2.8 or the more recent
OpenBSD 3.1 doesn't.
Solaris 2.6 and 2.7 `as' generate incorrect object code for
register to register `movq' instructions, and so can't be used for
MMX code. Install a recent `gas' if MMX code is wanted on these
systems.
File: gmp.info, Node: Known Build Problems, Next: Performance optimization, Prev: Notes for Particular Systems, Up: Installing GMP
2.5 Known Build Problems
========================
You might find more uptodate information at `http://gmplib.org/'.
Compiler link options
The version of libtool currently in use rather aggressively strips
compiler options when linking a shared library. This will
hopefully be relaxed in the future, but for now if this is a
problem the suggestion is to create a little script to hide them,
and for instance configure with
./configure CC=gccwithmyoptions
DJGPP (`**msdosdjgpp*')
The DJGPP port of `bash' 2.03 is unable to run the `configure'
script, it exits silently, having died writing a preamble to
`config.log'. Use `bash' 2.04 or higher.
`make all' was found to run out of memory during the final
`libgmp.la' link on one system tested, despite having 64Mb
available. Running `make libgmp.la' directly helped, perhaps
recursing into the various subdirectories uses up memory.
GNU binutils `strip' prior to 2.12
`strip' from GNU binutils 2.11 and earlier should not be used on
the static libraries `libgmp.a' and `libmp.a' since it will
discard all but the last of multiple archive members with the same
name, like the three versions of `init.o' in `libgmp.a'. Binutils
2.12 or higher can be used successfully.
The shared libraries `libgmp.so' and `libmp.so' are not affected by
this and any version of `strip' can be used on them.
`make' syntax error
On certain versions of SCO OpenServer 5 and IRIX 6.5 the native
`make' is unable to handle the long dependencies list for
`libgmp.la'. The symptom is a "syntax error" on the following
line of the toplevel `Makefile'.
libgmp.la: $(libgmp_la_OBJECTS) $(libgmp_la_DEPENDENCIES)
Either use GNU Make, or as a workaround remove
`$(libgmp_la_DEPENDENCIES)' from that line (which will make the
initial build work, but if any recompiling is done `libgmp.la'
might not be rebuilt).
MacOS X (`**darwin*')
Libtool currently only knows how to create shared libraries on
MacOS X using the native `cc' (which is a modified GCC), not a
plain GCC. A staticonly build should work though
(`disableshared').
NeXT prior to 3.3
The system compiler on old versions of NeXT was a massacred and
old GCC, even if it called itself `cc'. This compiler cannot be
used to build GMP, you need to get a real GCC, and install that.
(NeXT may have fixed this in release 3.3 of their system.)
POWER and PowerPC
Bugs in GCC 2.7.2 (and 2.6.3) mean it can't be used to compile GMP
on POWER or PowerPC. If you want to use GCC for these machines,
get GCC 2.7.2.1 (or later).
Sequent Symmetry
Use the GNU assembler instead of the system assembler, since the
latter has serious bugs.
Solaris 2.6
The system `sed' prints an error "Output line too long" when
libtool builds `libgmp.la'. This doesn't seem to cause any
obvious ill effects, but GNU `sed' is recommended, to avoid any
doubt.
Sparc Solaris 2.7 with gcc 2.95.2 in `ABI=32'
A shared library build of GMP seems to fail in this combination,
it builds but then fails the tests, apparently due to some
incorrect data relocations within `gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size'.
The exact cause is unknown, `disableshared' is recommended.
File: gmp.info, Node: Performance optimization, Prev: Known Build Problems, Up: Installing GMP
2.6 Performance optimization
============================
For optimal performance, build GMP for the exact CPU type of the target
computer, see *note Build Options::.
Unlike what is the case for most other programs, the compiler
typically doesn't matter much, since GMP uses assembly language for the
most critical operation.
In particular for longrunning GMP applications, and applications
demanding extremely large numbers, building and running the `tuneup'
program in the `tune' subdirectory, can be important. For example,
cd tune
make tuneup
./tuneup
will generate better contents for the `gmpmparam.h' parameter file.
To use the results, put the output in the file indicated in the
`Parameters for ...' header. Then recompile from scratch.
The `tuneup' program takes one useful parameter, `f NNN', which
instructs the program how long to check FFT multiply parameters. If
you're going to use GMP for extremely large numbers, you may want to
run `tuneup' with a large NNN value.
File: gmp.info, Node: GMP Basics, Next: Reporting Bugs, Prev: Installing GMP, Up: Top
3 GMP Basics
************
*Using functions, macros, data types, etc. not documented in this
manual is strongly discouraged. If you do so your application is
guaranteed to be incompatible with future versions of GMP.*
* Menu:
* Headers and Libraries::
* Nomenclature and Types::
* Function Classes::
* Variable Conventions::
* Parameter Conventions::
* Memory Management::
* Reentrancy::
* Useful Macros and Constants::
* Compatibility with older versions::
* Demonstration Programs::
* Efficiency::
* Debugging::
* Profiling::
* Autoconf::
* Emacs::
File: gmp.info, Node: Headers and Libraries, Next: Nomenclature and Types, Prev: GMP Basics, Up: GMP Basics
3.1 Headers and Libraries
=========================
All declarations needed to use GMP are collected in the include file
`gmp.h'. It is designed to work with both C and C++ compilers.
#include
Note however that prototypes for GMP functions with `FILE *'
parameters are only provided if `' is included too.
#include
#include
Likewise `' (or `') is required for prototypes
with `va_list' parameters, such as `gmp_vprintf'. And `'
for prototypes with `struct obstack' parameters, such as
`gmp_obstack_printf', when available.
All programs using GMP must link against the `libgmp' library. On a
typical Unixlike system this can be done with `lgmp', for example
gcc myprogram.c lgmp
GMP C++ functions are in a separate `libgmpxx' library. This is
built and installed if C++ support has been enabled (*note Build
Options::). For example,
g++ mycxxprog.cc lgmpxx lgmp
GMP is built using Libtool and an application can use that to link
if desired, *note GNU Libtool: (libtool)Top.
If GMP has been installed to a nonstandard location then it may be
necessary to use `I' and `L' compiler options to point to the right
directories, and some sort of runtime path for a shared library.
File: gmp.info, Node: Nomenclature and Types, Next: Function Classes, Prev: Headers and Libraries, Up: GMP Basics
3.2 Nomenclature and Types
==========================
In this manual, "integer" usually means a multiple precision integer, as
defined by the GMP library. The C data type for such integers is
`mpz_t'. Here are some examples of how to declare such integers:
mpz_t sum;
struct foo { mpz_t x, y; };
mpz_t vec[20];
"Rational number" means a multiple precision fraction. The C data
type for these fractions is `mpq_t'. For example:
mpq_t quotient;
"Floating point number" or "Float" for short, is an arbitrary
precision mantissa with a limited precision exponent. The C data type
for such objects is `mpf_t'. For example:
mpf_t fp;
The floating point functions accept and return exponents in the C
type `mp_exp_t'. Currently this is usually a `long', but on some
systems it's an `int' for efficiency.
A "limb" means the part of a multiprecision number that fits in a
single machine word. (We chose this word because a limb of the human
body is analogous to a digit, only larger, and containing several
digits.) Normally a limb is 32 or 64 bits. The C data type for a limb
is `mp_limb_t'.
Counts of limbs of a multiprecision number represented in the C type
`mp_size_t'. Currently this is normally a `long', but on some systems
it's an `int' for efficiency, and on some systems it will be `long
long' in the future.
Counts of bits of a multiprecision number are represented in the C
type `mp_bitcnt_t'. Currently this is always an `unsigned long', but on
some systems it will be an `unsigned long long' in the future.
"Random state" means an algorithm selection and current state data.
The C data type for such objects is `gmp_randstate_t'. For example:
gmp_randstate_t rstate;
Also, in general `mp_bitcnt_t' is used for bit counts and ranges, and
`size_t' is used for byte or character counts.
File: gmp.info, Node: Function Classes, Next: Variable Conventions, Prev: Nomenclature and Types, Up: GMP Basics
3.3 Function Classes
====================
There are six classes of functions in the GMP library:
1. Functions for signed integer arithmetic, with names beginning with
`mpz_'. The associated type is `mpz_t'. There are about 150
functions in this class. (*note Integer Functions::)
2. Functions for rational number arithmetic, with names beginning with
`mpq_'. The associated type is `mpq_t'. There are about 40
functions in this class, but the integer functions can be used for
arithmetic on the numerator and denominator separately. (*note
Rational Number Functions::)
3. Functions for floatingpoint arithmetic, with names beginning with
`mpf_'. The associated type is `mpf_t'. There are about 60
functions is this class. (*note Floatingpoint Functions::)
4. Fast lowlevel functions that operate on natural numbers. These
are used by the functions in the preceding groups, and you can
also call them directly from very timecritical user programs.
These functions' names begin with `mpn_'. The associated type is
array of `mp_limb_t'. There are about 30 (hardtouse) functions
in this class. (*note Lowlevel Functions::)
5. Miscellaneous functions. Functions for setting up custom
allocation and functions for generating random numbers. (*note
Custom Allocation::, and *note Random Number Functions::)
File: gmp.info, Node: Variable Conventions, Next: Parameter Conventions, Prev: Function Classes, Up: GMP Basics
3.4 Variable Conventions
========================
GMP functions generally have output arguments before input arguments.
This notation is by analogy with the assignment operator. The BSD MP
compatibility functions are exceptions, having the output arguments
last.
GMP lets you use the same variable for both input and output in one
call. For example, the main function for integer multiplication,
`mpz_mul', can be used to square `x' and put the result back in `x' with
mpz_mul (x, x, x);
Before you can assign to a GMP variable, you need to initialize it
by calling one of the special initialization functions. When you're
done with a variable, you need to clear it out, using one of the
functions for that purpose. Which function to use depends on the type
of variable. See the chapters on integer functions, rational number
functions, and floatingpoint functions for details.
A variable should only be initialized once, or at least cleared
between each initialization. After a variable has been initialized, it
may be assigned to any number of times.
For efficiency reasons, avoid excessive initializing and clearing.
In general, initialize near the start of a function and clear near the
end. For example,
void
foo (void)
{
mpz_t n;
int i;
mpz_init (n);
for (i = 1; i < 100; i++)
{
mpz_mul (n, ...);
mpz_fdiv_q (n, ...);
...
}
mpz_clear (n);
}
File: gmp.info, Node: Parameter Conventions, Next: Memory Management, Prev: Variable Conventions, Up: GMP Basics
3.5 Parameter Conventions
=========================
When a GMP variable is used as a function parameter, it's effectively a
callbyreference, meaning if the function stores a value there it will
change the original in the caller. Parameters which are inputonly can
be designated `const' to provoke a compiler error or warning on
attempting to modify them.
When a function is going to return a GMP result, it should designate
a parameter that it sets, like the library functions do. More than one
value can be returned by having more than one output parameter, again
like the library functions. A `return' of an `mpz_t' etc doesn't
return the object, only a pointer, and this is almost certainly not
what's wanted.
Here's an example accepting an `mpz_t' parameter, doing a
calculation, and storing the result to the indicated parameter.
void
foo (mpz_t result, const mpz_t param, unsigned long n)
{
unsigned long i;
mpz_mul_ui (result, param, n);
for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
mpz_add_ui (result, result, i*7);
}
int
main (void)
{
mpz_t r, n;
mpz_init (r);
mpz_init_set_str (n, "123456", 0);
foo (r, n, 20L);
gmp_printf ("%Zd\n", r);
return 0;
}
`foo' works even if the mainline passes the same variable for
`param' and `result', just like the library functions. But sometimes
it's tricky to make that work, and an application might not want to
bother supporting that sort of thing.
For interest, the GMP types `mpz_t' etc are implemented as
oneelement arrays of certain structures. This is why declaring a
variable creates an object with the fields GMP needs, but then using it
as a parameter passes a pointer to the object. Note that the actual
fields in each `mpz_t' etc are for internal use only and should not be
accessed directly by code that expects to be compatible with future GMP
releases.
File: gmp.info, Node: Memory Management, Next: Reentrancy, Prev: Parameter Conventions, Up: GMP Basics
3.6 Memory Management
=====================
The GMP types like `mpz_t' are small, containing only a couple of sizes,
and pointers to allocated data. Once a variable is initialized, GMP
takes care of all space allocation. Additional space is allocated
whenever a variable doesn't have enough.
`mpz_t' and `mpq_t' variables never reduce their allocated space.
Normally this is the best policy, since it avoids frequent reallocation.
Applications that need to return memory to the heap at some particular
point can use `mpz_realloc2', or clear variables no longer needed.
`mpf_t' variables, in the current implementation, use a fixed amount
of space, determined by the chosen precision and allocated at
initialization, so their size doesn't change.
All memory is allocated using `malloc' and friends by default, but
this can be changed, see *note Custom Allocation::. Temporary memory
on the stack is also used (via `alloca'), but this can be changed at
buildtime if desired, see *note Build Options::.
File: gmp.info, Node: Reentrancy, Next: Useful Macros and Constants, Prev: Memory Management, Up: GMP Basics
3.7 Reentrancy
==============
GMP is reentrant and threadsafe, with some exceptions:
* If configured with `enablealloca=mallocnotreentrant' (or with
`enablealloca=notreentrant' when `alloca' is not available),
then naturally GMP is not reentrant.
* `mpf_set_default_prec' and `mpf_init' use a global variable for the
selected precision. `mpf_init2' can be used instead, and in the
C++ interface an explicit precision to the `mpf_class' constructor.
* `mpz_random' and the other old random number functions use a global
random state and are hence not reentrant. The newer random number
functions that accept a `gmp_randstate_t' parameter can be used
instead.
* `gmp_randinit' (obsolete) returns an error indication through a
global variable, which is not thread safe. Applications are
advised to use `gmp_randinit_default' or `gmp_randinit_lc_2exp'
instead.
* `mp_set_memory_functions' uses global variables to store the
selected memory allocation functions.
* If the memory allocation functions set by a call to
`mp_set_memory_functions' (or `malloc' and friends by default) are
not reentrant, then GMP will not be reentrant either.
* If the standard I/O functions such as `fwrite' are not reentrant
then the GMP I/O functions using them will not be reentrant either.
* It's safe for two threads to read from the same GMP variable
simultaneously, but it's not safe for one to read while the
another might be writing, nor for two threads to write
simultaneously. It's not safe for two threads to generate a
random number from the same `gmp_randstate_t' simultaneously,
since this involves an update of that variable.
File: gmp.info, Node: Useful Macros and Constants, Next: Compatibility with older versions, Prev: Reentrancy, Up: GMP Basics
3.8 Useful Macros and Constants
===============================
 Global Constant: const int mp_bits_per_limb
The number of bits per limb.
 Macro: __GNU_MP_VERSION
 Macro: __GNU_MP_VERSION_MINOR
 Macro: __GNU_MP_VERSION_PATCHLEVEL
The major and minor GMP version, and patch level, respectively, as
integers. For GMP i.j, these numbers will be i, j, and 0,
respectively. For GMP i.j.k, these numbers will be i, j, and k,
respectively.
 Global Constant: const char * const gmp_version
The GMP version number, as a nullterminated string, in the form
"i.j.k". This release is "5.1.1". Note that the format "i.j" was
used, before version 4.3.0, when k was zero.
 Macro: __GMP_CC
 Macro: __GMP_CFLAGS
The compiler and compiler flags, respectively, used when compiling
GMP, as strings.
File: gmp.info, Node: Compatibility with older versions, Next: Demonstration Programs, Prev: Useful Macros and Constants, Up: GMP Basics
3.9 Compatibility with older versions
=====================================
This version of GMP is upwardly binary compatible with all 5.x, 4.x,
and 3.x versions, and upwardly compatible at the source level with all
2.x versions, with the following exceptions.
* `mpn_gcd' had its source arguments swapped as of GMP 3.0, for
consistency with other `mpn' functions.
* `mpf_get_prec' counted precision slightly differently in GMP 3.0
and 3.0.1, but in 3.1 reverted to the 2.x style.
* `mpn_bdivmod', documented as preliminary in GMP 4, has been
removed.
There are a number of compatibility issues between GMP 1 and GMP 2
that of course also apply when porting applications from GMP 1 to GMP
5. Please see the GMP 2 manual for details.
File: gmp.info, Node: Demonstration Programs, Next: Efficiency, Prev: Compatibility with older versions, Up: GMP Basics
3.10 Demonstration programs
===========================
The `demos' subdirectory has some sample programs using GMP. These
aren't built or installed, but there's a `Makefile' with rules for them.
For instance,
make pexpr
./pexpr 68^975+10
The following programs are provided
* `pexpr' is an expression evaluator, the program used on the GMP
web page.
* The `calc' subdirectory has a similar but simpler evaluator using
`lex' and `yacc'.
* The `expr' subdirectory is yet another expression evaluator, a
library designed for ease of use within a C program. See
`demos/expr/README' for more information.
* `factorize' is a PollardRho factorization program.
* `isprime' is a commandline interface to the `mpz_probab_prime_p'
function.
* `primes' counts or lists primes in an interval, using a sieve.
* `qcn' is an example use of `mpz_kronecker_ui' to estimate quadratic
class numbers.
* The `perl' subdirectory is a comprehensive perl interface to GMP.
See `demos/perl/INSTALL' for more information. Documentation is
in POD format in `demos/perl/GMP.pm'.
As an aside, consideration has been given at various times to some
sort of expression evaluation within the main GMP library. Going
beyond something minimal quickly leads to matters like userdefined
functions, looping, fixnums for control variables, etc, which are
considered outside the scope of GMP (much closer to language
interpreters or compilers, *Note Language Bindings::.) Something
simple for program input convenience may yet be a possibility, a
combination of the `expr' demo and the `pexpr' tree backend perhaps.
But for now the above evaluators are offered as illustrations.
File: gmp.info, Node: Efficiency, Next: Debugging, Prev: Demonstration Programs, Up: GMP Basics
3.11 Efficiency
===============
Small Operands
On small operands, the time for function call overheads and memory
allocation can be significant in comparison to actual calculation.
This is unavoidable in a general purpose variable precision
library, although GMP attempts to be as efficient as it can on
both large and small operands.
Static Linking
On some CPUs, in particular the x86s, the static `libgmp.a' should
be used for maximum speed, since the PIC code in the shared
`libgmp.so' will have a small overhead on each function call and
global data address. For many programs this will be
insignificant, but for long calculations there's a gain to be had.
Initializing and Clearing
Avoid excessive initializing and clearing of variables, since this
can be quite time consuming, especially in comparison to otherwise
fast operations like addition.
A language interpreter might want to keep a free list or stack of
initialized variables ready for use. It should be possible to
integrate something like that with a garbage collector too.
Reallocations
An `mpz_t' or `mpq_t' variable used to hold successively increasing
values will have its memory repeatedly `realloc'ed, which could be
quite slow or could fragment memory, depending on the C library.
If an application can estimate the final size then `mpz_init2' or
`mpz_realloc2' can be called to allocate the necessary space from
the beginning (*note Initializing Integers::).
It doesn't matter if a size set with `mpz_init2' or `mpz_realloc2'
is too small, since all functions will do a further reallocation
if necessary. Badly overestimating memory required will waste
space though.
`2exp' Functions
It's up to an application to call functions like `mpz_mul_2exp'
when appropriate. General purpose functions like `mpz_mul' make
no attempt to identify powers of two or other special forms,
because such inputs will usually be very rare and testing every
time would be wasteful.
`ui' and `si' Functions
The `ui' functions and the small number of `si' functions exist for
convenience and should be used where applicable. But if for
example an `mpz_t' contains a value that fits in an `unsigned
long' there's no need extract it and call a `ui' function, just
use the regular `mpz' function.
InPlace Operations
`mpz_abs', `mpq_abs', `mpf_abs', `mpz_neg', `mpq_neg' and
`mpf_neg' are fast when used for inplace operations like
`mpz_abs(x,x)', since in the current implementation only a single
field of `x' needs changing. On suitable compilers (GCC for
instance) this is inlined too.
`mpz_add_ui', `mpz_sub_ui', `mpf_add_ui' and `mpf_sub_ui' benefit
from an inplace operation like `mpz_add_ui(x,x,y)', since usually
only one or two limbs of `x' will need to be changed. The same
applies to the full precision `mpz_add' etc if `y' is small. If
`y' is big then cache locality may be helped, but that's all.
`mpz_mul' is currently the opposite, a separate destination is
slightly better. A call like `mpz_mul(x,x,y)' will, unless `y' is
only one limb, make a temporary copy of `x' before forming the
result. Normally that copying will only be a tiny fraction of the
time for the multiply, so this is not a particularly important
consideration.
`mpz_set', `mpq_set', `mpq_set_num', `mpf_set', etc, make no
attempt to recognise a copy of something to itself, so a call like
`mpz_set(x,x)' will be wasteful. Naturally that would never be
written deliberately, but if it might arise from two pointers to
the same object then a test to avoid it might be desirable.
if (x != y)
mpz_set (x, y);
Note that it's never worth introducing extra `mpz_set' calls just
to get inplace operations. If a result should go to a particular
variable then just direct it there and let GMP take care of data
movement.
Divisibility Testing (Small Integers)
`mpz_divisible_ui_p' and `mpz_congruent_ui_p' are the best
functions for testing whether an `mpz_t' is divisible by an
individual small integer. They use an algorithm which is faster
than `mpz_tdiv_ui', but which gives no useful information about
the actual remainder, only whether it's zero (or a particular
value).
However when testing divisibility by several small integers, it's
best to take a remainder modulo their product, to save
multiprecision operations. For instance to test whether a number
is divisible by any of 23, 29 or 31 take a remainder modulo
23*29*31 = 20677 and then test that.
The division functions like `mpz_tdiv_q_ui' which give a quotient
as well as a remainder are generally a little slower than the
remainderonly functions like `mpz_tdiv_ui'. If the quotient is
only rarely wanted then it's probably best to just take a
remainder and then go back and calculate the quotient if and when
it's wanted (`mpz_divexact_ui' can be used if the remainder is
zero).
Rational Arithmetic
The `mpq' functions operate on `mpq_t' values with no common
factors in the numerator and denominator. Common factors are
checkedfor and cast out as necessary. In general, cancelling
factors every time is the best approach since it minimizes the
sizes for subsequent operations.
However, applications that know something about the factorization
of the values they're working with might be able to avoid some of
the GCDs used for canonicalization, or swap them for divisions.
For example when multiplying by a prime it's enough to check for
factors of it in the denominator instead of doing a full GCD. Or
when forming a big product it might be known that very little
cancellation will be possible, and so canonicalization can be left
to the end.
The `mpq_numref' and `mpq_denref' macros give access to the
numerator and denominator to do things outside the scope of the
supplied `mpq' functions. *Note Applying Integer Functions::.
The canonical form for rationals allows mixedtype `mpq_t' and
integer additions or subtractions to be done directly with
multiples of the denominator. This will be somewhat faster than
`mpq_add'. For example,
/* mpq increment */
mpz_add (mpq_numref(q), mpq_numref(q), mpq_denref(q));
/* mpq += unsigned long */
mpz_addmul_ui (mpq_numref(q), mpq_denref(q), 123UL);
/* mpq = mpz */
mpz_submul (mpq_numref(q), mpq_denref(q), z);
Number Sequences
Functions like `mpz_fac_ui', `mpz_fib_ui' and `mpz_bin_uiui' are
designed for calculating isolated values. If a range of values is
wanted it's probably best to call to get a starting point and
iterate from there.
Text Input/Output
Hexadecimal or octal are suggested for input or output in text
form. Powerof2 bases like these can be converted much more
efficiently than other bases, like decimal. For big numbers
there's usually nothing of particular interest to be seen in the
digits, so the base doesn't matter much.
Maybe we can hope octal will one day become the normal base for
everyday use, as proposed by King Charles XII of Sweden and later
reformers.
File: gmp.info, Node: Debugging, Next: Profiling, Prev: Efficiency, Up: GMP Basics
3.12 Debugging
==============
Stack Overflow
Depending on the system, a segmentation violation or bus error
might be the only indication of stack overflow. See
`enablealloca' choices in *note Build Options::, for how to
address this.
In new enough versions of GCC, `fstackcheck' may be able to
ensure an overflow is recognised by the system before too much
damage is done, or `fstacklimitsymbol' or
`fstacklimitregister' may be able to add checking if the system
itself doesn't do any (*note Options for Code Generation:
(gcc)Code Gen Options.). These options must be added to the
`CFLAGS' used in the GMP build (*note Build Options::), adding
them just to an application will have no effect. Note also
they're a slowdown, adding overhead to each function call and each
stack allocation.
Heap Problems
The most likely cause of application problems with GMP is heap
corruption. Failing to `init' GMP variables will have
unpredictable effects, and corruption arising elsewhere in a
program may well affect GMP. Initializing GMP variables more than
once or failing to clear them will cause memory leaks.
In all such cases a `malloc' debugger is recommended. On a GNU or
BSD system the standard C library `malloc' has some diagnostic
facilities, see *note Allocation Debugging: (libc)Allocation
Debugging, or `man 3 malloc'. Other possibilities, in no
particular order, include
`http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/biere/projects/ccmalloc/'
`http://dmalloc.com/'
`http://www.perens.com/FreeSoftware/' (electric fence)
`http://packages.debian.org/stable/devel/fda'
`http://www.gnupdate.org/components/leakbug/'
`http://people.redhat.com/~otaylor/memprof/'
`http://www.cbmamiga.demon.co.uk/mpatrol/'
The GMP default allocation routines in `memory.c' also have a
simple sentinel scheme which can be enabled with `#define DEBUG'
in that file. This is mainly designed for detecting buffer
overruns during GMP development, but might find other uses.
Stack Backtraces
On some systems the compiler options GMP uses by default can
interfere with debugging. In particular on x86 and 68k systems
`fomitframepointer' is used and this generally inhibits stack
backtracing. Recompiling without such options may help while
debugging, though the usual caveats about it potentially moving a
memory problem or hiding a compiler bug will apply.
GDB, the GNU Debugger
A sample `.gdbinit' is included in the distribution, showing how
to call some undocumented dump functions to print GMP variables
from within GDB. Note that these functions shouldn't be used in
final application code since they're undocumented and may be
subject to incompatible changes in future versions of GMP.
Source File Paths
GMP has multiple source files with the same name, in different
directories. For example `mpz', `mpq' and `mpf' each have an
`init.c'. If the debugger can't already determine the right one
it may help to build with absolute paths on each C file. One way
to do that is to use a separate object directory with an absolute
path to the source directory.
cd /my/build/dir
/my/source/dir/gmp5.1.1/configure
This works via `VPATH', and might require GNU `make'. Alternately
it might be possible to change the `.c.lo' rules appropriately.
Assertion Checking
The build option `enableassert' is available to add some
consistency checks to the library (see *note Build Options::).
These are likely to be of limited value to most applications.
Assertion failures are just as likely to indicate memory
corruption as a library or compiler bug.
Applications using the lowlevel `mpn' functions, however, will
benefit from `enableassert' since it adds checks on the
parameters of most such functions, many of which have subtle
restrictions on their usage. Note however that only the generic C
code has checks, not the assembly code, so `disableassembly'
should be used for maximum checking.
Temporary Memory Checking
The build option `enablealloca=debug' arranges that each block
of temporary memory in GMP is allocated with a separate call to
`malloc' (or the allocation function set with
`mp_set_memory_functions').
This can help a malloc debugger detect accesses outside the
intended bounds, or detect memory not released. In a normal
build, on the other hand, temporary memory is allocated in blocks
which GMP divides up for its own use, or may be allocated with a
compiler builtin `alloca' which will go nowhere near any malloc
debugger hooks.
Maximum Debuggability
To summarize the above, a GMP build for maximum debuggability
would be
./configure disableshared enableassert \
enablealloca=debug disableassembly CFLAGS=g
For C++, add `enablecxx CXXFLAGS=g'.
Checker
The GCC checker (`http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/checker/')
can be used with GMP. It contains a stub library which means GMP
applications compiled with checker can use a normal GMP build.
A build of GMP with checking within GMP itself can be made. This
will run very very slowly. On GNU/Linux for example,
./configure disableassembly CC=checkergcc
`disableassembly' must be used, since the GMP assembly code
doesn't support the checking scheme. The GMP C++ features cannot
be used, since current versions of checker (0.9.9.1) don't yet
support the standard C++ library.
Valgrind
The valgrind program (`http://valgrind.org/') is a memory checker
for x86s. It translates and emulates machine instructions to do
strong checks for uninitialized data (at the level of individual
bits), memory accesses through bad pointers, and memory leaks.
Recent versions of Valgrind are getting support for MMX and
SSE/SSE2 instructions, for past versions GMP will need to be
configured not to use those, i.e. for an x86 without them (for
instance plain `i486').
GMP's assembly code sometimes promotes a read of the limbs to some
larger size, for efficiency. GMP will do this even at the start
and end of a multilimb operand, using naturaly aligned operations
on the larger type. This may lead to benign reads outside of
allocated areas, triggering complants from Valgrind.
Other Problems
Any suspected bug in GMP itself should be isolated to make sure
it's not an application problem, see *note Reporting Bugs::.
File: gmp.info, Node: Profiling, Next: Autoconf, Prev: Debugging, Up: GMP Basics
3.13 Profiling
==============
Running a program under a profiler is a good way to find where it's
spending most time and where improvements can be best sought. The
profiling choices for a GMP build are as follows.
`disableprofiling'
The default is to add nothing special for profiling.
It should be possible to just compile the mainline of a program
with `p' and use `prof' to get a profile consisting of
timerbased sampling of the program counter. Most of the GMP
assembly code has the necessary symbol information.
This approach has the advantage of minimizing interference with
normal program operation, but on most systems the resolution of
the sampling is quite low (10 milliseconds for instance),
requiring long runs to get accurate information.
`enableprofiling=prof'
Build with support for the system `prof', which means `p' added
to the `CFLAGS'.
This provides call counting in addition to program counter
sampling, which allows the most frequently called routines to be
identified, and an average time spent in each routine to be
determined.
The x86 assembly code has support for this option, but on other
processors the assembly routines will be as if compiled without
`p' and therefore won't appear in the call counts.
On some systems, such as GNU/Linux, `p' in fact means `pg' and in
this case `enableprofiling=gprof' described below should be used
instead.
`enableprofiling=gprof'
Build with support for `gprof', which means `pg' added to the
`CFLAGS'.
This provides call graph construction in addition to call counting
and program counter sampling, which makes it possible to count
calls coming from different locations. For example the number of
calls to `mpn_mul' from `mpz_mul' versus the number from
`mpf_mul'. The program counter sampling is still flat though, so
only a total time in `mpn_mul' would be accumulated, not a
separate amount for each call site.
The x86 assembly code has support for this option, but on other
processors the assembly routines will be as if compiled without
`pg' and therefore not be included in the call counts.
On x86 and m68k systems `pg' and `fomitframepointer' are
incompatible, so the latter is omitted from the default flags in
that case, which might result in poorer code generation.
Incidentally, it should be possible to use the `gprof' program
with a plain `enableprofiling=prof' build. But in that case
only the `gprof p' flat profile and call counts can be expected
to be valid, not the `gprof q' call graph.
`enableprofiling=instrument'
Build with the GCC option `finstrumentfunctions' added to the
`CFLAGS' (*note Options for Code Generation: (gcc)Code Gen
Options.).
This inserts special instrumenting calls at the start and end of
each function, allowing exact timing and full call graph
construction.
This instrumenting is not normally a standard system feature and
will require support from an external library, such as
`http://sourceforge.net/projects/fnccheck/'
This should be included in `LIBS' during the GMP configure so that
test programs will link. For example,
./configure enableprofiling=instrument LIBS=lfc
On a GNU system the C library provides dummy instrumenting
functions, so programs compiled with this option will link. In
this case it's only necessary to ensure the correct library is
added when linking an application.
The x86 assembly code supports this option, but on other
processors the assembly routines will be as if compiled without
`finstrumentfunctions' meaning time spent in them will
effectively be attributed to their caller.
File: gmp.info, Node: Autoconf, Next: Emacs, Prev: Profiling, Up: GMP Basics
3.14 Autoconf
=============
Autoconf based applications can easily check whether GMP is installed.
The only thing to be noted is that GMP library symbols from version 3
onwards have prefixes like `__gmpz'. The following therefore would be
a simple test,
AC_CHECK_LIB(gmp, __gmpz_init)
This just uses the default `AC_CHECK_LIB' actions for found or not
found, but an application that must have GMP would want to generate an
error if not found. For example,
AC_CHECK_LIB(gmp, __gmpz_init, ,
[AC_MSG_ERROR([GNU MP not found, see http://gmplib.org/])])
If functions added in some particular version of GMP are required,
then one of those can be used when checking. For example `mpz_mul_si'
was added in GMP 3.1,
AC_CHECK_LIB(gmp, __gmpz_mul_si, ,
[AC_MSG_ERROR(
[GNU MP not found, or not 3.1 or up, see http://gmplib.org/])])
An alternative would be to test the version number in `gmp.h' using
say `AC_EGREP_CPP'. That would make it possible to test the exact
version, if some particular subminor release is known to be necessary.
In general it's recommended that applications should simply demand a
new enough GMP rather than trying to provide supplements for features
not available in past versions.
Occasionally an application will need or want to know the size of a
type at configuration or preprocessing time, not just with `sizeof' in
the code. This can be done in the normal way with `mp_limb_t' etc, but
GMP 4.0 or up is best for this, since prior versions needed certain
`D' defines on systems using a `long long' limb. The following would
suit Autoconf 2.50 or up,
AC_CHECK_SIZEOF(mp_limb_t, , [#include ])
File: gmp.info, Node: Emacs, Prev: Autoconf, Up: GMP Basics
3.15 Emacs
==========
(`infolookupsymbol') is a good way to find documentation on
C functions while editing (*note Info Documentation Lookup: (emacs)Info
Lookup.).
The GMP manual can be included in such lookups by putting the
following in your `.emacs',
(evalafterload "infolook"
'(let ((modevalue (assoc 'cmode (assoc 'symbol infolookupalist))))
(setcar (nthcdr 3 modevalue)
(cons '("(gmp)Function Index" nil "^ .* " "\\>")
(nth 3 modevalue)))))
File: gmp.info, Node: Reporting Bugs, Next: Integer Functions, Prev: GMP Basics, Up: Top
4 Reporting Bugs
****************
If you think you have found a bug in the GMP library, please
investigate it and report it. We have made this library available to
you, and it is not too much to ask you to report the bugs you find.
Before you report a bug, check it's not already addressed in *note
Known Build Problems::, or perhaps *note Notes for Particular
Systems::. You may also want to check `http://gmplib.org/' for patches
for this release.
Please include the following in any report,
* The GMP version number, and if prepackaged or patched then say so.
* A test program that makes it possible for us to reproduce the bug.
Include instructions on how to run the program.
* A description of what is wrong. If the results are incorrect, in
what way. If you get a crash, say so.
* If you get a crash, include a stack backtrace from the debugger if
it's informative (`where' in `gdb', or `$C' in `adb').
* Please do not send core dumps, executables or `strace's.
* The configuration options you used when building GMP, if any.
* The name of the compiler and its version. For `gcc', get the
version with `gcc v', otherwise perhaps `what `which cc`', or
similar.
* The output from running `uname a'.
* The output from running `./config.guess', and from running
`./configfsf.guess' (might be the same).
* If the bug is related to `configure', then the compressed contents
of `config.log'.
* If the bug is related to an `asm' file not assembling, then the
contents of `config.m4' and the offending line or lines from the
temporary `mpn/tmp.s'.
Please make an effort to produce a selfcontained report, with
something definite that can be tested or debugged. Vague queries or
piecemeal messages are difficult to act on and don't help the
development effort.
It is not uncommon that an observed problem is actually due to a bug
in the compiler; the GMP code tends to explore interesting corners in
compilers.
If your bug report is good, we will do our best to help you get a
corrected version of the library; if the bug report is poor, we won't
do anything about it (except maybe ask you to send a better report).
Send your report to: .
If you think something in this manual is unclear, or downright
incorrect, or if the language needs to be improved, please send a note
to the same address.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Functions, Next: Rational Number Functions, Prev: Reporting Bugs, Up: Top
5 Integer Functions
*******************
This chapter describes the GMP functions for performing integer
arithmetic. These functions start with the prefix `mpz_'.
GMP integers are stored in objects of type `mpz_t'.
* Menu:
* Initializing Integers::
* Assigning Integers::
* Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign::
* Converting Integers::
* Integer Arithmetic::
* Integer Division::
* Integer Exponentiation::
* Integer Roots::
* Number Theoretic Functions::
* Integer Comparisons::
* Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling::
* I/O of Integers::
* Integer Random Numbers::
* Integer Import and Export::
* Miscellaneous Integer Functions::
* Integer Special Functions::
File: gmp.info, Node: Initializing Integers, Next: Assigning Integers, Prev: Integer Functions, Up: Integer Functions
5.1 Initialization Functions
============================
The functions for integer arithmetic assume that all integer objects are
initialized. You do that by calling the function `mpz_init'. For
example,
{
mpz_t integ;
mpz_init (integ);
...
mpz_add (integ, ...);
...
mpz_sub (integ, ...);
/* Unless the program is about to exit, do ... */
mpz_clear (integ);
}
As you can see, you can store new values any number of times, once an
object is initialized.
 Function: void mpz_init (mpz_t X)
Initialize X, and set its value to 0.
 Function: void mpz_inits (mpz_t X, ...)
Initialize a NULLterminated list of `mpz_t' variables, and set
their values to 0.
 Function: void mpz_init2 (mpz_t X, mp_bitcnt_t N)
Initialize X, with space for Nbit numbers, and set its value to 0.
Calling this function instead of `mpz_init' or `mpz_inits' is never
necessary; reallocation is handled automatically by GMP when
needed.
While N defines the initial space, X will grow automatically in the
normal way, if necessary, for subsequent values stored.
`mpz_init2' makes it possible to avoid such reallocations if a
maximum size is known in advance.
In preparation for an operation, GMP often allocates one limb more
than ultimately needed. To make sure GMP will not perform
reallocation for X, you need to add the number of bits in
`mp_limb_t' to N.
 Function: void mpz_clear (mpz_t X)
Free the space occupied by X. Call this function for all `mpz_t'
variables when you are done with them.
 Function: void mpz_clears (mpz_t X, ...)
Free the space occupied by a NULLterminated list of `mpz_t'
variables.
 Function: void mpz_realloc2 (mpz_t X, mp_bitcnt_t N)
Change the space allocated for X to N bits. The value in X is
preserved if it fits, or is set to 0 if not.
Calling this function is never necessary; reallocation is handled
automatically by GMP when needed. But this function can be used
to increase the space for a variable in order to avoid repeated
automatic reallocations, or to decrease it to give memory back to
the heap.
File: gmp.info, Node: Assigning Integers, Next: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign, Prev: Initializing Integers, Up: Integer Functions
5.2 Assignment Functions
========================
These functions assign new values to already initialized integers
(*note Initializing Integers::).
 Function: void mpz_set (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
 Function: void mpz_set_ui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int OP)
 Function: void mpz_set_si (mpz_t ROP, signed long int OP)
 Function: void mpz_set_d (mpz_t ROP, double OP)
 Function: void mpz_set_q (mpz_t ROP, mpq_t OP)
 Function: void mpz_set_f (mpz_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
Set the value of ROP from OP.
`mpz_set_d', `mpz_set_q' and `mpz_set_f' truncate OP to make it an
integer.
 Function: int mpz_set_str (mpz_t ROP, char *STR, int BASE)
Set the value of ROP from STR, a nullterminated C string in base
BASE. White space is allowed in the string, and is simply ignored.
The BASE may vary from 2 to 62, or if BASE is 0, then the leading
characters are used: `0x' and `0X' for hexadecimal, `0b' and `0B'
for binary, `0' for octal, or decimal otherwise.
For bases up to 36, case is ignored; uppercase and lowercase
letters have the same value. For bases 37 to 62, uppercase
letter represent the usual 10..35 while lowercase letter
represent 36..61.
This function returns 0 if the entire string is a valid number in
base BASE. Otherwise it returns 1.
 Function: void mpz_swap (mpz_t ROP1, mpz_t ROP2)
Swap the values ROP1 and ROP2 efficiently.
File: gmp.info, Node: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign, Next: Converting Integers, Prev: Assigning Integers, Up: Integer Functions
5.3 Combined Initialization and Assignment Functions
====================================================
For convenience, GMP provides a parallel series of initializeandset
functions which initialize the output and then store the value there.
These functions' names have the form `mpz_init_set...'
Here is an example of using one:
{
mpz_t pie;
mpz_init_set_str (pie, "3141592653589793238462643383279502884", 10);
...
mpz_sub (pie, ...);
...
mpz_clear (pie);
}
Once the integer has been initialized by any of the `mpz_init_set...'
functions, it can be used as the source or destination operand for the
ordinary integer functions. Don't use an initializeandset function
on a variable already initialized!
 Function: void mpz_init_set (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
 Function: void mpz_init_set_ui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int OP)
 Function: void mpz_init_set_si (mpz_t ROP, signed long int OP)
 Function: void mpz_init_set_d (mpz_t ROP, double OP)
Initialize ROP with limb space and set the initial numeric value
from OP.
 Function: int mpz_init_set_str (mpz_t ROP, char *STR, int BASE)
Initialize ROP and set its value like `mpz_set_str' (see its
documentation above for details).
If the string is a correct base BASE number, the function returns
0; if an error occurs it returns 1. ROP is initialized even if
an error occurs. (I.e., you have to call `mpz_clear' for it.)
File: gmp.info, Node: Converting Integers, Next: Integer Arithmetic, Prev: Simultaneous Integer Init & Assign, Up: Integer Functions
5.4 Conversion Functions
========================
This section describes functions for converting GMP integers to
standard C types. Functions for converting _to_ GMP integers are
described in *note Assigning Integers:: and *note I/O of Integers::.
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_get_ui (mpz_t OP)
Return the value of OP as an `unsigned long'.
If OP is too big to fit an `unsigned long' then just the least
significant bits that do fit are returned. The sign of OP is
ignored, only the absolute value is used.
 Function: signed long int mpz_get_si (mpz_t OP)
If OP fits into a `signed long int' return the value of OP.
Otherwise return the least significant part of OP, with the same
sign as OP.
If OP is too big to fit in a `signed long int', the returned
result is probably not very useful. To find out if the value will
fit, use the function `mpz_fits_slong_p'.
 Function: double mpz_get_d (mpz_t OP)
Convert OP to a `double', truncating if necessary (i.e. rounding
towards zero).
If the exponent from the conversion is too big, the result is
system dependent. An infinity is returned where available. A
hardware overflow trap may or may not occur.
 Function: double mpz_get_d_2exp (signed long int *EXP, mpz_t OP)
Convert OP to a `double', truncating if necessary (i.e. rounding
towards zero), and returning the exponent separately.
The return value is in the range 0.5<=abs(D)<1 and the exponent is
stored to `*EXP'. D * 2^EXP is the (truncated) OP value. If OP
is zero, the return is 0.0 and 0 is stored to `*EXP'.
This is similar to the standard C `frexp' function (*note
Normalization Functions: (libc)Normalization Functions.).
 Function: char * mpz_get_str (char *STR, int BASE, mpz_t OP)
Convert OP to a string of digits in base BASE. The base argument
may vary from 2 to 62 or from 2 to 36.
For BASE in the range 2..36, digits and lowercase letters are
used; for 2..36, digits and uppercase letters are used; for
37..62, digits, uppercase letters, and lowercase letters (in
that significance order) are used.
If STR is `NULL', the result string is allocated using the current
allocation function (*note Custom Allocation::). The block will be
`strlen(str)+1' bytes, that being exactly enough for the string and
nullterminator.
If STR is not `NULL', it should point to a block of storage large
enough for the result, that being `mpz_sizeinbase (OP, BASE) + 2'.
The two extra bytes are for a possible minus sign, and the
nullterminator.
A pointer to the result string is returned, being either the
allocated block, or the given STR.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Arithmetic, Next: Integer Division, Prev: Converting Integers, Up: Integer Functions
5.5 Arithmetic Functions
========================
 Function: void mpz_add (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: void mpz_add_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 + OP2.
 Function: void mpz_sub (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: void mpz_sub_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
 Function: void mpz_ui_sub (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int OP1, mpz_t
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1  OP2.
 Function: void mpz_mul (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: void mpz_mul_si (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, long int OP2)
 Function: void mpz_mul_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 times OP2.
 Function: void mpz_addmul (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: void mpz_addmul_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, unsigned long
int OP2)
Set ROP to ROP + OP1 times OP2.
 Function: void mpz_submul (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: void mpz_submul_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, unsigned long
int OP2)
Set ROP to ROP  OP1 times OP2.
 Function: void mpz_mul_2exp (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mp_bitcnt_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 times 2 raised to OP2. This operation can also be
defined as a left shift by OP2 bits.
 Function: void mpz_neg (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
Set ROP to OP.
 Function: void mpz_abs (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
Set ROP to the absolute value of OP.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Division, Next: Integer Exponentiation, Prev: Integer Arithmetic, Up: Integer Functions
5.6 Division Functions
======================
Division is undefined if the divisor is zero. Passing a zero divisor
to the division or modulo functions (including the modular powering
functions `mpz_powm' and `mpz_powm_ui'), will cause an intentional
division by zero. This lets a program handle arithmetic exceptions in
these functions the same way as for normal C `int' arithmetic.
 Function: void mpz_cdiv_q (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: void mpz_cdiv_r (mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: void mpz_cdiv_qr (mpz_t Q, mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_q_ui (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_r_ui (mpz_t R, mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_qr_ui (mpz_t Q, mpz_t R,
mpz_t N, unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_ui (mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: void mpz_cdiv_q_2exp (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N, mp_bitcnt_t B)
 Function: void mpz_cdiv_r_2exp (mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mp_bitcnt_t B)
 Function: void mpz_fdiv_q (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: void mpz_fdiv_r (mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: void mpz_fdiv_qr (mpz_t Q, mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_q_ui (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_r_ui (mpz_t R, mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_qr_ui (mpz_t Q, mpz_t R,
mpz_t N, unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_ui (mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: void mpz_fdiv_q_2exp (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N, mp_bitcnt_t B)
 Function: void mpz_fdiv_r_2exp (mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mp_bitcnt_t B)
 Function: void mpz_tdiv_q (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: void mpz_tdiv_r (mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: void mpz_tdiv_qr (mpz_t Q, mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mpz_t D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_q_ui (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_r_ui (mpz_t R, mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_qr_ui (mpz_t Q, mpz_t R,
mpz_t N, unsigned long int D)
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_ui (mpz_t N,
unsigned long int D)
 Function: void mpz_tdiv_q_2exp (mpz_t Q, mpz_t N, mp_bitcnt_t B)
 Function: void mpz_tdiv_r_2exp (mpz_t R, mpz_t N, mp_bitcnt_t B)
Divide N by D, forming a quotient Q and/or remainder R. For the
`2exp' functions, D=2^B. The rounding is in three styles, each
suiting different applications.
* `cdiv' rounds Q up towards +infinity, and R will have the
opposite sign to D. The `c' stands for "ceil".
* `fdiv' rounds Q down towards infinity, and R will have the
same sign as D. The `f' stands for "floor".
* `tdiv' rounds Q towards zero, and R will have the same sign
as N. The `t' stands for "truncate".
In all cases Q and R will satisfy N=Q*D+R, and R will satisfy
0<=abs(R) 0 and that MOD is odd.
This function is designed to take the same time and have the same
cache access patterns for any two samesize arguments, assuming
that function arguments are placed at the same position and that
the machine state is identical upon function entry. This function
is intended for cryptographic purposes, where resilience to
sidechannel attacks is desired.
 Function: void mpz_pow_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t BASE, unsigned long int
EXP)
 Function: void mpz_ui_pow_ui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int BASE,
unsigned long int EXP)
Set ROP to BASE raised to EXP. The case 0^0 yields 1.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Roots, Next: Number Theoretic Functions, Prev: Integer Exponentiation, Up: Integer Functions
5.8 Root Extraction Functions
=============================
 Function: int mpz_root (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP, unsigned long int N)
Set ROP to the truncated integer part of the Nth root of OP.
Return nonzero if the computation was exact, i.e., if OP is ROP
to the Nth power.
 Function: void mpz_rootrem (mpz_t ROOT, mpz_t REM, mpz_t U,
unsigned long int N)
Set ROOT to the truncated integer part of the Nth root of U. Set
REM to the remainder, UROOT**N.
 Function: void mpz_sqrt (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
Set ROP to the truncated integer part of the square root of OP.
 Function: void mpz_sqrtrem (mpz_t ROP1, mpz_t ROP2, mpz_t OP)
Set ROP1 to the truncated integer part of the square root of OP,
like `mpz_sqrt'. Set ROP2 to the remainder OPROP1*ROP1, which
will be zero if OP is a perfect square.
If ROP1 and ROP2 are the same variable, the results are undefined.
 Function: int mpz_perfect_power_p (mpz_t OP)
Return nonzero if OP is a perfect power, i.e., if there exist
integers A and B, with B>1, such that OP equals A raised to the
power B.
Under this definition both 0 and 1 are considered to be perfect
powers. Negative values of OP are accepted, but of course can
only be odd perfect powers.
 Function: int mpz_perfect_square_p (mpz_t OP)
Return nonzero if OP is a perfect square, i.e., if the square
root of OP is an integer. Under this definition both 0 and 1 are
considered to be perfect squares.
File: gmp.info, Node: Number Theoretic Functions, Next: Integer Comparisons, Prev: Integer Roots, Up: Integer Functions
5.9 Number Theoretic Functions
==============================
 Function: int mpz_probab_prime_p (mpz_t N, int REPS)
Determine whether N is prime. Return 2 if N is definitely prime,
return 1 if N is probably prime (without being certain), or return
0 if N is definitely composite.
This function does some trial divisions, then some MillerRabin
probabilistic primality tests. The argument REPS controls how
many such tests are done; a higher value will reduce the chances
of a composite being returned as "probably prime". 25 is a
reasonable number; a composite number will then be identified as a
prime with a probability of less than 2^(50).
MillerRabin and similar tests can be more properly called
compositeness tests. Numbers which fail are known to be composite
but those which pass might be prime or might be composite. Only a
few composites pass, hence those which pass are considered
probably prime.
 Function: void mpz_nextprime (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
Set ROP to the next prime greater than OP.
This function uses a probabilistic algorithm to identify primes.
For practical purposes it's adequate, the chance of a composite
passing will be extremely small.
 Function: void mpz_gcd (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
Set ROP to the greatest common divisor of OP1 and OP2. The result
is always positive even if one or both input operands are negative.
Except if both inputs are zero; then this function defines
gcd(0,0) = 0.
 Function: unsigned long int mpz_gcd_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1,
unsigned long int OP2)
Compute the greatest common divisor of OP1 and OP2. If ROP is not
`NULL', store the result there.
If the result is small enough to fit in an `unsigned long int', it
is returned. If the result does not fit, 0 is returned, and the
result is equal to the argument OP1. Note that the result will
always fit if OP2 is nonzero.
 Function: void mpz_gcdext (mpz_t G, mpz_t S, mpz_t T, mpz_t A,
mpz_t B)
Set G to the greatest common divisor of A and B, and in addition
set S and T to coefficients satisfying A*S + B*T = G. The value
in G is always positive, even if one or both of A and B are
negative (or zero if both inputs are zero). The values in S and T
are chosen such that normally, abs(S) < abs(B) / (2 G) and abs(T)
< abs(A) / (2 G), and these relations define S and T uniquely.
There are a few exceptional cases:
If abs(A) = abs(B), then S = 0, T = sgn(B).
Otherwise, S = sgn(A) if B = 0 or abs(B) = 2 G, and T = sgn(B) if
A = 0 or abs(A) = 2 G.
In all cases, S = 0 if and only if G = abs(B), i.e., if B divides
A or A = B = 0.
If T is `NULL' then that value is not computed.
 Function: void mpz_lcm (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: void mpz_lcm_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, unsigned long OP2)
Set ROP to the least common multiple of OP1 and OP2. ROP is
always positive, irrespective of the signs of OP1 and OP2. ROP
will be zero if either OP1 or OP2 is zero.
 Function: int mpz_invert (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
Compute the inverse of OP1 modulo OP2 and put the result in ROP.
If the inverse exists, the return value is nonzero and ROP will
satisfy 0 < ROP < abs(OP2). If an inverse doesn't exist the
return value is zero and ROP is undefined. The behaviour of this
function is undefined when OP2 is zero.
 Function: int mpz_jacobi (mpz_t A, mpz_t B)
Calculate the Jacobi symbol (A/B). This is defined only for B odd.
 Function: int mpz_legendre (mpz_t A, mpz_t P)
Calculate the Legendre symbol (A/P). This is defined only for P
an odd positive prime, and for such P it's identical to the Jacobi
symbol.
 Function: int mpz_kronecker (mpz_t A, mpz_t B)
 Function: int mpz_kronecker_si (mpz_t A, long B)
 Function: int mpz_kronecker_ui (mpz_t A, unsigned long B)
 Function: int mpz_si_kronecker (long A, mpz_t B)
 Function: int mpz_ui_kronecker (unsigned long A, mpz_t B)
Calculate the Jacobi symbol (A/B) with the Kronecker extension
(a/2)=(2/a) when a odd, or (a/2)=0 when a even.
When B is odd the Jacobi symbol and Kronecker symbol are
identical, so `mpz_kronecker_ui' etc can be used for mixed
precision Jacobi symbols too.
For more information see Henri Cohen section 1.4.2 (*note
References::), or any number theory textbook. See also the
example program `demos/qcn.c' which uses `mpz_kronecker_ui'.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpz_remove (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP, mpz_t F)
Remove all occurrences of the factor F from OP and store the
result in ROP. The return value is how many such occurrences were
removed.
 Function: void mpz_fac_ui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int N)
 Function: void mpz_2fac_ui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int N)
 Function: void mpz_mfac_uiui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int N,
unsigned long int M)
Set ROP to the factorial of N: `mpz_fac_ui' computes the plain
factorial N!, `mpz_2fac_ui' computes the doublefactorial N!!, and
`mpz_mfac_uiui' the Mmultifactorial N!^(M).
 Function: void mpz_primorial_ui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int N)
Set ROP to the primorial of N, i.e. the product of all positive
prime numbers <=N.
 Function: void mpz_bin_ui (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t N, unsigned long int K)
 Function: void mpz_bin_uiui (mpz_t ROP, unsigned long int N,
unsigned long int K)
Compute the binomial coefficient N over K and store the result in
ROP. Negative values of N are supported by `mpz_bin_ui', using
the identity bin(n,k) = (1)^k * bin(n+k1,k), see Knuth volume 1
section 1.2.6 part G.
 Function: void mpz_fib_ui (mpz_t FN, unsigned long int N)
 Function: void mpz_fib2_ui (mpz_t FN, mpz_t FNSUB1, unsigned long
int N)
`mpz_fib_ui' sets FN to to F[n], the N'th Fibonacci number.
`mpz_fib2_ui' sets FN to F[n], and FNSUB1 to F[n1].
These functions are designed for calculating isolated Fibonacci
numbers. When a sequence of values is wanted it's best to start
with `mpz_fib2_ui' and iterate the defining F[n+1]=F[n]+F[n1] or
similar.
 Function: void mpz_lucnum_ui (mpz_t LN, unsigned long int N)
 Function: void mpz_lucnum2_ui (mpz_t LN, mpz_t LNSUB1, unsigned
long int N)
`mpz_lucnum_ui' sets LN to to L[n], the N'th Lucas number.
`mpz_lucnum2_ui' sets LN to L[n], and LNSUB1 to L[n1].
These functions are designed for calculating isolated Lucas
numbers. When a sequence of values is wanted it's best to start
with `mpz_lucnum2_ui' and iterate the defining L[n+1]=L[n]+L[n1]
or similar.
The Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers are related sequences, so
it's never necessary to call both `mpz_fib2_ui' and
`mpz_lucnum2_ui'. The formulas for going from Fibonacci to Lucas
can be found in *note Lucas Numbers Algorithm::, the reverse is
straightforward too.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Comparisons, Next: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling, Prev: Number Theoretic Functions, Up: Integer Functions
5.10 Comparison Functions
=========================
 Function: int mpz_cmp (mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: int mpz_cmp_d (mpz_t OP1, double OP2)
 Macro: int mpz_cmp_si (mpz_t OP1, signed long int OP2)
 Macro: int mpz_cmp_ui (mpz_t OP1, unsigned long int OP2)
Compare OP1 and OP2. Return a positive value if OP1 > OP2, zero
if OP1 = OP2, or a negative value if OP1 < OP2.
`mpz_cmp_ui' and `mpz_cmp_si' are macros and will evaluate their
arguments more than once. `mpz_cmp_d' can be called with an
infinity, but results are undefined for a NaN.
 Function: int mpz_cmpabs (mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
 Function: int mpz_cmpabs_d (mpz_t OP1, double OP2)
 Function: int mpz_cmpabs_ui (mpz_t OP1, unsigned long int OP2)
Compare the absolute values of OP1 and OP2. Return a positive
value if abs(OP1) > abs(OP2), zero if abs(OP1) = abs(OP2), or a
negative value if abs(OP1) < abs(OP2).
`mpz_cmpabs_d' can be called with an infinity, but results are
undefined for a NaN.
 Macro: int mpz_sgn (mpz_t OP)
Return +1 if OP > 0, 0 if OP = 0, and 1 if OP < 0.
This function is actually implemented as a macro. It evaluates
its argument multiple times.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling, Next: I/O of Integers, Prev: Integer Comparisons, Up: Integer Functions
5.11 Logical and Bit Manipulation Functions
===========================================
These functions behave as if twos complement arithmetic were used
(although signmagnitude is the actual implementation). The least
significant bit is number 0.
 Function: void mpz_and (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 bitwiseand OP2.
 Function: void mpz_ior (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 bitwise inclusiveor OP2.
 Function: void mpz_xor (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 bitwise exclusiveor OP2.
 Function: void mpz_com (mpz_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
Set ROP to the one's complement of OP.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpz_popcount (mpz_t OP)
If OP>=0, return the population count of OP, which is the number
of 1 bits in the binary representation. If OP<0, the number of 1s
is infinite, and the return value is the largest possible
`mp_bitcnt_t'.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpz_hamdist (mpz_t OP1, mpz_t OP2)
If OP1 and OP2 are both >=0 or both <0, return the hamming
distance between the two operands, which is the number of bit
positions where OP1 and OP2 have different bit values. If one
operand is >=0 and the other <0 then the number of bits different
is infinite, and the return value is the largest possible
`mp_bitcnt_t'.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpz_scan0 (mpz_t OP, mp_bitcnt_t STARTING_BIT)
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpz_scan1 (mpz_t OP, mp_bitcnt_t STARTING_BIT)
Scan OP, starting from bit STARTING_BIT, towards more significant
bits, until the first 0 or 1 bit (respectively) is found. Return
the index of the found bit.
If the bit at STARTING_BIT is already what's sought, then
STARTING_BIT is returned.
If there's no bit found, then the largest possible `mp_bitcnt_t' is
returned. This will happen in `mpz_scan0' past the end of a
negative number, or `mpz_scan1' past the end of a nonnegative
number.
 Function: void mpz_setbit (mpz_t ROP, mp_bitcnt_t BIT_INDEX)
Set bit BIT_INDEX in ROP.
 Function: void mpz_clrbit (mpz_t ROP, mp_bitcnt_t BIT_INDEX)
Clear bit BIT_INDEX in ROP.
 Function: void mpz_combit (mpz_t ROP, mp_bitcnt_t BIT_INDEX)
Complement bit BIT_INDEX in ROP.
 Function: int mpz_tstbit (mpz_t OP, mp_bitcnt_t BIT_INDEX)
Test bit BIT_INDEX in OP and return 0 or 1 accordingly.
File: gmp.info, Node: I/O of Integers, Next: Integer Random Numbers, Prev: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling, Up: Integer Functions
5.12 Input and Output Functions
===============================
Functions that perform input from a stdio stream, and functions that
output to a stdio stream, of `mpz' numbers. Passing a `NULL' pointer
for a STREAM argument to any of these functions will make them read from
`stdin' and write to `stdout', respectively.
When using any of these functions, it is a good idea to include
`stdio.h' before `gmp.h', since that will allow `gmp.h' to define
prototypes for these functions.
See also *note Formatted Output:: and *note Formatted Input::.
 Function: size_t mpz_out_str (FILE *STREAM, int BASE, mpz_t OP)
Output OP on stdio stream STREAM, as a string of digits in base
BASE. The base argument may vary from 2 to 62 or from 2 to 36.
For BASE in the range 2..36, digits and lowercase letters are
used; for 2..36, digits and uppercase letters are used; for
37..62, digits, uppercase letters, and lowercase letters (in
that significance order) are used.
Return the number of bytes written, or if an error occurred,
return 0.
 Function: size_t mpz_inp_str (mpz_t ROP, FILE *STREAM, int BASE)
Input a possibly whitespace preceded string in base BASE from
stdio stream STREAM, and put the read integer in ROP.
The BASE may vary from 2 to 62, or if BASE is 0, then the leading
characters are used: `0x' and `0X' for hexadecimal, `0b' and `0B'
for binary, `0' for octal, or decimal otherwise.
For bases up to 36, case is ignored; uppercase and lowercase
letters have the same value. For bases 37 to 62, uppercase
letter represent the usual 10..35 while lowercase letter
represent 36..61.
Return the number of bytes read, or if an error occurred, return 0.
 Function: size_t mpz_out_raw (FILE *STREAM, mpz_t OP)
Output OP on stdio stream STREAM, in raw binary format. The
integer is written in a portable format, with 4 bytes of size
information, and that many bytes of limbs. Both the size and the
limbs are written in decreasing significance order (i.e., in
bigendian).
The output can be read with `mpz_inp_raw'.
Return the number of bytes written, or if an error occurred,
return 0.
The output of this can not be read by `mpz_inp_raw' from GMP 1,
because of changes necessary for compatibility between 32bit and
64bit machines.
 Function: size_t mpz_inp_raw (mpz_t ROP, FILE *STREAM)
Input from stdio stream STREAM in the format written by
`mpz_out_raw', and put the result in ROP. Return the number of
bytes read, or if an error occurred, return 0.
This routine can read the output from `mpz_out_raw' also from GMP
1, in spite of changes necessary for compatibility between 32bit
and 64bit machines.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Random Numbers, Next: Integer Import and Export, Prev: I/O of Integers, Up: Integer Functions
5.13 Random Number Functions
============================
The random number functions of GMP come in two groups; older function
that rely on a global state, and newer functions that accept a state
parameter that is read and modified. Please see the *note Random
Number Functions:: for more information on how to use and not to use
random number functions.
 Function: void mpz_urandomb (mpz_t ROP, gmp_randstate_t STATE,
mp_bitcnt_t N)
Generate a uniformly distributed random integer in the range 0 to
2^N1, inclusive.
The variable STATE must be initialized by calling one of the
`gmp_randinit' functions (*note Random State Initialization::)
before invoking this function.
 Function: void mpz_urandomm (mpz_t ROP, gmp_randstate_t STATE,
mpz_t N)
Generate a uniform random integer in the range 0 to N1, inclusive.
The variable STATE must be initialized by calling one of the
`gmp_randinit' functions (*note Random State Initialization::)
before invoking this function.
 Function: void mpz_rrandomb (mpz_t ROP, gmp_randstate_t STATE,
mp_bitcnt_t N)
Generate a random integer with long strings of zeros and ones in
the binary representation. Useful for testing functions and
algorithms, since this kind of random numbers have proven to be
more likely to trigger cornercase bugs. The random number will
be in the range 0 to 2^N1, inclusive.
The variable STATE must be initialized by calling one of the
`gmp_randinit' functions (*note Random State Initialization::)
before invoking this function.
 Function: void mpz_random (mpz_t ROP, mp_size_t MAX_SIZE)
Generate a random integer of at most MAX_SIZE limbs. The generated
random number doesn't satisfy any particular requirements of
randomness. Negative random numbers are generated when MAX_SIZE
is negative.
This function is obsolete. Use `mpz_urandomb' or `mpz_urandomm'
instead.
 Function: void mpz_random2 (mpz_t ROP, mp_size_t MAX_SIZE)
Generate a random integer of at most MAX_SIZE limbs, with long
strings of zeros and ones in the binary representation. Useful
for testing functions and algorithms, since this kind of random
numbers have proven to be more likely to trigger cornercase bugs.
Negative random numbers are generated when MAX_SIZE is negative.
This function is obsolete. Use `mpz_rrandomb' instead.
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Import and Export, Next: Miscellaneous Integer Functions, Prev: Integer Random Numbers, Up: Integer Functions
5.14 Integer Import and Export
==============================
`mpz_t' variables can be converted to and from arbitrary words of binary
data with the following functions.
 Function: void mpz_import (mpz_t ROP, size_t COUNT, int ORDER,
size_t SIZE, int ENDIAN, size_t NAILS, const void *OP)
Set ROP from an array of word data at OP.
The parameters specify the format of the data. COUNT many words
are read, each SIZE bytes. ORDER can be 1 for most significant
word first or 1 for least significant first. Within each word
ENDIAN can be 1 for most significant byte first, 1 for least
significant first, or 0 for the native endianness of the host CPU.
The most significant NAILS bits of each word are skipped, this can
be 0 to use the full words.
There is no sign taken from the data, ROP will simply be a positive
integer. An application can handle any sign itself, and apply it
for instance with `mpz_neg'.
There are no data alignment restrictions on OP, any address is
allowed.
Here's an example converting an array of `unsigned long' data, most
significant element first, and host byte order within each value.
unsigned long a[20];
/* Initialize Z and A */
mpz_import (z, 20, 1, sizeof(a[0]), 0, 0, a);
This example assumes the full `sizeof' bytes are used for data in
the given type, which is usually true, and certainly true for
`unsigned long' everywhere we know of. However on Cray vector
systems it may be noted that `short' and `int' are always stored
in 8 bytes (and with `sizeof' indicating that) but use only 32 or
46 bits. The NAILS feature can account for this, by passing for
instance `8*sizeof(int)INT_BIT'.
 Function: void * mpz_export (void *ROP, size_t *COUNTP, int ORDER,
size_t SIZE, int ENDIAN, size_t NAILS, mpz_t OP)
Fill ROP with word data from OP.
The parameters specify the format of the data produced. Each word
will be SIZE bytes and ORDER can be 1 for most significant word
first or 1 for least significant first. Within each word ENDIAN
can be 1 for most significant byte first, 1 for least significant
first, or 0 for the native endianness of the host CPU. The most
significant NAILS bits of each word are unused and set to zero,
this can be 0 to produce full words.
The number of words produced is written to `*COUNTP', or COUNTP
can be `NULL' to discard the count. ROP must have enough space
for the data, or if ROP is `NULL' then a result array of the
necessary size is allocated using the current GMP allocation
function (*note Custom Allocation::). In either case the return
value is the destination used, either ROP or the allocated block.
If OP is nonzero then the most significant word produced will be
nonzero. If OP is zero then the count returned will be zero and
nothing written to ROP. If ROP is `NULL' in this case, no block
is allocated, just `NULL' is returned.
The sign of OP is ignored, just the absolute value is exported. An
application can use `mpz_sgn' to get the sign and handle it as
desired. (*note Integer Comparisons::)
There are no data alignment restrictions on ROP, any address is
allowed.
When an application is allocating space itself the required size
can be determined with a calculation like the following. Since
`mpz_sizeinbase' always returns at least 1, `count' here will be
at least one, which avoids any portability problems with
`malloc(0)', though if `z' is zero no space at all is actually
needed (or written).
numb = 8*size  nail;
count = (mpz_sizeinbase (z, 2) + numb1) / numb;
p = malloc (count * size);
File: gmp.info, Node: Miscellaneous Integer Functions, Next: Integer Special Functions, Prev: Integer Import and Export, Up: Integer Functions
5.15 Miscellaneous Functions
============================
 Function: int mpz_fits_ulong_p (mpz_t OP)
 Function: int mpz_fits_slong_p (mpz_t OP)
 Function: int mpz_fits_uint_p (mpz_t OP)
 Function: int mpz_fits_sint_p (mpz_t OP)
 Function: int mpz_fits_ushort_p (mpz_t OP)
 Function: int mpz_fits_sshort_p (mpz_t OP)
Return nonzero iff the value of OP fits in an `unsigned long int',
`signed long int', `unsigned int', `signed int', `unsigned short
int', or `signed short int', respectively. Otherwise, return zero.
 Macro: int mpz_odd_p (mpz_t OP)
 Macro: int mpz_even_p (mpz_t OP)
Determine whether OP is odd or even, respectively. Return
nonzero if yes, zero if no. These macros evaluate their argument
more than once.
 Function: size_t mpz_sizeinbase (mpz_t OP, int BASE)
Return the size of OP measured in number of digits in the given
BASE. BASE can vary from 2 to 62. The sign of OP is ignored,
just the absolute value is used. The result will be either exact
or 1 too big. If BASE is a power of 2, the result is always
exact. If OP is zero the return value is always 1.
This function can be used to determine the space required when
converting OP to a string. The right amount of allocation is
normally two more than the value returned by `mpz_sizeinbase', one
extra for a minus sign and one for the nullterminator.
It will be noted that `mpz_sizeinbase(OP,2)' can be used to locate
the most significant 1 bit in OP, counting from 1. (Unlike the
bitwise functions which start from 0, *Note Logical and Bit
Manipulation Functions: Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling.)
File: gmp.info, Node: Integer Special Functions, Prev: Miscellaneous Integer Functions, Up: Integer Functions
5.16 Special Functions
======================
The functions in this section are for various special purposes. Most
applications will not need them.
 Function: void mpz_array_init (mpz_t INTEGER_ARRAY, mp_size_t
ARRAY_SIZE, mp_size_t FIXED_NUM_BITS)
This is a special type of initialization. *Fixed* space of
FIXED_NUM_BITS is allocated to each of the ARRAY_SIZE integers in
INTEGER_ARRAY. There is no way to free the storage allocated by
this function. Don't call `mpz_clear'!
The INTEGER_ARRAY parameter is the first `mpz_t' in the array. For
example,
mpz_t arr[20000];
mpz_array_init (arr[0], 20000, 512);
This function is only intended for programs that create a large
number of integers and need to reduce memory usage by avoiding the
overheads of allocating and reallocating lots of small blocks. In
normal programs this function is not recommended.
The space allocated to each integer by this function will not be
automatically increased, unlike the normal `mpz_init', so an
application must ensure it is sufficient for any value stored.
The following space requirements apply to various routines,
* `mpz_abs', `mpz_neg', `mpz_set', `mpz_set_si' and
`mpz_set_ui' need room for the value they store.
* `mpz_add', `mpz_add_ui', `mpz_sub' and `mpz_sub_ui' need room
for the larger of the two operands, plus an extra
`mp_bits_per_limb'.
* `mpz_mul', `mpz_mul_ui' and `mpz_mul_si' need room for the sum
of the number of bits in their operands, but each rounded up
to a multiple of `mp_bits_per_limb'.
* `mpz_swap' can be used between two array variables, but not
between an array and a normal variable.
For other functions, or if in doubt, the suggestion is to
calculate in a regular `mpz_init' variable and copy the result to
an array variable with `mpz_set'.
 Function: void * _mpz_realloc (mpz_t INTEGER, mp_size_t NEW_ALLOC)
Change the space for INTEGER to NEW_ALLOC limbs. The value in
INTEGER is preserved if it fits, or is set to 0 if not. The return
value is not useful to applications and should be ignored.
`mpz_realloc2' is the preferred way to accomplish allocation
changes like this. `mpz_realloc2' and `_mpz_realloc' are the same
except that `_mpz_realloc' takes its size in limbs.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpz_getlimbn (mpz_t OP, mp_size_t N)
Return limb number N from OP. The sign of OP is ignored, just the
absolute value is used. The least significant limb is number 0.
`mpz_size' can be used to find how many limbs make up OP.
`mpz_getlimbn' returns zero if N is outside the range 0 to
`mpz_size(OP)1'.
 Function: size_t mpz_size (mpz_t OP)
Return the size of OP measured in number of limbs. If OP is zero,
the returned value will be zero.
File: gmp.info, Node: Rational Number Functions, Next: Floatingpoint Functions, Prev: Integer Functions, Up: Top
6 Rational Number Functions
***************************
This chapter describes the GMP functions for performing arithmetic on
rational numbers. These functions start with the prefix `mpq_'.
Rational numbers are stored in objects of type `mpq_t'.
All rational arithmetic functions assume operands have a canonical
form, and canonicalize their result. The canonical from means that the
denominator and the numerator have no common factors, and that the
denominator is positive. Zero has the unique representation 0/1.
Pure assignment functions do not canonicalize the assigned variable.
It is the responsibility of the user to canonicalize the assigned
variable before any arithmetic operations are performed on that
variable.
 Function: void mpq_canonicalize (mpq_t OP)
Remove any factors that are common to the numerator and
denominator of OP, and make the denominator positive.
* Menu:
* Initializing Rationals::
* Rational Conversions::
* Rational Arithmetic::
* Comparing Rationals::
* Applying Integer Functions::
* I/O of Rationals::
File: gmp.info, Node: Initializing Rationals, Next: Rational Conversions, Prev: Rational Number Functions, Up: Rational Number Functions
6.1 Initialization and Assignment Functions
===========================================
 Function: void mpq_init (mpq_t X)
Initialize X and set it to 0/1. Each variable should normally
only be initialized once, or at least cleared out (using the
function `mpq_clear') between each initialization.
 Function: void mpq_inits (mpq_t X, ...)
Initialize a NULLterminated list of `mpq_t' variables, and set
their values to 0/1.
 Function: void mpq_clear (mpq_t X)
Free the space occupied by X. Make sure to call this function for
all `mpq_t' variables when you are done with them.
 Function: void mpq_clears (mpq_t X, ...)
Free the space occupied by a NULLterminated list of `mpq_t'
variables.
 Function: void mpq_set (mpq_t ROP, mpq_t OP)
 Function: void mpq_set_z (mpq_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
Assign ROP from OP.
 Function: void mpq_set_ui (mpq_t ROP, unsigned long int OP1,
unsigned long int OP2)
 Function: void mpq_set_si (mpq_t ROP, signed long int OP1, unsigned
long int OP2)
Set the value of ROP to OP1/OP2. Note that if OP1 and OP2 have
common factors, ROP has to be passed to `mpq_canonicalize' before
any operations are performed on ROP.
 Function: int mpq_set_str (mpq_t ROP, char *STR, int BASE)
Set ROP from a nullterminated string STR in the given BASE.
The string can be an integer like "41" or a fraction like
"41/152". The fraction must be in canonical form (*note Rational
Number Functions::), or if not then `mpq_canonicalize' must be
called.
The numerator and optional denominator are parsed the same as in
`mpz_set_str' (*note Assigning Integers::). White space is
allowed in the string, and is simply ignored. The BASE can vary
from 2 to 62, or if BASE is 0 then the leading characters are
used: `0x' or `0X' for hex, `0b' or `0B' for binary, `0' for
octal, or decimal otherwise. Note that this is done separately
for the numerator and denominator, so for instance `0xEF/100' is
239/100, whereas `0xEF/0x100' is 239/256.
The return value is 0 if the entire string is a valid number, or
1 if not.
 Function: void mpq_swap (mpq_t ROP1, mpq_t ROP2)
Swap the values ROP1 and ROP2 efficiently.
File: gmp.info, Node: Rational Conversions, Next: Rational Arithmetic, Prev: Initializing Rationals, Up: Rational Number Functions
6.2 Conversion Functions
========================
 Function: double mpq_get_d (mpq_t OP)
Convert OP to a `double', truncating if necessary (i.e. rounding
towards zero).
If the exponent from the conversion is too big or too small to fit
a `double' then the result is system dependent. For too big an
infinity is returned when available. For too small 0.0 is
normally returned. Hardware overflow, underflow and denorm traps
may or may not occur.
 Function: void mpq_set_d (mpq_t ROP, double OP)
 Function: void mpq_set_f (mpq_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
Set ROP to the value of OP. There is no rounding, this conversion
is exact.
 Function: char * mpq_get_str (char *STR, int BASE, mpq_t OP)
Convert OP to a string of digits in base BASE. The base may vary
from 2 to 36. The string will be of the form `num/den', or if the
denominator is 1 then just `num'.
If STR is `NULL', the result string is allocated using the current
allocation function (*note Custom Allocation::). The block will be
`strlen(str)+1' bytes, that being exactly enough for the string and
nullterminator.
If STR is not `NULL', it should point to a block of storage large
enough for the result, that being
mpz_sizeinbase (mpq_numref(OP), BASE)
+ mpz_sizeinbase (mpq_denref(OP), BASE) + 3
The three extra bytes are for a possible minus sign, possible
slash, and the nullterminator.
A pointer to the result string is returned, being either the
allocated block, or the given STR.
File: gmp.info, Node: Rational Arithmetic, Next: Comparing Rationals, Prev: Rational Conversions, Up: Rational Number Functions
6.3 Arithmetic Functions
========================
 Function: void mpq_add (mpq_t SUM, mpq_t ADDEND1, mpq_t ADDEND2)
Set SUM to ADDEND1 + ADDEND2.
 Function: void mpq_sub (mpq_t DIFFERENCE, mpq_t MINUEND, mpq_t
SUBTRAHEND)
Set DIFFERENCE to MINUEND  SUBTRAHEND.
 Function: void mpq_mul (mpq_t PRODUCT, mpq_t MULTIPLIER, mpq_t
MULTIPLICAND)
Set PRODUCT to MULTIPLIER times MULTIPLICAND.
 Function: void mpq_mul_2exp (mpq_t ROP, mpq_t OP1, mp_bitcnt_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 times 2 raised to OP2.
 Function: void mpq_div (mpq_t QUOTIENT, mpq_t DIVIDEND, mpq_t
DIVISOR)
Set QUOTIENT to DIVIDEND/DIVISOR.
 Function: void mpq_div_2exp (mpq_t ROP, mpq_t OP1, mp_bitcnt_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 divided by 2 raised to OP2.
 Function: void mpq_neg (mpq_t NEGATED_OPERAND, mpq_t OPERAND)
Set NEGATED_OPERAND to OPERAND.
 Function: void mpq_abs (mpq_t ROP, mpq_t OP)
Set ROP to the absolute value of OP.
 Function: void mpq_inv (mpq_t INVERTED_NUMBER, mpq_t NUMBER)
Set INVERTED_NUMBER to 1/NUMBER. If the new denominator is zero,
this routine will divide by zero.
File: gmp.info, Node: Comparing Rationals, Next: Applying Integer Functions, Prev: Rational Arithmetic, Up: Rational Number Functions
6.4 Comparison Functions
========================
 Function: int mpq_cmp (mpq_t OP1, mpq_t OP2)
Compare OP1 and OP2. Return a positive value if OP1 > OP2, zero
if OP1 = OP2, and a negative value if OP1 < OP2.
To determine if two rationals are equal, `mpq_equal' is faster than
`mpq_cmp'.
 Macro: int mpq_cmp_ui (mpq_t OP1, unsigned long int NUM2, unsigned
long int DEN2)
 Macro: int mpq_cmp_si (mpq_t OP1, long int NUM2, unsigned long int
DEN2)
Compare OP1 and NUM2/DEN2. Return a positive value if OP1 >
NUM2/DEN2, zero if OP1 = NUM2/DEN2, and a negative value if OP1 <
NUM2/DEN2.
NUM2 and DEN2 are allowed to have common factors.
These functions are implemented as a macros and evaluate their
arguments multiple times.
 Macro: int mpq_sgn (mpq_t OP)
Return +1 if OP > 0, 0 if OP = 0, and 1 if OP < 0.
This function is actually implemented as a macro. It evaluates its
argument multiple times.
 Function: int mpq_equal (mpq_t OP1, mpq_t OP2)
Return nonzero if OP1 and OP2 are equal, zero if they are
nonequal. Although `mpq_cmp' can be used for the same purpose,
this function is much faster.
File: gmp.info, Node: Applying Integer Functions, Next: I/O of Rationals, Prev: Comparing Rationals, Up: Rational Number Functions
6.5 Applying Integer Functions to Rationals
===========================================
The set of `mpq' functions is quite small. In particular, there are few
functions for either input or output. The following functions give
direct access to the numerator and denominator of an `mpq_t'.
Note that if an assignment to the numerator and/or denominator could
take an `mpq_t' out of the canonical form described at the start of
this chapter (*note Rational Number Functions::) then
`mpq_canonicalize' must be called before any other `mpq' functions are
applied to that `mpq_t'.
 Macro: mpz_t mpq_numref (mpq_t OP)
 Macro: mpz_t mpq_denref (mpq_t OP)
Return a reference to the numerator and denominator of OP,
respectively. The `mpz' functions can be used on the result of
these macros.
 Function: void mpq_get_num (mpz_t NUMERATOR, mpq_t RATIONAL)
 Function: void mpq_get_den (mpz_t DENOMINATOR, mpq_t RATIONAL)
 Function: void mpq_set_num (mpq_t RATIONAL, mpz_t NUMERATOR)
 Function: void mpq_set_den (mpq_t RATIONAL, mpz_t DENOMINATOR)
Get or set the numerator or denominator of a rational. These
functions are equivalent to calling `mpz_set' with an appropriate
`mpq_numref' or `mpq_denref'. Direct use of `mpq_numref' or
`mpq_denref' is recommended instead of these functions.
File: gmp.info, Node: I/O of Rationals, Prev: Applying Integer Functions, Up: Rational Number Functions
6.6 Input and Output Functions
==============================
Functions that perform input from a stdio stream, and functions that
output to a stdio stream, of `mpq' numbers. Passing a `NULL' pointer
for a STREAM argument to any of these functions will make them read from
`stdin' and write to `stdout', respectively.
When using any of these functions, it is a good idea to include
`stdio.h' before `gmp.h', since that will allow `gmp.h' to define
prototypes for these functions.
See also *note Formatted Output:: and *note Formatted Input::.
 Function: size_t mpq_out_str (FILE *STREAM, int BASE, mpq_t OP)
Output OP on stdio stream STREAM, as a string of digits in base
BASE. The base may vary from 2 to 36. Output is in the form
`num/den' or if the denominator is 1 then just `num'.
Return the number of bytes written, or if an error occurred,
return 0.
 Function: size_t mpq_inp_str (mpq_t ROP, FILE *STREAM, int BASE)
Read a string of digits from STREAM and convert them to a rational
in ROP. Any initial whitespace characters are read and
discarded. Return the number of characters read (including white
space), or 0 if a rational could not be read.
The input can be a fraction like `17/63' or just an integer like
`123'. Reading stops at the first character not in this form, and
white space is not permitted within the string. If the input
might not be in canonical form, then `mpq_canonicalize' must be
called (*note Rational Number Functions::).
The BASE can be between 2 and 36, or can be 0 in which case the
leading characters of the string determine the base, `0x' or `0X'
for hexadecimal, `0' for octal, or decimal otherwise. The leading
characters are examined separately for the numerator and
denominator of a fraction, so for instance `0x10/11' is 16/11,
whereas `0x10/0x11' is 16/17.
File: gmp.info, Node: Floatingpoint Functions, Next: Lowlevel Functions, Prev: Rational Number Functions, Up: Top
7 Floatingpoint Functions
**************************
GMP floating point numbers are stored in objects of type `mpf_t' and
functions operating on them have an `mpf_' prefix.
The mantissa of each float has a userselectable precision, limited
only by available memory. Each variable has its own precision, and
that can be increased or decreased at any time.
The exponent of each float is a fixed precision, one machine word on
most systems. In the current implementation the exponent is a count of
limbs, so for example on a 32bit system this means a range of roughly
2^68719476768 to 2^68719476736, or on a 64bit system this will be
greater. Note however `mpf_get_str' can only return an exponent which
fits an `mp_exp_t' and currently `mpf_set_str' doesn't accept exponents
bigger than a `long'.
Each variable keeps a size for the mantissa data actually in use.
This means that if a float is exactly represented in only a few bits
then only those bits will be used in a calculation, even if the
selected precision is high.
All calculations are performed to the precision of the destination
variable. Each function is defined to calculate with "infinite
precision" followed by a truncation to the destination precision, but
of course the work done is only what's needed to determine a result
under that definition.
The precision selected for a variable is a minimum value, GMP may
increase it a little to facilitate efficient calculation. Currently
this means rounding up to a whole limb, and then sometimes having a
further partial limb, depending on the high limb of the mantissa. But
applications shouldn't be concerned by such details.
The mantissa in stored in binary, as might be imagined from the fact
precisions are expressed in bits. One consequence of this is that
decimal fractions like 0.1 cannot be represented exactly. The same is
true of plain IEEE `double' floats. This makes both highly unsuitable
for calculations involving money or other values that should be exact
decimal fractions. (Suitably scaled integers, or perhaps rationals,
are better choices.)
`mpf' functions and variables have no special notion of infinity or
notanumber, and applications must take care not to overflow the
exponent or results will be unpredictable. This might change in a
future release.
Note that the `mpf' functions are _not_ intended as a smooth
extension to IEEE P754 arithmetic. In particular results obtained on
one computer often differ from the results on a computer with a
different word size.
* Menu:
* Initializing Floats::
* Assigning Floats::
* Simultaneous Float Init & Assign::
* Converting Floats::
* Float Arithmetic::
* Float Comparison::
* I/O of Floats::
* Miscellaneous Float Functions::
File: gmp.info, Node: Initializing Floats, Next: Assigning Floats, Prev: Floatingpoint Functions, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.1 Initialization Functions
============================
 Function: void mpf_set_default_prec (mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Set the default precision to be *at least* PREC bits. All
subsequent calls to `mpf_init' will use this precision, but
previously initialized variables are unaffected.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpf_get_default_prec (void)
Return the default precision actually used.
An `mpf_t' object must be initialized before storing the first value
in it. The functions `mpf_init' and `mpf_init2' are used for that
purpose.
 Function: void mpf_init (mpf_t X)
Initialize X to 0. Normally, a variable should be initialized
once only or at least be cleared, using `mpf_clear', between
initializations. The precision of X is undefined unless a default
precision has already been established by a call to
`mpf_set_default_prec'.
 Function: void mpf_init2 (mpf_t X, mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Initialize X to 0 and set its precision to be *at least* PREC
bits. Normally, a variable should be initialized once only or at
least be cleared, using `mpf_clear', between initializations.
 Function: void mpf_inits (mpf_t X, ...)
Initialize a NULLterminated list of `mpf_t' variables, and set
their values to 0. The precision of the initialized variables is
undefined unless a default precision has already been established
by a call to `mpf_set_default_prec'.
 Function: void mpf_clear (mpf_t X)
Free the space occupied by X. Make sure to call this function for
all `mpf_t' variables when you are done with them.
 Function: void mpf_clears (mpf_t X, ...)
Free the space occupied by a NULLterminated list of `mpf_t'
variables.
Here is an example on how to initialize floatingpoint variables:
{
mpf_t x, y;
mpf_init (x); /* use default precision */
mpf_init2 (y, 256); /* precision _at least_ 256 bits */
...
/* Unless the program is about to exit, do ... */
mpf_clear (x);
mpf_clear (y);
}
The following three functions are useful for changing the precision
during a calculation. A typical use would be for adjusting the
precision gradually in iterative algorithms like NewtonRaphson, making
the computation precision closely match the actual accurate part of the
numbers.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpf_get_prec (mpf_t OP)
Return the current precision of OP, in bits.
 Function: void mpf_set_prec (mpf_t ROP, mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Set the precision of ROP to be *at least* PREC bits. The value in
ROP will be truncated to the new precision.
This function requires a call to `realloc', and so should not be
used in a tight loop.
 Function: void mpf_set_prec_raw (mpf_t ROP, mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Set the precision of ROP to be *at least* PREC bits, without
changing the memory allocated.
PREC must be no more than the allocated precision for ROP, that
being the precision when ROP was initialized, or in the most recent
`mpf_set_prec'.
The value in ROP is unchanged, and in particular if it had a higher
precision than PREC it will retain that higher precision. New
values written to ROP will use the new PREC.
Before calling `mpf_clear' or the full `mpf_set_prec', another
`mpf_set_prec_raw' call must be made to restore ROP to its original
allocated precision. Failing to do so will have unpredictable
results.
`mpf_get_prec' can be used before `mpf_set_prec_raw' to get the
original allocated precision. After `mpf_set_prec_raw' it
reflects the PREC value set.
`mpf_set_prec_raw' is an efficient way to use an `mpf_t' variable
at different precisions during a calculation, perhaps to gradually
increase precision in an iteration, or just to use various
different precisions for different purposes during a calculation.
File: gmp.info, Node: Assigning Floats, Next: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign, Prev: Initializing Floats, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.2 Assignment Functions
========================
These functions assign new values to already initialized floats (*note
Initializing Floats::).
 Function: void mpf_set (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
 Function: void mpf_set_ui (mpf_t ROP, unsigned long int OP)
 Function: void mpf_set_si (mpf_t ROP, signed long int OP)
 Function: void mpf_set_d (mpf_t ROP, double OP)
 Function: void mpf_set_z (mpf_t ROP, mpz_t OP)
 Function: void mpf_set_q (mpf_t ROP, mpq_t OP)
Set the value of ROP from OP.
 Function: int mpf_set_str (mpf_t ROP, char *STR, int BASE)
Set the value of ROP from the string in STR. The string is of the
form `M@N' or, if the base is 10 or less, alternatively `MeN'.
`M' is the mantissa and `N' is the exponent. The mantissa is
always in the specified base. The exponent is either in the
specified base or, if BASE is negative, in decimal. The decimal
point expected is taken from the current locale, on systems
providing `localeconv'.
The argument BASE may be in the ranges 2 to 62, or 62 to 2.
Negative values are used to specify that the exponent is in
decimal.
For bases up to 36, case is ignored; uppercase and lowercase
letters have the same value; for bases 37 to 62, uppercase letter
represent the usual 10..35 while lowercase letter represent
36..61.
Unlike the corresponding `mpz' function, the base will not be
determined from the leading characters of the string if BASE is 0.
This is so that numbers like `0.23' are not interpreted as octal.
White space is allowed in the string, and is simply ignored.
[This is not really true; whitespace is ignored in the beginning
of the string and within the mantissa, but not in other places,
such as after a minus sign or in the exponent. We are considering
changing the definition of this function, making it fail when
there is any whitespace in the input, since that makes a lot of
sense. Please tell us your opinion about this change. Do you
really want it to accept "3 14" as meaning 314 as it does now?]
This function returns 0 if the entire string is a valid number in
base BASE. Otherwise it returns 1.
 Function: void mpf_swap (mpf_t ROP1, mpf_t ROP2)
Swap ROP1 and ROP2 efficiently. Both the values and the
precisions of the two variables are swapped.
File: gmp.info, Node: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign, Next: Converting Floats, Prev: Assigning Floats, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.3 Combined Initialization and Assignment Functions
====================================================
For convenience, GMP provides a parallel series of initializeandset
functions which initialize the output and then store the value there.
These functions' names have the form `mpf_init_set...'
Once the float has been initialized by any of the `mpf_init_set...'
functions, it can be used as the source or destination operand for the
ordinary float functions. Don't use an initializeandset function on
a variable already initialized!
 Function: void mpf_init_set (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
 Function: void mpf_init_set_ui (mpf_t ROP, unsigned long int OP)
 Function: void mpf_init_set_si (mpf_t ROP, signed long int OP)
 Function: void mpf_init_set_d (mpf_t ROP, double OP)
Initialize ROP and set its value from OP.
The precision of ROP will be taken from the active default
precision, as set by `mpf_set_default_prec'.
 Function: int mpf_init_set_str (mpf_t ROP, char *STR, int BASE)
Initialize ROP and set its value from the string in STR. See
`mpf_set_str' above for details on the assignment operation.
Note that ROP is initialized even if an error occurs. (I.e., you
have to call `mpf_clear' for it.)
The precision of ROP will be taken from the active default
precision, as set by `mpf_set_default_prec'.
File: gmp.info, Node: Converting Floats, Next: Float Arithmetic, Prev: Simultaneous Float Init & Assign, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.4 Conversion Functions
========================
 Function: double mpf_get_d (mpf_t OP)
Convert OP to a `double', truncating if necessary (i.e. rounding
towards zero).
If the exponent in OP is too big or too small to fit a `double'
then the result is system dependent. For too big an infinity is
returned when available. For too small 0.0 is normally returned.
Hardware overflow, underflow and denorm traps may or may not occur.
 Function: double mpf_get_d_2exp (signed long int *EXP, mpf_t OP)
Convert OP to a `double', truncating if necessary (i.e. rounding
towards zero), and with an exponent returned separately.
The return value is in the range 0.5<=abs(D)<1 and the exponent is
stored to `*EXP'. D * 2^EXP is the (truncated) OP value. If OP
is zero, the return is 0.0 and 0 is stored to `*EXP'.
This is similar to the standard C `frexp' function (*note
Normalization Functions: (libc)Normalization Functions.).
 Function: long mpf_get_si (mpf_t OP)
 Function: unsigned long mpf_get_ui (mpf_t OP)
Convert OP to a `long' or `unsigned long', truncating any fraction
part. If OP is too big for the return type, the result is
undefined.
See also `mpf_fits_slong_p' and `mpf_fits_ulong_p' (*note
Miscellaneous Float Functions::).
 Function: char * mpf_get_str (char *STR, mp_exp_t *EXPPTR, int
BASE, size_t N_DIGITS, mpf_t OP)
Convert OP to a string of digits in base BASE. The base argument
may vary from 2 to 62 or from 2 to 36. Up to N_DIGITS digits
will be generated. Trailing zeros are not returned. No more
digits than can be accurately represented by OP are ever
generated. If N_DIGITS is 0 then that accurate maximum number of
digits are generated.
For BASE in the range 2..36, digits and lowercase letters are
used; for 2..36, digits and uppercase letters are used; for
37..62, digits, uppercase letters, and lowercase letters (in
that significance order) are used.
If STR is `NULL', the result string is allocated using the current
allocation function (*note Custom Allocation::). The block will be
`strlen(str)+1' bytes, that being exactly enough for the string and
nullterminator.
If STR is not `NULL', it should point to a block of N_DIGITS + 2
bytes, that being enough for the mantissa, a possible minus sign,
and a nullterminator. When N_DIGITS is 0 to get all significant
digits, an application won't be able to know the space required,
and STR should be `NULL' in that case.
The generated string is a fraction, with an implicit radix point
immediately to the left of the first digit. The applicable
exponent is written through the EXPPTR pointer. For example, the
number 3.1416 would be returned as string "31416" and exponent 1.
When OP is zero, an empty string is produced and the exponent
returned is 0.
A pointer to the result string is returned, being either the
allocated block or the given STR.
File: gmp.info, Node: Float Arithmetic, Next: Float Comparison, Prev: Converting Floats, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.5 Arithmetic Functions
========================
 Function: void mpf_add (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2)
 Function: void mpf_add_ui (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 + OP2.
 Function: void mpf_sub (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2)
 Function: void mpf_ui_sub (mpf_t ROP, unsigned long int OP1, mpf_t
OP2)
 Function: void mpf_sub_ui (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1  OP2.
 Function: void mpf_mul (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2)
 Function: void mpf_mul_ui (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 times OP2.
Division is undefined if the divisor is zero, and passing a zero
divisor to the divide functions will make these functions intentionally
divide by zero. This lets the user handle arithmetic exceptions in
these functions in the same manner as other arithmetic exceptions.
 Function: void mpf_div (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2)
 Function: void mpf_ui_div (mpf_t ROP, unsigned long int OP1, mpf_t
OP2)
 Function: void mpf_div_ui (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1/OP2.
 Function: void mpf_sqrt (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
 Function: void mpf_sqrt_ui (mpf_t ROP, unsigned long int OP)
Set ROP to the square root of OP.
 Function: void mpf_pow_ui (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, unsigned long int
OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 raised to the power OP2.
 Function: void mpf_neg (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
Set ROP to OP.
 Function: void mpf_abs (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
Set ROP to the absolute value of OP.
 Function: void mpf_mul_2exp (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mp_bitcnt_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 times 2 raised to OP2.
 Function: void mpf_div_2exp (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mp_bitcnt_t OP2)
Set ROP to OP1 divided by 2 raised to OP2.
File: gmp.info, Node: Float Comparison, Next: I/O of Floats, Prev: Float Arithmetic, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.6 Comparison Functions
========================
 Function: int mpf_cmp (mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2)
 Function: int mpf_cmp_d (mpf_t OP1, double OP2)
 Function: int mpf_cmp_ui (mpf_t OP1, unsigned long int OP2)
 Function: int mpf_cmp_si (mpf_t OP1, signed long int OP2)
Compare OP1 and OP2. Return a positive value if OP1 > OP2, zero
if OP1 = OP2, and a negative value if OP1 < OP2.
`mpf_cmp_d' can be called with an infinity, but results are
undefined for a NaN.
 Function: int mpf_eq (mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2, mp_bitcnt_t op3)
Return nonzero if the first OP3 bits of OP1 and OP2 are equal,
zero otherwise. I.e., test if OP1 and OP2 are approximately equal.
Caution 1: All version of GMP up to version 4.2.4 compared just
whole limbs, meaning sometimes more than OP3 bits, sometimes fewer.
Caution 2: This function will consider XXX11...111 and XX100...000
different, even if ... is replaced by a semiinfinite number of
bits. Such numbers are really just one ulp off, and should be
considered equal.
 Function: void mpf_reldiff (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP1, mpf_t OP2)
Compute the relative difference between OP1 and OP2 and store the
result in ROP. This is abs(OP1OP2)/OP1.
 Macro: int mpf_sgn (mpf_t OP)
Return +1 if OP > 0, 0 if OP = 0, and 1 if OP < 0.
This function is actually implemented as a macro. It evaluates
its argument multiple times.
File: gmp.info, Node: I/O of Floats, Next: Miscellaneous Float Functions, Prev: Float Comparison, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.7 Input and Output Functions
==============================
Functions that perform input from a stdio stream, and functions that
output to a stdio stream, of `mpf' numbers. Passing a `NULL' pointer
for a STREAM argument to any of these functions will make them read from
`stdin' and write to `stdout', respectively.
When using any of these functions, it is a good idea to include
`stdio.h' before `gmp.h', since that will allow `gmp.h' to define
prototypes for these functions.
See also *note Formatted Output:: and *note Formatted Input::.
 Function: size_t mpf_out_str (FILE *STREAM, int BASE, size_t
N_DIGITS, mpf_t OP)
Print OP to STREAM, as a string of digits. Return the number of
bytes written, or if an error occurred, return 0.
The mantissa is prefixed with an `0.' and is in the given BASE,
which may vary from 2 to 62 or from 2 to 36. An exponent is
then printed, separated by an `e', or if the base is greater than
10 then by an `@'. The exponent is always in decimal. The
decimal point follows the current locale, on systems providing
`localeconv'.
For BASE in the range 2..36, digits and lowercase letters are
used; for 2..36, digits and uppercase letters are used; for
37..62, digits, uppercase letters, and lowercase letters (in
that significance order) are used.
Up to N_DIGITS will be printed from the mantissa, except that no
more digits than are accurately representable by OP will be
printed. N_DIGITS can be 0 to select that accurate maximum.
 Function: size_t mpf_inp_str (mpf_t ROP, FILE *STREAM, int BASE)
Read a string in base BASE from STREAM, and put the read float in
ROP. The string is of the form `M@N' or, if the base is 10 or
less, alternatively `MeN'. `M' is the mantissa and `N' is the
exponent. The mantissa is always in the specified base. The
exponent is either in the specified base or, if BASE is negative,
in decimal. The decimal point expected is taken from the current
locale, on systems providing `localeconv'.
The argument BASE may be in the ranges 2 to 36, or 36 to 2.
Negative values are used to specify that the exponent is in
decimal.
Unlike the corresponding `mpz' function, the base will not be
determined from the leading characters of the string if BASE is 0.
This is so that numbers like `0.23' are not interpreted as octal.
Return the number of bytes read, or if an error occurred, return 0.
File: gmp.info, Node: Miscellaneous Float Functions, Prev: I/O of Floats, Up: Floatingpoint Functions
7.8 Miscellaneous Functions
===========================
 Function: void mpf_ceil (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
 Function: void mpf_floor (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
 Function: void mpf_trunc (mpf_t ROP, mpf_t OP)
Set ROP to OP rounded to an integer. `mpf_ceil' rounds to the
next higher integer, `mpf_floor' to the next lower, and `mpf_trunc'
to the integer towards zero.
 Function: int mpf_integer_p (mpf_t OP)
Return nonzero if OP is an integer.
 Function: int mpf_fits_ulong_p (mpf_t OP)
 Function: int mpf_fits_slong_p (mpf_t OP)
 Function: int mpf_fits_uint_p (mpf_t OP)
 Function: int mpf_fits_sint_p (mpf_t OP)
 Function: int mpf_fits_ushort_p (mpf_t OP)
 Function: int mpf_fits_sshort_p (mpf_t OP)
Return nonzero if OP would fit in the respective C data type, when
truncated to an integer.
 Function: void mpf_urandomb (mpf_t ROP, gmp_randstate_t STATE,
mp_bitcnt_t NBITS)
Generate a uniformly distributed random float in ROP, such that 0
<= ROP < 1, with NBITS significant bits in the mantissa or less if
the precision of ROP is smaller.
The variable STATE must be initialized by calling one of the
`gmp_randinit' functions (*note Random State Initialization::)
before invoking this function.
 Function: void mpf_random2 (mpf_t ROP, mp_size_t MAX_SIZE, mp_exp_t
EXP)
Generate a random float of at most MAX_SIZE limbs, with long
strings of zeros and ones in the binary representation. The
exponent of the number is in the interval EXP to EXP (in limbs).
This function is useful for testing functions and algorithms,
since these kind of random numbers have proven to be more likely
to trigger cornercase bugs. Negative random numbers are
generated when MAX_SIZE is negative.
File: gmp.info, Node: Lowlevel Functions, Next: Random Number Functions, Prev: Floatingpoint Functions, Up: Top
8 Lowlevel Functions
*********************
This chapter describes lowlevel GMP functions, used to implement the
highlevel GMP functions, but also intended for timecritical user code.
These functions start with the prefix `mpn_'.
The `mpn' functions are designed to be as fast as possible, *not* to
provide a coherent calling interface. The different functions have
somewhat similar interfaces, but there are variations that make them
hard to use. These functions do as little as possible apart from the
real multiple precision computation, so that no time is spent on things
that not all callers need.
A source operand is specified by a pointer to the least significant
limb and a limb count. A destination operand is specified by just a
pointer. It is the responsibility of the caller to ensure that the
destination has enough space for storing the result.
With this way of specifying operands, it is possible to perform
computations on subranges of an argument, and store the result into a
subrange of a destination.
A common requirement for all functions is that each source area
needs at least one limb. No size argument may be zero. Unless
otherwise stated, inplace operations are allowed where source and
destination are the same, but not where they only partly overlap.
The `mpn' functions are the base for the implementation of the
`mpz_', `mpf_', and `mpq_' functions.
This example adds the number beginning at S1P and the number
beginning at S2P and writes the sum at DESTP. All areas have N limbs.
cy = mpn_add_n (destp, s1p, s2p, n)
It should be noted that the `mpn' functions make no attempt to
identify high or low zero limbs on their operands, or other special
forms. On random data such cases will be unlikely and it'd be wasteful
for every function to check every time. An application knowing
something about its data can take steps to trim or perhaps split its
calculations.
In the notation used below, a source operand is identified by the
pointer to the least significant limb, and the limb count in braces.
For example, {S1P, S1N}.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_add_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Add {S1P, N} and {S2P, N}, and write the N least significant limbs
of the result to RP. Return carry, either 0 or 1.
This is the lowestlevel function for addition. It is the
preferred function for addition, since it is written in assembly
for most CPUs. For addition of a variable to itself (i.e., S1P
equals S2P) use `mpn_lshift' with a count of 1 for optimal speed.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_add_1 (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t N, mp_limb_t S2LIMB)
Add {S1P, N} and S2LIMB, and write the N least significant limbs
of the result to RP. Return carry, either 0 or 1.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_add (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t S1N, const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t S2N)
Add {S1P, S1N} and {S2P, S2N}, and write the S1N least significant
limbs of the result to RP. Return carry, either 0 or 1.
This function requires that S1N is greater than or equal to S2N.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_sub_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Subtract {S2P, N} from {S1P, N}, and write the N least significant
limbs of the result to RP. Return borrow, either 0 or 1.
This is the lowestlevel function for subtraction. It is the
preferred function for subtraction, since it is written in
assembly for most CPUs.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_sub_1 (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t N, mp_limb_t S2LIMB)
Subtract S2LIMB from {S1P, N}, and write the N least significant
limbs of the result to RP. Return borrow, either 0 or 1.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_sub (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t S1N, const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t S2N)
Subtract {S2P, S2N} from {S1P, S1N}, and write the S1N least
significant limbs of the result to RP. Return borrow, either 0 or
1.
This function requires that S1N is greater than or equal to S2N.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_neg (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *SP,
mp_size_t N)
Perform the negation of {SP, N}, and write the result to {RP, N}.
Return carryout.
 Function: void mpn_mul_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Multiply {S1P, N} and {S2P, N}, and write the 2*Nlimb result to
RP.
The destination has to have space for 2*N limbs, even if the
product's most significant limb is zero. No overlap is permitted
between the destination and either source.
If the two input operands are the same, use `mpn_sqr'.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_mul (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t S1N, const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t S2N)
Multiply {S1P, S1N} and {S2P, S2N}, and write the (S1N+S2N)limb
result to RP. Return the most significant limb of the result.
The destination has to have space for S1N + S2N limbs, even if the
product's most significant limb is zero. No overlap is permitted
between the destination and either source.
This function requires that S1N is greater than or equal to S2N.
 Function: void mpn_sqr (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t N)
Compute the square of {S1P, N} and write the 2*Nlimb result to RP.
The destination has to have space for 2*N limbs, even if the
result's most significant limb is zero. No overlap is permitted
between the destination and the source.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_mul_1 (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t N, mp_limb_t S2LIMB)
Multiply {S1P, N} by S2LIMB, and write the N least significant
limbs of the product to RP. Return the most significant limb of
the product. {S1P, N} and {RP, N} are allowed to overlap provided
RP <= S1P.
This is a lowlevel function that is a building block for general
multiplication as well as other operations in GMP. It is written
in assembly for most CPUs.
Don't call this function if S2LIMB is a power of 2; use
`mpn_lshift' with a count equal to the logarithm of S2LIMB
instead, for optimal speed.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_addmul_1 (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t
*S1P, mp_size_t N, mp_limb_t S2LIMB)
Multiply {S1P, N} and S2LIMB, and add the N least significant
limbs of the product to {RP, N} and write the result to RP.
Return the most significant limb of the product, plus carryout
from the addition.
This is a lowlevel function that is a building block for general
multiplication as well as other operations in GMP. It is written
in assembly for most CPUs.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_submul_1 (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t
*S1P, mp_size_t N, mp_limb_t S2LIMB)
Multiply {S1P, N} and S2LIMB, and subtract the N least significant
limbs of the product from {RP, N} and write the result to RP.
Return the most significant limb of the product, plus borrowout
from the subtraction.
This is a lowlevel function that is a building block for general
multiplication and division as well as other operations in GMP.
It is written in assembly for most CPUs.
 Function: void mpn_tdiv_qr (mp_limb_t *QP, mp_limb_t *RP, mp_size_t
QXN, const mp_limb_t *NP, mp_size_t NN, const mp_limb_t *DP,
mp_size_t DN)
Divide {NP, NN} by {DP, DN} and put the quotient at {QP, NNDN+1}
and the remainder at {RP, DN}. The quotient is rounded towards 0.
No overlap is permitted between arguments, except that NP might
equal RP. The dividend size NN must be greater than or equal to
divisor size DN. The most significant limb of the divisor must be
nonzero. The QXN operand must be zero.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_divrem (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_size_t QXN,
mp_limb_t *RS2P, mp_size_t RS2N, const mp_limb_t *S3P,
mp_size_t S3N)
[This function is obsolete. Please call `mpn_tdiv_qr' instead for
best performance.]
Divide {RS2P, RS2N} by {S3P, S3N}, and write the quotient at R1P,
with the exception of the most significant limb, which is
returned. The remainder replaces the dividend at RS2P; it will be
S3N limbs long (i.e., as many limbs as the divisor).
In addition to an integer quotient, QXN fraction limbs are
developed, and stored after the integral limbs. For most usages,
QXN will be zero.
It is required that RS2N is greater than or equal to S3N. It is
required that the most significant bit of the divisor is set.
If the quotient is not needed, pass RS2P + S3N as R1P. Aside from
that special case, no overlap between arguments is permitted.
Return the most significant limb of the quotient, either 0 or 1.
The area at R1P needs to be RS2N  S3N + QXN limbs large.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_divrem_1 (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_size_t QXN,
mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t S2N, mp_limb_t S3LIMB)
 Macro: mp_limb_t mpn_divmod_1 (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_limb_t *S2P,
mp_size_t S2N, mp_limb_t S3LIMB)
Divide {S2P, S2N} by S3LIMB, and write the quotient at R1P.
Return the remainder.
The integer quotient is written to {R1P+QXN, S2N} and in addition
QXN fraction limbs are developed and written to {R1P, QXN}.
Either or both S2N and QXN can be zero. For most usages, QXN will
be zero.
`mpn_divmod_1' exists for upward source compatibility and is
simply a macro calling `mpn_divrem_1' with a QXN of 0.
The areas at R1P and S2P have to be identical or completely
separate, not partially overlapping.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_divmod (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_limb_t *RS2P,
mp_size_t RS2N, const mp_limb_t *S3P, mp_size_t S3N)
[This function is obsolete. Please call `mpn_tdiv_qr' instead for
best performance.]
 Macro: mp_limb_t mpn_divexact_by3 (mp_limb_t *RP, mp_limb_t *SP,
mp_size_t N)
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_divexact_by3c (mp_limb_t *RP, mp_limb_t
*SP, mp_size_t N, mp_limb_t CARRY)
Divide {SP, N} by 3, expecting it to divide exactly, and writing
the result to {RP, N}. If 3 divides exactly, the return value is
zero and the result is the quotient. If not, the return value is
nonzero and the result won't be anything useful.
`mpn_divexact_by3c' takes an initial carry parameter, which can be
the return value from a previous call, so a large calculation can
be done piece by piece from low to high. `mpn_divexact_by3' is
simply a macro calling `mpn_divexact_by3c' with a 0 carry
parameter.
These routines use a multiplybyinverse and will be faster than
`mpn_divrem_1' on CPUs with fast multiplication but slow division.
The source a, result q, size n, initial carry i, and return value
c satisfy c*b^n + ai = 3*q, where b=2^GMP_NUMB_BITS. The return
c is always 0, 1 or 2, and the initial carry i must also be 0, 1
or 2 (these are both borrows really). When c=0 clearly q=(ai)/3.
When c!=0, the remainder (ai) mod 3 is given by 3c, because b ==
1 mod 3 (when `mp_bits_per_limb' is even, which is always so
currently).
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_mod_1 (const mp_limb_t *S1P, mp_size_t S1N,
mp_limb_t S2LIMB)
Divide {S1P, S1N} by S2LIMB, and return the remainder. S1N can be
zero.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_lshift (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *SP,
mp_size_t N, unsigned int COUNT)
Shift {SP, N} left by COUNT bits, and write the result to {RP, N}.
The bits shifted out at the left are returned in the least
significant COUNT bits of the return value (the rest of the return
value is zero).
COUNT must be in the range 1 to mp_bits_per_limb1. The regions
{SP, N} and {RP, N} may overlap, provided RP >= SP.
This function is written in assembly for most CPUs.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_rshift (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *SP,
mp_size_t N, unsigned int COUNT)
Shift {SP, N} right by COUNT bits, and write the result to {RP,
N}. The bits shifted out at the right are returned in the most
significant COUNT bits of the return value (the rest of the return
value is zero).
COUNT must be in the range 1 to mp_bits_per_limb1. The regions
{SP, N} and {RP, N} may overlap, provided RP <= SP.
This function is written in assembly for most CPUs.
 Function: int mpn_cmp (const mp_limb_t *S1P, const mp_limb_t *S2P,
mp_size_t N)
Compare {S1P, N} and {S2P, N} and return a positive value if S1 >
S2, 0 if they are equal, or a negative value if S1 < S2.
 Function: mp_size_t mpn_gcd (mp_limb_t *RP, mp_limb_t *XP,
mp_size_t XN, mp_limb_t *YP, mp_size_t YN)
Set {RP, RETVAL} to the greatest common divisor of {XP, XN} and
{YP, YN}. The result can be up to YN limbs, the return value is
the actual number produced. Both source operands are destroyed.
It is required that XN >= YN > 0, and the most significant limb of
{YP, YN} must be nonzero. No overlap is permitted between {XP,
XN} and {YP, YN}.
 Function: mp_limb_t mpn_gcd_1 (const mp_limb_t *XP, mp_size_t XN,
mp_limb_t YLIMB)
Return the greatest common divisor of {XP, XN} and YLIMB. Both
operands must be nonzero.
 Function: mp_size_t mpn_gcdext (mp_limb_t *GP, mp_limb_t *SP,
mp_size_t *SN, mp_limb_t *UP, mp_size_t UN, mp_limb_t *VP,
mp_size_t VN)
Let U be defined by {UP, UN} and let V be defined by {VP, VN}.
Compute the greatest common divisor G of U and V. Compute a
cofactor S such that G = US + VT. The second cofactor T is not
computed but can easily be obtained from (G  U*S) / V (the
division will be exact). It is required that UN >= VN > 0, and
the most significant limb of {VP, VN} must be nonzero.
S satisfies S = 1 or abs(S) < V / (2 G). S = 0 if and only if V
divides U (i.e., G = V).
Store G at GP and let the return value define its limb count.
Store S at SP and let *SN define its limb count. S can be
negative; when this happens *SN will be negative. The area at GP
should have room for VN limbs and the area at SP should have room
for VN+1 limbs.
Both source operands are destroyed.
Compatibility notes: GMP 4.3.0 and 4.3.1 defined S less strictly.
Earlier as well as later GMP releases define S as described here.
GMP releases before GMP 4.3.0 required additional space for both
input and output areas. More precisely, the areas {UP, UN+1} and
{VP, VN+1} were destroyed (i.e. the operands plus an extra limb
past the end of each), and the areas pointed to by GP and SP
should each have room for UN+1 limbs.
 Function: mp_size_t mpn_sqrtrem (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_limb_t *R2P,
const mp_limb_t *SP, mp_size_t N)
Compute the square root of {SP, N} and put the result at {R1P,
ceil(N/2)} and the remainder at {R2P, RETVAL}. R2P needs space
for N limbs, but the return value indicates how many are produced.
The most significant limb of {SP, N} must be nonzero. The areas
{R1P, ceil(N/2)} and {SP, N} must be completely separate. The
areas {R2P, N} and {SP, N} must be either identical or completely
separate.
If the remainder is not wanted then R2P can be `NULL', and in this
case the return value is zero or nonzero according to whether the
remainder would have been zero or nonzero.
A return value of zero indicates a perfect square. See also
`mpn_perfect_square_p'.
 Function: mp_size_t mpn_get_str (unsigned char *STR, int BASE,
mp_limb_t *S1P, mp_size_t S1N)
Convert {S1P, S1N} to a raw unsigned char array at STR in base
BASE, and return the number of characters produced. There may be
leading zeros in the string. The string is not in ASCII; to
convert it to printable format, add the ASCII codes for `0' or
`A', depending on the base and range. BASE can vary from 2 to 256.
The most significant limb of the input {S1P, S1N} must be
nonzero. The input {S1P, S1N} is clobbered, except when BASE is
a power of 2, in which case it's unchanged.
The area at STR has to have space for the largest possible number
represented by a S1N long limb array, plus one extra character.
 Function: mp_size_t mpn_set_str (mp_limb_t *RP, const unsigned char
*STR, size_t STRSIZE, int BASE)
Convert bytes {STR,STRSIZE} in the given BASE to limbs at RP.
STR[0] is the most significant byte and STR[STRSIZE1] is the
least significant. Each byte should be a value in the range 0 to
BASE1, not an ASCII character. BASE can vary from 2 to 256.
The return value is the number of limbs written to RP. If the most
significant input byte is nonzero then the high limb at RP will be
nonzero, and only that exact number of limbs will be required
there.
If the most significant input byte is zero then there may be high
zero limbs written to RP and included in the return value.
STRSIZE must be at least 1, and no overlap is permitted between
{STR,STRSIZE} and the result at RP.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpn_scan0 (const mp_limb_t *S1P, mp_bitcnt_t
BIT)
Scan S1P from bit position BIT for the next clear bit.
It is required that there be a clear bit within the area at S1P at
or beyond bit position BIT, so that the function has something to
return.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpn_scan1 (const mp_limb_t *S1P, mp_bitcnt_t
BIT)
Scan S1P from bit position BIT for the next set bit.
It is required that there be a set bit within the area at S1P at or
beyond bit position BIT, so that the function has something to
return.
 Function: void mpn_random (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_size_t R1N)
 Function: void mpn_random2 (mp_limb_t *R1P, mp_size_t R1N)
Generate a random number of length R1N and store it at R1P. The
most significant limb is always nonzero. `mpn_random' generates
uniformly distributed limb data, `mpn_random2' generates long
strings of zeros and ones in the binary representation.
`mpn_random2' is intended for testing the correctness of the `mpn'
routines.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpn_popcount (const mp_limb_t *S1P, mp_size_t
N)
Count the number of set bits in {S1P, N}.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpn_hamdist (const mp_limb_t *S1P, const
mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Compute the hamming distance between {S1P, N} and {S2P, N}, which
is the number of bit positions where the two operands have
different bit values.
 Function: int mpn_perfect_square_p (const mp_limb_t *S1P, mp_size_t
N)
Return nonzero iff {S1P, N} is a perfect square. The most
significant limb of the input {S1P, N} must be nonzero.
 Function: void mpn_and_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical and of {S1P, N} and {S2P, N}, and
write the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_ior_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical inclusive or of {S1P, N} and {S2P, N},
and write the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_xor_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical exclusive or of {S1P, N} and {S2P, N},
and write the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_andn_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical and of {S1P, N} and the bitwise
complement of {S2P, N}, and write the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_iorn_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical inclusive or of {S1P, N} and the
bitwise complement of {S2P, N}, and write the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_nand_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical and of {S1P, N} and {S2P, N}, and
write the bitwise complement of the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_nior_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical inclusive or of {S1P, N} and {S2P, N},
and write the bitwise complement of the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_xnor_n (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
const mp_limb_t *S2P, mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise logical exclusive or of {S1P, N} and {S2P, N},
and write the bitwise complement of the result to {RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_com (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *SP,
mp_size_t N)
Perform the bitwise complement of {SP, N}, and write the result to
{RP, N}.
 Function: void mpn_copyi (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t N)
Copy from {S1P, N} to {RP, N}, increasingly.
 Function: void mpn_copyd (mp_limb_t *RP, const mp_limb_t *S1P,
mp_size_t N)
Copy from {S1P, N} to {RP, N}, decreasingly.
 Function: void mpn_zero (mp_limb_t *RP, mp_size_t N)
Zero {RP, N}.
8.1 Nails
=========
*Everything in this section is highly experimental and may disappear or
be subject to incompatible changes in a future version of GMP.*
Nails are an experimental feature whereby a few bits are left unused
at the top of each `mp_limb_t'. This can significantly improve carry
handling on some processors.
All the `mpn' functions accepting limb data will expect the nail
bits to be zero on entry, and will return data with the nails similarly
all zero. This applies both to limb vectors and to single limb
arguments.
Nails can be enabled by configuring with `enablenails'. By
default the number of bits will be chosen according to what suits the
host processor, but a particular number can be selected with
`enablenails=N'.
At the mpn level, a nail build is neither source nor binary
compatible with a nonnail build, strictly speaking. But programs
acting on limbs only through the mpn functions are likely to work
equally well with either build, and judicious use of the definitions
below should make any program compatible with either build, at the
source level.
For the higher level routines, meaning `mpz' etc, a nail build
should be fully source and binary compatible with a nonnail build.
 Macro: GMP_NAIL_BITS
 Macro: GMP_NUMB_BITS
 Macro: GMP_LIMB_BITS
`GMP_NAIL_BITS' is the number of nail bits, or 0 when nails are
not in use. `GMP_NUMB_BITS' is the number of data bits in a limb.
`GMP_LIMB_BITS' is the total number of bits in an `mp_limb_t'. In
all cases
GMP_LIMB_BITS == GMP_NAIL_BITS + GMP_NUMB_BITS
 Macro: GMP_NAIL_MASK
 Macro: GMP_NUMB_MASK
Bit masks for the nail and number parts of a limb.
`GMP_NAIL_MASK' is 0 when nails are not in use.
`GMP_NAIL_MASK' is not often needed, since the nail part can be
obtained with `x >> GMP_NUMB_BITS', and that means one less large
constant, which can help various RISC chips.
 Macro: GMP_NUMB_MAX
The maximum value that can be stored in the number part of a limb.
This is the same as `GMP_NUMB_MASK', but can be used for clarity
when doing comparisons rather than bitwise operations.
The term "nails" comes from finger or toe nails, which are at the
ends of a limb (arm or leg). "numb" is short for number, but is also
how the developers felt after trying for a long time to come up with
sensible names for these things.
In the future (the distant future most likely) a nonzero nail might
be permitted, giving nonunique representations for numbers in a limb
vector. This would help vector processors since carries would only
ever need to propagate one or two limbs.
File: gmp.info, Node: Random Number Functions, Next: Formatted Output, Prev: Lowlevel Functions, Up: Top
9 Random Number Functions
*************************
Sequences of pseudorandom numbers in GMP are generated using a
variable of type `gmp_randstate_t', which holds an algorithm selection
and a current state. Such a variable must be initialized by a call to
one of the `gmp_randinit' functions, and can be seeded with one of the
`gmp_randseed' functions.
The functions actually generating random numbers are described in
*note Integer Random Numbers::, and *note Miscellaneous Float
Functions::.
The older style random number functions don't accept a
`gmp_randstate_t' parameter but instead share a global variable of that
type. They use a default algorithm and are currently not seeded
(though perhaps that will change in the future). The new functions
accepting a `gmp_randstate_t' are recommended for applications that
care about randomness.
* Menu:
* Random State Initialization::
* Random State Seeding::
* Random State Miscellaneous::
File: gmp.info, Node: Random State Initialization, Next: Random State Seeding, Prev: Random Number Functions, Up: Random Number Functions
9.1 Random State Initialization
===============================
 Function: void gmp_randinit_default (gmp_randstate_t STATE)
Initialize STATE with a default algorithm. This will be a
compromise between speed and randomness, and is recommended for
applications with no special requirements. Currently this is
`gmp_randinit_mt'.
 Function: void gmp_randinit_mt (gmp_randstate_t STATE)
Initialize STATE for a Mersenne Twister algorithm. This algorithm
is fast and has good randomness properties.
 Function: void gmp_randinit_lc_2exp (gmp_randstate_t STATE, mpz_t
A, unsigned long C, mp_bitcnt_t M2EXP)
Initialize STATE with a linear congruential algorithm X = (A*X +
C) mod 2^M2EXP.
The low bits of X in this algorithm are not very random. The least
significant bit will have a period no more than 2, and the second
bit no more than 4, etc. For this reason only the high half of
each X is actually used.
When a random number of more than M2EXP/2 bits is to be generated,
multiple iterations of the recurrence are used and the results
concatenated.
 Function: int gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size (gmp_randstate_t STATE,
mp_bitcnt_t SIZE)
Initialize STATE for a linear congruential algorithm as per
`gmp_randinit_lc_2exp'. A, C and M2EXP are selected from a table,
chosen so that SIZE bits (or more) of each X will be used, i.e.
M2EXP/2 >= SIZE.
If successful the return value is nonzero. If SIZE is bigger
than the table data provides then the return value is zero. The
maximum SIZE currently supported is 128.
 Function: void gmp_randinit_set (gmp_randstate_t ROP,
gmp_randstate_t OP)
Initialize ROP with a copy of the algorithm and state from OP.
 Function: void gmp_randinit (gmp_randstate_t STATE,
gmp_randalg_t ALG, ...)
*This function is obsolete.*
Initialize STATE with an algorithm selected by ALG. The only
choice is `GMP_RAND_ALG_LC', which is `gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size'
described above. A third parameter of type `unsigned long' is
required, this is the SIZE for that function.
`GMP_RAND_ALG_DEFAULT' or 0 are the same as `GMP_RAND_ALG_LC'.
`gmp_randinit' sets bits in the global variable `gmp_errno' to
indicate an error. `GMP_ERROR_UNSUPPORTED_ARGUMENT' if ALG is
unsupported, or `GMP_ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENT' if the SIZE parameter
is too big. It may be noted this error reporting is not thread
safe (a good reason to use `gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size' instead).
 Function: void gmp_randclear (gmp_randstate_t STATE)
Free all memory occupied by STATE.
File: gmp.info, Node: Random State Seeding, Next: Random State Miscellaneous, Prev: Random State Initialization, Up: Random Number Functions
9.2 Random State Seeding
========================
 Function: void gmp_randseed (gmp_randstate_t STATE, mpz_t SEED)
 Function: void gmp_randseed_ui (gmp_randstate_t STATE,
unsigned long int SEED)
Set an initial seed value into STATE.
The size of a seed determines how many different sequences of
random numbers that it's possible to generate. The "quality" of
the seed is the randomness of a given seed compared to the
previous seed used, and this affects the randomness of separate
number sequences. The method for choosing a seed is critical if
the generated numbers are to be used for important applications,
such as generating cryptographic keys.
Traditionally the system time has been used to seed, but care
needs to be taken with this. If an application seeds often and
the resolution of the system clock is low, then the same sequence
of numbers might be repeated. Also, the system time is quite easy
to guess, so if unpredictability is required then it should
definitely not be the only source for the seed value. On some
systems there's a special device `/dev/random' which provides
random data better suited for use as a seed.
File: gmp.info, Node: Random State Miscellaneous, Prev: Random State Seeding, Up: Random Number Functions
9.3 Random State Miscellaneous
==============================
 Function: unsigned long gmp_urandomb_ui (gmp_randstate_t STATE,
unsigned long N)
Return a uniformly distributed random number of N bits, i.e. in the
range 0 to 2^N1 inclusive. N must be less than or equal to the
number of bits in an `unsigned long'.
 Function: unsigned long gmp_urandomm_ui (gmp_randstate_t STATE,
unsigned long N)
Return a uniformly distributed random number in the range 0 to
N1, inclusive.
File: gmp.info, Node: Formatted Output, Next: Formatted Input, Prev: Random Number Functions, Up: Top
10 Formatted Output
*******************
* Menu:
* Formatted Output Strings::
* Formatted Output Functions::
* C++ Formatted Output::
File: gmp.info, Node: Formatted Output Strings, Next: Formatted Output Functions, Prev: Formatted Output, Up: Formatted Output
10.1 Format Strings
===================
`gmp_printf' and friends accept format strings similar to the standard C
`printf' (*note Formatted Output: (libc)Formatted Output.). A format
specification is of the form
% [flags] [width] [.[precision]] [type] conv
GMP adds types `Z', `Q' and `F' for `mpz_t', `mpq_t' and `mpf_t'
respectively, `M' for `mp_limb_t', and `N' for an `mp_limb_t' array.
`Z', `Q', `M' and `N' behave like integers. `Q' will print a `/' and a
denominator, if needed. `F' behaves like a float. For example,
mpz_t z;
gmp_printf ("%s is an mpz %Zd\n", "here", z);
mpq_t q;
gmp_printf ("a hex rational: %#40Qx\n", q);
mpf_t f;
int n;
gmp_printf ("fixed point mpf %.*Ff with %d digits\n", n, f, n);
mp_limb_t l;
gmp_printf ("limb %Mu\n", l);
const mp_limb_t *ptr;
mp_size_t size;
gmp_printf ("limb array %Nx\n", ptr, size);
For `N' the limbs are expected least significant first, as per the
`mpn' functions (*note Lowlevel Functions::). A negative size can be
given to print the value as a negative.
All the standard C `printf' types behave the same as the C library
`printf', and can be freely intermixed with the GMP extensions. In the
current implementation the standard parts of the format string are
simply handed to `printf' and only the GMP extensions handled directly.
The flags accepted are as follows. GLIBC style ' is only for the
standard C types (not the GMP types), and only if the C library
supports it.
0 pad with zeros (rather than spaces)
# show the base with `0x', `0X' or `0'
+ always show a sign
(space) show a space or a `' sign
' group digits, GLIBC style (not GMP types)
The optional width and precision can be given as a number within the
format string, or as a `*' to take an extra parameter of type `int', the
same as the standard `printf'.
The standard types accepted are as follows. `h' and `l' are
portable, the rest will depend on the compiler (or include files) for
the type and the C library for the output.
h short
hh char
j intmax_t or uintmax_t
l long or wchar_t
ll long long
L long double
q quad_t or u_quad_t
t ptrdiff_t
z size_t
The GMP types are
F mpf_t, float conversions
Q mpq_t, integer conversions
M mp_limb_t, integer conversions
N mp_limb_t array, integer conversions
Z mpz_t, integer conversions
The conversions accepted are as follows. `a' and `A' are always
supported for `mpf_t' but depend on the C library for standard C float
types. `m' and `p' depend on the C library.
a A hex floats, C99 style
c character
d decimal integer
e E scientific format float
f fixed point float
i same as d
g G fixed or scientific float
m `strerror' string, GLIBC style
n store characters written so far
o octal integer
p pointer
s string
u unsigned integer
x X hex integer
`o', `x' and `X' are unsigned for the standard C types, but for
types `Z', `Q' and `N' they are signed. `u' is not meaningful for `Z',
`Q' and `N'.
`M' is a proxy for the C library `l' or `L', according to the size
of `mp_limb_t'. Unsigned conversions will be usual, but a signed
conversion can be used and will interpret the value as a twos complement
negative.
`n' can be used with any type, even the GMP types.
Other types or conversions that might be accepted by the C library
`printf' cannot be used through `gmp_printf', this includes for
instance extensions registered with GLIBC `register_printf_function'.
Also currently there's no support for POSIX `$' style numbered arguments
(perhaps this will be added in the future).
The precision field has its usual meaning for integer `Z' and float
`F' types, but is currently undefined for `Q' and should not be used
with that.
`mpf_t' conversions only ever generate as many digits as can be
accurately represented by the operand, the same as `mpf_get_str' does.
Zeros will be used if necessary to pad to the requested precision. This
happens even for an `f' conversion of an `mpf_t' which is an integer,
for instance 2^1024 in an `mpf_t' of 128 bits precision will only
produce about 40 digits, then pad with zeros to the decimal point. An
empty precision field like `%.Fe' or `%.Ff' can be used to specifically
request just the significant digits. Without any dot and thus no
precision field, a precision value of 6 will be used. Note that these
rules mean that `%Ff', `%.Ff', and `%.0Ff' will all be different.
The decimal point character (or string) is taken from the current
locale settings on systems which provide `localeconv' (*note Locales
and Internationalization: (libc)Locales.). The C library will normally
do the same for standard float output.
The format string is only interpreted as plain `char's, multibyte
characters are not recognised. Perhaps this will change in the future.
File: gmp.info, Node: Formatted Output Functions, Next: C++ Formatted Output, Prev: Formatted Output Strings, Up: Formatted Output
10.2 Functions
==============
Each of the following functions is similar to the corresponding C
library function. The basic `printf' forms take a variable argument
list. The `vprintf' forms take an argument pointer, see *note Variadic
Functions: (libc)Variadic Functions, or `man 3 va_start'.
It should be emphasised that if a format string is invalid, or the
arguments don't match what the format specifies, then the behaviour of
any of these functions will be unpredictable. GCC format string
checking is not available, since it doesn't recognise the GMP
extensions.
The file based functions `gmp_printf' and `gmp_fprintf' will return
1 to indicate a write error. Output is not "atomic", so partial
output may be produced if a write error occurs. All the functions can
return 1 if the C library `printf' variant in use returns 1, but this
shouldn't normally occur.
 Function: int gmp_printf (const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vprintf (const char *FMT, va_list AP)
Print to the standard output `stdout'. Return the number of
characters written, or 1 if an error occurred.
 Function: int gmp_fprintf (FILE *FP, const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vfprintf (FILE *FP, const char *FMT, va_list AP)
Print to the stream FP. Return the number of characters written,
or 1 if an error occurred.
 Function: int gmp_sprintf (char *BUF, const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vsprintf (char *BUF, const char *FMT, va_list AP)
Form a nullterminated string in BUF. Return the number of
characters written, excluding the terminating null.
No overlap is permitted between the space at BUF and the string
FMT.
These functions are not recommended, since there's no protection
against exceeding the space available at BUF.
 Function: int gmp_snprintf (char *BUF, size_t SIZE, const char
*FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vsnprintf (char *BUF, size_t SIZE, const char
*FMT, va_list AP)
Form a nullterminated string in BUF. No more than SIZE bytes
will be written. To get the full output, SIZE must be enough for
the string and nullterminator.
The return value is the total number of characters which ought to
have been produced, excluding the terminating null. If RETVAL >=
SIZE then the actual output has been truncated to the first SIZE1
characters, and a null appended.
No overlap is permitted between the region {BUF,SIZE} and the FMT
string.
Notice the return value is in ISO C99 `snprintf' style. This is
so even if the C library `vsnprintf' is the older GLIBC 2.0.x
style.
 Function: int gmp_asprintf (char **PP, const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vasprintf (char **PP, const char *FMT, va_list AP)
Form a nullterminated string in a block of memory obtained from
the current memory allocation function (*note Custom
Allocation::). The block will be the size of the string and
nullterminator. The address of the block in stored to *PP. The
return value is the number of characters produced, excluding the
nullterminator.
Unlike the C library `asprintf', `gmp_asprintf' doesn't return 1
if there's no more memory available, it lets the current allocation
function handle that.
 Function: int gmp_obstack_printf (struct obstack *OB, const char
*FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_obstack_vprintf (struct obstack *OB, const char
*FMT, va_list AP)
Append to the current object in OB. The return value is the
number of characters written. A nullterminator is not written.
FMT cannot be within the current object in OB, since that object
might move as it grows.
These functions are available only when the C library provides the
obstack feature, which probably means only on GNU systems, see
*note Obstacks: (libc)Obstacks.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Formatted Output, Prev: Formatted Output Functions, Up: Formatted Output
10.3 C++ Formatted Output
=========================
The following functions are provided in `libgmpxx' (*note Headers and
Libraries::), which is built if C++ support is enabled (*note Build
Options::). Prototypes are available from `'.
 Function: ostream& operator<< (ostream& STREAM, mpz_t OP)
Print OP to STREAM, using its `ios' formatting settings.
`ios::width' is reset to 0 after output, the same as the standard
`ostream operator<<' routines do.
In hex or octal, OP is printed as a signed number, the same as for
decimal. This is unlike the standard `operator<<' routines on
`int' etc, which instead give twos complement.
 Function: ostream& operator<< (ostream& STREAM, mpq_t OP)
Print OP to STREAM, using its `ios' formatting settings.
`ios::width' is reset to 0 after output, the same as the standard
`ostream operator<<' routines do.
Output will be a fraction like `5/9', or if the denominator is 1
then just a plain integer like `123'.
In hex or octal, OP is printed as a signed value, the same as for
decimal. If `ios::showbase' is set then a base indicator is shown
on both the numerator and denominator (if the denominator is
required).
 Function: ostream& operator<< (ostream& STREAM, mpf_t OP)
Print OP to STREAM, using its `ios' formatting settings.
`ios::width' is reset to 0 after output, the same as the standard
`ostream operator<<' routines do.
The decimal point follows the standard library float `operator<<',
which on recent systems means the `std::locale' imbued on STREAM.
Hex and octal are supported, unlike the standard `operator<<' on
`double'. The mantissa will be in hex or octal, the exponent will
be in decimal. For hex the exponent delimiter is an `@'. This is
as per `mpf_out_str'.
`ios::showbase' is supported, and will put a base on the mantissa,
for example hex `0x1.8' or `0x0.8', or octal `01.4' or `00.4'.
This last form is slightly strange, but at least differentiates
itself from decimal.
These operators mean that GMP types can be printed in the usual C++
way, for example,
mpz_t z;
int n;
...
cout << "iteration " << n << " value " << z << "\n";
But note that `ostream' output (and `istream' input, *note C++
Formatted Input::) is the only overloading available for the GMP types
and that for instance using `+' with an `mpz_t' will have unpredictable
results. For classes with overloading, see *note C++ Class Interface::.
File: gmp.info, Node: Formatted Input, Next: C++ Class Interface, Prev: Formatted Output, Up: Top
11 Formatted Input
******************
* Menu:
* Formatted Input Strings::
* Formatted Input Functions::
* C++ Formatted Input::
File: gmp.info, Node: Formatted Input Strings, Next: Formatted Input Functions, Prev: Formatted Input, Up: Formatted Input
11.1 Formatted Input Strings
============================
`gmp_scanf' and friends accept format strings similar to the standard C
`scanf' (*note Formatted Input: (libc)Formatted Input.). A format
specification is of the form
% [flags] [width] [type] conv
GMP adds types `Z', `Q' and `F' for `mpz_t', `mpq_t' and `mpf_t'
respectively. `Z' and `Q' behave like integers. `Q' will read a `/'
and a denominator, if present. `F' behaves like a float.
GMP variables don't require an `&' when passed to `gmp_scanf', since
they're already "callbyreference". For example,
/* to read say "a(5) = 1234" */
int n;
mpz_t z;
gmp_scanf ("a(%d) = %Zd\n", &n, z);
mpq_t q1, q2;
gmp_sscanf ("0377 + 0x10/0x11", "%Qi + %Qi", q1, q2);
/* to read say "topleft (1.55,2.66)" */
mpf_t x, y;
char buf[32];
gmp_scanf ("%31s (%Ff,%Ff)", buf, x, y);
All the standard C `scanf' types behave the same as in the C library
`scanf', and can be freely intermixed with the GMP extensions. In the
current implementation the standard parts of the format string are
simply handed to `scanf' and only the GMP extensions handled directly.
The flags accepted are as follows. `a' and `'' will depend on
support from the C library, and `'' cannot be used with GMP types.
* read but don't store
a allocate a buffer (string conversions)
' grouped digits, GLIBC style (not GMP
types)
The standard types accepted are as follows. `h' and `l' are
portable, the rest will depend on the compiler (or include files) for
the type and the C library for the input.
h short
hh char
j intmax_t or uintmax_t
l long int, double or wchar_t
ll long long
L long double
q quad_t or u_quad_t
t ptrdiff_t
z size_t
The GMP types are
F mpf_t, float conversions
Q mpq_t, integer conversions
Z mpz_t, integer conversions
The conversions accepted are as follows. `p' and `[' will depend on
support from the C library, the rest are standard.
c character or characters
d decimal integer
e E f g G float
i integer with base indicator
n characters read so far
o octal integer
p pointer
s string of nonwhitespace characters
u decimal integer
x X hex integer
[ string of characters in a set
`e', `E', `f', `g' and `G' are identical, they all read either fixed
point or scientific format, and either upper or lower case `e' for the
exponent in scientific format.
C99 style hex float format (`printf %a', *note Formatted Output
Strings::) is always accepted for `mpf_t', but for the standard float
types it will depend on the C library.
`x' and `X' are identical, both accept both upper and lower case
hexadecimal.
`o', `u', `x' and `X' all read positive or negative values. For the
standard C types these are described as "unsigned" conversions, but
that merely affects certain overflow handling, negatives are still
allowed (per `strtoul', *note Parsing of Integers: (libc)Parsing of
Integers.). For GMP types there are no overflows, so `d' and `u' are
identical.
`Q' type reads the numerator and (optional) denominator as given.
If the value might not be in canonical form then `mpq_canonicalize'
must be called before using it in any calculations (*note Rational
Number Functions::).
`Qi' will read a base specification separately for the numerator and
denominator. For example `0x10/11' would be 16/11, whereas `0x10/0x11'
would be 16/17.
`n' can be used with any of the types above, even the GMP types.
`*' to suppress assignment is allowed, though in that case it would do
nothing at all.
Other conversions or types that might be accepted by the C library
`scanf' cannot be used through `gmp_scanf'.
Whitespace is read and discarded before a field, except for `c' and
`[' conversions.
For float conversions, the decimal point character (or string)
expected is taken from the current locale settings on systems which
provide `localeconv' (*note Locales and Internationalization:
(libc)Locales.). The C library will normally do the same for standard
float input.
The format string is only interpreted as plain `char's, multibyte
characters are not recognised. Perhaps this will change in the future.
File: gmp.info, Node: Formatted Input Functions, Next: C++ Formatted Input, Prev: Formatted Input Strings, Up: Formatted Input
11.2 Formatted Input Functions
==============================
Each of the following functions is similar to the corresponding C
library function. The plain `scanf' forms take a variable argument
list. The `vscanf' forms take an argument pointer, see *note Variadic
Functions: (libc)Variadic Functions, or `man 3 va_start'.
It should be emphasised that if a format string is invalid, or the
arguments don't match what the format specifies, then the behaviour of
any of these functions will be unpredictable. GCC format string
checking is not available, since it doesn't recognise the GMP
extensions.
No overlap is permitted between the FMT string and any of the results
produced.
 Function: int gmp_scanf (const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vscanf (const char *FMT, va_list AP)
Read from the standard input `stdin'.
 Function: int gmp_fscanf (FILE *FP, const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vfscanf (FILE *FP, const char *FMT, va_list AP)
Read from the stream FP.
 Function: int gmp_sscanf (const char *S, const char *FMT, ...)
 Function: int gmp_vsscanf (const char *S, const char *FMT, va_list
AP)
Read from a nullterminated string S.
The return value from each of these functions is the same as the
standard C99 `scanf', namely the number of fields successfully parsed
and stored. `%n' fields and fields read but suppressed by `*' don't
count towards the return value.
If end of input (or a file error) is reached before a character for
a field or a literal, and if no previous nonsuppressed fields have
matched, then the return value is `EOF' instead of 0. A whitespace
character in the format string is only an optional match and doesn't
induce an `EOF' in this fashion. Leading whitespace read and discarded
for a field don't count as characters for that field.
For the GMP types, input parsing follows C99 rules, namely one
character of lookahead is used and characters are read while they
continue to meet the format requirements. If this doesn't provide a
complete number then the function terminates, with that field not
stored nor counted towards the return value. For instance with `mpf_t'
an input `1.23eXYZ' would be read up to the `X' and that character
pushed back since it's not a digit. The string `1.23e' would then be
considered invalid since an `e' must be followed by at least one digit.
For the standard C types, in the current implementation GMP calls
the C library `scanf' functions, which might have looser rules about
what constitutes a valid input.
Note that `gmp_sscanf' is the same as `gmp_fscanf' and only does one
character of lookahead when parsing. Although clearly it could look at
its entire input, it is deliberately made identical to `gmp_fscanf',
the same way C99 `sscanf' is the same as `fscanf'.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Formatted Input, Prev: Formatted Input Functions, Up: Formatted Input
11.3 C++ Formatted Input
========================
The following functions are provided in `libgmpxx' (*note Headers and
Libraries::), which is built only if C++ support is enabled (*note
Build Options::). Prototypes are available from `'.
 Function: istream& operator>> (istream& STREAM, mpz_t ROP)
Read ROP from STREAM, using its `ios' formatting settings.
 Function: istream& operator>> (istream& STREAM, mpq_t ROP)
An integer like `123' will be read, or a fraction like `5/9'. No
whitespace is allowed around the `/'. If the fraction is not in
canonical form then `mpq_canonicalize' must be called (*note
Rational Number Functions::) before operating on it.
As per integer input, an `0' or `0x' base indicator is read when
none of `ios::dec', `ios::oct' or `ios::hex' are set. This is
done separately for numerator and denominator, so that for instance
`0x10/11' is 16/11 and `0x10/0x11' is 16/17.
 Function: istream& operator>> (istream& STREAM, mpf_t ROP)
Read ROP from STREAM, using its `ios' formatting settings.
Hex or octal floats are not supported, but might be in the future,
or perhaps it's best to accept only what the standard float
`operator>>' does.
Note that digit grouping specified by the `istream' locale is
currently not accepted. Perhaps this will change in the future.
These operators mean that GMP types can be read in the usual C++
way, for example,
mpz_t z;
...
cin >> z;
But note that `istream' input (and `ostream' output, *note C++
Formatted Output::) is the only overloading available for the GMP types
and that for instance using `+' with an `mpz_t' will have unpredictable
results. For classes with overloading, see *note C++ Class Interface::.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Class Interface, Next: Custom Allocation, Prev: Formatted Input, Up: Top
12 C++ Class Interface
**********************
This chapter describes the C++ class based interface to GMP.
All GMP C language types and functions can be used in C++ programs,
since `gmp.h' has `extern "C"' qualifiers, but the class interface
offers overloaded functions and operators which may be more convenient.
Due to the implementation of this interface, a reasonably recent C++
compiler is required, one supporting namespaces, partial specialization
of templates and member templates. For GCC this means version 2.91 or
later.
*Everything described in this chapter is to be considered preliminary
and might be subject to incompatible changes if some unforeseen
difficulty reveals itself.*
* Menu:
* C++ Interface General::
* C++ Interface Integers::
* C++ Interface Rationals::
* C++ Interface Floats::
* C++ Interface Random Numbers::
* C++ Interface Limitations::
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface General, Next: C++ Interface Integers, Prev: C++ Class Interface, Up: C++ Class Interface
12.1 C++ Interface General
==========================
All the C++ classes and functions are available with
#include
Programs should be linked with the `libgmpxx' and `libgmp'
libraries. For example,
g++ mycxxprog.cc lgmpxx lgmp
The classes defined are
 Class: mpz_class
 Class: mpq_class
 Class: mpf_class
The standard operators and various standard functions are overloaded
to allow arithmetic with these classes. For example,
int
main (void)
{
mpz_class a, b, c;
a = 1234;
b = "5678";
c = a+b;
cout << "sum is " << c << "\n";
cout << "absolute value is " << abs(c) << "\n";
return 0;
}
An important feature of the implementation is that an expression like
`a=b+c' results in a single call to the corresponding `mpz_add',
without using a temporary for the `b+c' part. Expressions which by
their nature imply intermediate values, like `a=b*c+d*e', still use
temporaries though.
The classes can be freely intermixed in expressions, as can the
classes and the standard types `long', `unsigned long' and `double'.
Smaller types like `int' or `float' can also be intermixed, since C++
will promote them.
Note that `bool' is not accepted directly, but must be explicitly
cast to an `int' first. This is because C++ will automatically convert
any pointer to a `bool', so if GMP accepted `bool' it would make all
sorts of invalid class and pointer combinations compile but almost
certainly not do anything sensible.
Conversions back from the classes to standard C++ types aren't done
automatically, instead member functions like `get_si' are provided (see
the following sections for details).
Also there are no automatic conversions from the classes to the
corresponding GMP C types, instead a reference to the underlying C
object can be obtained with the following functions,
 Function: mpz_t mpz_class::get_mpz_t ()
 Function: mpq_t mpq_class::get_mpq_t ()
 Function: mpf_t mpf_class::get_mpf_t ()
These can be used to call a C function which doesn't have a C++ class
interface. For example to set `a' to the GCD of `b' and `c',
mpz_class a, b, c;
...
mpz_gcd (a.get_mpz_t(), b.get_mpz_t(), c.get_mpz_t());
In the other direction, a class can be initialized from the
corresponding GMP C type, or assigned to if an explicit constructor is
used. In both cases this makes a copy of the value, it doesn't create
any sort of association. For example,
mpz_t z;
// ... init and calculate z ...
mpz_class x(z);
mpz_class y;
y = mpz_class (z);
There are no namespace setups in `gmpxx.h', all types and functions
are simply put into the global namespace. This is what `gmp.h' has
done in the past, and continues to do for compatibility. The extras
provided by `gmpxx.h' follow GMP naming conventions and are unlikely to
clash with anything.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface Integers, Next: C++ Interface Rationals, Prev: C++ Interface General, Up: C++ Class Interface
12.2 C++ Interface Integers
===========================
 Function: mpz_class::mpz_class (type N)
Construct an `mpz_class'. All the standard C++ types may be used,
except `long long' and `long double', and all the GMP C++ classes
can be used, although conversions from `mpq_class' and `mpf_class'
are `explicit'. Any necessary conversion follows the
corresponding C function, for example `double' follows `mpz_set_d'
(*note Assigning Integers::).
 Function: explicit mpz_class::mpz_class (mpz_t Z)
Construct an `mpz_class' from an `mpz_t'. The value in Z is
copied into the new `mpz_class', there won't be any permanent
association between it and Z.
 Function: explicit mpz_class::mpz_class (const char *S, int BASE =
0)
 Function: explicit mpz_class::mpz_class (const string& S, int BASE
= 0)
Construct an `mpz_class' converted from a string using
`mpz_set_str' (*note Assigning Integers::).
If the string is not a valid integer, an `std::invalid_argument'
exception is thrown. The same applies to `operator='.
 Function: mpz_class operator"" _mpz (const char *STR)
With C++11 compilers, integers can be constructed with the syntax
`123_mpz' which is equivalent to `mpz_class("123")'.
 Function: mpz_class operator/ (mpz_class A, mpz_class D)
 Function: mpz_class operator% (mpz_class A, mpz_class D)
Divisions involving `mpz_class' round towards zero, as per the
`mpz_tdiv_q' and `mpz_tdiv_r' functions (*note Integer Division::).
This is the same as the C99 `/' and `%' operators.
The `mpz_fdiv...' or `mpz_cdiv...' functions can always be called
directly if desired. For example,
mpz_class q, a, d;
...
mpz_fdiv_q (q.get_mpz_t(), a.get_mpz_t(), d.get_mpz_t());
 Function: mpz_class abs (mpz_class OP)
 Function: int cmp (mpz_class OP1, type OP2)
 Function: int cmp (type OP1, mpz_class OP2)
 Function: bool mpz_class::fits_sint_p (void)
 Function: bool mpz_class::fits_slong_p (void)
 Function: bool mpz_class::fits_sshort_p (void)
 Function: bool mpz_class::fits_uint_p (void)
 Function: bool mpz_class::fits_ulong_p (void)
 Function: bool mpz_class::fits_ushort_p (void)
 Function: double mpz_class::get_d (void)
 Function: long mpz_class::get_si (void)
 Function: string mpz_class::get_str (int BASE = 10)
 Function: unsigned long mpz_class::get_ui (void)
 Function: int mpz_class::set_str (const char *STR, int BASE)
 Function: int mpz_class::set_str (const string& STR, int BASE)
 Function: int sgn (mpz_class OP)
 Function: mpz_class sqrt (mpz_class OP)
 Function: void mpz_class::swap (mpz_class& OP)
 Function: void swap (mpz_class& OP1, mpz_class& OP2)
These functions provide a C++ class interface to the corresponding
GMP C routines.
`cmp' can be used with any of the classes or the standard C++
types, except `long long' and `long double'.
Overloaded operators for combinations of `mpz_class' and `double'
are provided for completeness, but it should be noted that if the given
`double' is not an integer then the way any rounding is done is
currently unspecified. The rounding might take place at the start, in
the middle, or at the end of the operation, and it might change in the
future.
Conversions between `mpz_class' and `double', however, are defined
to follow the corresponding C functions `mpz_get_d' and `mpz_set_d'.
And comparisons are always made exactly, as per `mpz_cmp_d'.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface Rationals, Next: C++ Interface Floats, Prev: C++ Interface Integers, Up: C++ Class Interface
12.3 C++ Interface Rationals
============================
In all the following constructors, if a fraction is given then it
should be in canonical form, or if not then `mpq_class::canonicalize'
called.
 Function: mpq_class::mpq_class (type OP)
 Function: mpq_class::mpq_class (integer NUM, integer DEN)
Construct an `mpq_class'. The initial value can be a single value
of any type (conversion from `mpf_class' is `explicit'), or a pair
of integers (`mpz_class' or standard C++ integer types)
representing a fraction, except that `long long' and `long double'
are not supported. For example,
mpq_class q (99);
mpq_class q (1.75);
mpq_class q (1, 3);
 Function: explicit mpq_class::mpq_class (mpq_t Q)
Construct an `mpq_class' from an `mpq_t'. The value in Q is
copied into the new `mpq_class', there won't be any permanent
association between it and Q.
 Function: explicit mpq_class::mpq_class (const char *S, int BASE =
0)
 Function: explicit mpq_class::mpq_class (const string& S, int BASE
= 0)
Construct an `mpq_class' converted from a string using
`mpq_set_str' (*note Initializing Rationals::).
If the string is not a valid rational, an `std::invalid_argument'
exception is thrown. The same applies to `operator='.
 Function: mpq_class operator"" _mpq (const char *STR)
With C++11 compilers, integral rationals can be constructed with
the syntax `123_mpq' which is equivalent to `mpq_class(123_mpz)'.
Other rationals can be built as `1_mpq/2' or `0xb_mpq/123456_mpz'.
 Function: void mpq_class::canonicalize ()
Put an `mpq_class' into canonical form, as per *note Rational
Number Functions::. All arithmetic operators require their
operands in canonical form, and will return results in canonical
form.
 Function: mpq_class abs (mpq_class OP)
 Function: int cmp (mpq_class OP1, type OP2)
 Function: int cmp (type OP1, mpq_class OP2)
 Function: double mpq_class::get_d (void)
 Function: string mpq_class::get_str (int BASE = 10)
 Function: int mpq_class::set_str (const char *STR, int BASE)
 Function: int mpq_class::set_str (const string& STR, int BASE)
 Function: int sgn (mpq_class OP)
 Function: void mpq_class::swap (mpq_class& OP)
 Function: void swap (mpq_class& OP1, mpq_class& OP2)
These functions provide a C++ class interface to the corresponding
GMP C routines.
`cmp' can be used with any of the classes or the standard C++
types, except `long long' and `long double'.
 Function: mpz_class& mpq_class::get_num ()
 Function: mpz_class& mpq_class::get_den ()
Get a reference to an `mpz_class' which is the numerator or
denominator of an `mpq_class'. This can be used both for read and
write access. If the object returned is modified, it modifies the
original `mpq_class'.
If direct manipulation might produce a noncanonical value, then
`mpq_class::canonicalize' must be called before further operations.
 Function: mpz_t mpq_class::get_num_mpz_t ()
 Function: mpz_t mpq_class::get_den_mpz_t ()
Get a reference to the underlying `mpz_t' numerator or denominator
of an `mpq_class'. This can be passed to C functions expecting an
`mpz_t'. Any modifications made to the `mpz_t' will modify the
original `mpq_class'.
If direct manipulation might produce a noncanonical value, then
`mpq_class::canonicalize' must be called before further operations.
 Function: istream& operator>> (istream& STREAM, mpq_class& ROP);
Read ROP from STREAM, using its `ios' formatting settings, the
same as `mpq_t operator>>' (*note C++ Formatted Input::).
If the ROP read might not be in canonical form then
`mpq_class::canonicalize' must be called.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface Floats, Next: C++ Interface Random Numbers, Prev: C++ Interface Rationals, Up: C++ Class Interface
12.4 C++ Interface Floats
=========================
When an expression requires the use of temporary intermediate
`mpf_class' values, like `f=g*h+x*y', those temporaries will have the
same precision as the destination `f'. Explicit constructors can be
used if this doesn't suit.
 Function: mpf_class::mpf_class (type OP)
 Function: mpf_class::mpf_class (type OP, mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Construct an `mpf_class'. Any standard C++ type can be used,
except `long long' and `long double', and any of the GMP C++
classes can be used.
If PREC is given, the initial precision is that value, in bits. If
PREC is not given, then the initial precision is determined by the
type of OP given. An `mpz_class', `mpq_class', or C++ builtin
type will give the default `mpf' precision (*note Initializing
Floats::). An `mpf_class' or expression will give the precision
of that value. The precision of a binary expression is the higher
of the two operands.
mpf_class f(1.5); // default precision
mpf_class f(1.5, 500); // 500 bits (at least)
mpf_class f(x); // precision of x
mpf_class f(abs(x)); // precision of x
mpf_class f(g, 1000); // 1000 bits (at least)
mpf_class f(x+y); // greater of precisions of x and y
 Function: explicit mpf_class::mpf_class (mpf_t F)
 Function: mpf_class::mpf_class (mpf_t F, mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Construct an `mpf_class' from an `mpf_t'. The value in F is
copied into the new `mpf_class', there won't be any permanent
association between it and F.
If PREC is given, the initial precision is that value, in bits. If
PREC is not given, then the initial precision is that of F.
 Function: explicit mpf_class::mpf_class (const char *S)
 Function: mpf_class::mpf_class (const char *S, mp_bitcnt_t PREC,
int BASE = 0)
 Function: explicit mpf_class::mpf_class (const string& S)
 Function: mpf_class::mpf_class (const string& S, mp_bitcnt_t PREC,
int BASE = 0)
Construct an `mpf_class' converted from a string using
`mpf_set_str' (*note Assigning Floats::). If PREC is given, the
initial precision is that value, in bits. If not, the default
`mpf' precision (*note Initializing Floats::) is used.
If the string is not a valid float, an `std::invalid_argument'
exception is thrown. The same applies to `operator='.
 Function: mpf_class operator"" _mpf (const char *STR)
With C++11 compilers, floats can be constructed with the syntax
`1.23e1_mpf' which is equivalent to `mpf_class("1.23e1")'.
 Function: mpf_class& mpf_class::operator= (type OP)
Convert and store the given OP value to an `mpf_class' object. The
same types are accepted as for the constructors above.
Note that `operator=' only stores a new value, it doesn't copy or
change the precision of the destination, instead the value is
truncated if necessary. This is the same as `mpf_set' etc. Note
in particular this means for `mpf_class' a copy constructor is not
the same as a default constructor plus assignment.
mpf_class x (y); // x created with precision of y
mpf_class x; // x created with default precision
x = y; // value truncated to that precision
Applications using templated code may need to be careful about the
assumptions the code makes in this area, when working with
`mpf_class' values of various different or nondefault precisions.
For instance implementations of the standard `complex' template
have been seen in both styles above, though of course `complex' is
normally only actually specified for use with the builtin float
types.
 Function: mpf_class abs (mpf_class OP)
 Function: mpf_class ceil (mpf_class OP)
 Function: int cmp (mpf_class OP1, type OP2)
 Function: int cmp (type OP1, mpf_class OP2)
 Function: bool mpf_class::fits_sint_p (void)
 Function: bool mpf_class::fits_slong_p (void)
 Function: bool mpf_class::fits_sshort_p (void)
 Function: bool mpf_class::fits_uint_p (void)
 Function: bool mpf_class::fits_ulong_p (void)
 Function: bool mpf_class::fits_ushort_p (void)
 Function: mpf_class floor (mpf_class OP)
 Function: mpf_class hypot (mpf_class OP1, mpf_class OP2)
 Function: double mpf_class::get_d (void)
 Function: long mpf_class::get_si (void)
 Function: string mpf_class::get_str (mp_exp_t& EXP, int BASE = 10,
size_t DIGITS = 0)
 Function: unsigned long mpf_class::get_ui (void)
 Function: int mpf_class::set_str (const char *STR, int BASE)
 Function: int mpf_class::set_str (const string& STR, int BASE)
 Function: int sgn (mpf_class OP)
 Function: mpf_class sqrt (mpf_class OP)
 Function: void mpf_class::swap (mpf_class& OP)
 Function: void swap (mpf_class& OP1, mpf_class& OP2)
 Function: mpf_class trunc (mpf_class OP)
These functions provide a C++ class interface to the corresponding
GMP C routines.
`cmp' can be used with any of the classes or the standard C++
types, except `long long' and `long double'.
The accuracy provided by `hypot' is not currently guaranteed.
 Function: mp_bitcnt_t mpf_class::get_prec ()
 Function: void mpf_class::set_prec (mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
 Function: void mpf_class::set_prec_raw (mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Get or set the current precision of an `mpf_class'.
The restrictions described for `mpf_set_prec_raw' (*note
Initializing Floats::) apply to `mpf_class::set_prec_raw'. Note
in particular that the `mpf_class' must be restored to it's
allocated precision before being destroyed. This must be done by
application code, there's no automatic mechanism for it.
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface Random Numbers, Next: C++ Interface Limitations, Prev: C++ Interface Floats, Up: C++ Class Interface
12.5 C++ Interface Random Numbers
=================================
 Class: gmp_randclass
The C++ class interface to the GMP random number functions uses
`gmp_randclass' to hold an algorithm selection and current state,
as per `gmp_randstate_t'.
 Function: gmp_randclass::gmp_randclass (void (*RANDINIT)
(gmp_randstate_t, ...), ...)
Construct a `gmp_randclass', using a call to the given RANDINIT
function (*note Random State Initialization::). The arguments
expected are the same as RANDINIT, but with `mpz_class' instead of
`mpz_t'. For example,
gmp_randclass r1 (gmp_randinit_default);
gmp_randclass r2 (gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size, 32);
gmp_randclass r3 (gmp_randinit_lc_2exp, a, c, m2exp);
gmp_randclass r4 (gmp_randinit_mt);
`gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size' will fail if the size requested is too
big, an `std::length_error' exception is thrown in that case.
 Function: gmp_randclass::gmp_randclass (gmp_randalg_t ALG, ...)
Construct a `gmp_randclass' using the same parameters as
`gmp_randinit' (*note Random State Initialization::). This
function is obsolete and the above RANDINIT style should be
preferred.
 Function: void gmp_randclass::seed (unsigned long int S)
 Function: void gmp_randclass::seed (mpz_class S)
Seed a random number generator. See *note Random Number
Functions::, for how to choose a good seed.
 Function: mpz_class gmp_randclass::get_z_bits (mp_bitcnt_t BITS)
 Function: mpz_class gmp_randclass::get_z_bits (mpz_class BITS)
Generate a random integer with a specified number of bits.
 Function: mpz_class gmp_randclass::get_z_range (mpz_class N)
Generate a random integer in the range 0 to N1 inclusive.
 Function: mpf_class gmp_randclass::get_f ()
 Function: mpf_class gmp_randclass::get_f (mp_bitcnt_t PREC)
Generate a random float F in the range 0 <= F < 1. F will be to
PREC bits precision, or if PREC is not given then to the precision
of the destination. For example,
gmp_randclass r;
...
mpf_class f (0, 512); // 512 bits precision
f = r.get_f(); // random number, 512 bits
File: gmp.info, Node: C++ Interface Limitations, Prev: C++ Interface Random Numbers, Up: C++ Class Interface
12.6 C++ Interface Limitations
==============================
`mpq_class' and Templated Reading
A generic piece of template code probably won't know that
`mpq_class' requires a `canonicalize' call if inputs read with
`operator>>' might be noncanonical. This can lead to incorrect
results.
`operator>>' behaves as it does for reasons of efficiency. A
canonicalize can be quite time consuming on large operands, and is
best avoided if it's not necessary.
But this potential difficulty reduces the usefulness of
`mpq_class'. Perhaps a mechanism to tell `operator>>' what to do
will be adopted in the future, maybe a preprocessor define, a
global flag, or an `ios' flag pressed into service. Or maybe, at
the risk of inconsistency, the `mpq_class' `operator>>' could
canonicalize and leave `mpq_t' `operator>>' not doing so, for use
on those occasions when that's acceptable. Send feedback or
alternate ideas to .
Subclassing
Subclassing the GMP C++ classes works, but is not currently
recommended.
Expressions involving subclasses resolve correctly (or seem to),
but in normal C++ fashion the subclass doesn't inherit
constructors and assignments. There's many of those in the GMP
classes, and a good way to reestablish them in a subclass is not
yet provided.
Templated Expressions
A subtle difficulty exists when using expressions together with
applicationdefined template functions. Consider the following,
with `T' intended to be some numeric type,
template
T fun (const T &, const T &);
When used with, say, plain `mpz_class' variables, it works fine:
`T' is resolved as `mpz_class'.
mpz_class f(1), g(2);
fun (f, g); // Good
But when one of the arguments is an expression, it doesn't work.
mpz_class f(1), g(2), h(3);
fun (f, g+h); // Bad
This is because `g+h' ends up being a certain expression template
type internal to `gmpxx.h', which the C++ template resolution
rules are unable to automatically convert to `mpz_class'. The
workaround is simply to add an explicit cast.
mpz_class f(1), g(2), h(3);
fun (f, mpz_class(g+h)); // Good
Similarly, within `fun' it may be necessary to cast an expression
to type `T' when calling a templated `fun2'.
template
void fun (T f, T g)
{
fun2 (f, f+g); // Bad
}
template
void fun (T f, T g)
{
fun2 (f, T(f+g)); // Good
}
File: gmp.info, Node: Custom Allocation, Next: Language Bindings, Prev: C++ Class Interface, Up: Top
13 Custom Allocation
********************
By default GMP uses `malloc', `realloc' and `free' for memory
allocation, and if they fail GMP prints a message to the standard error
output and terminates the program.
Alternate functions can be specified, to allocate memory in a
different way or to have a different error action on running out of
memory.
 Function: void mp_set_memory_functions (
void *(*ALLOC_FUNC_PTR) (size_t),
void *(*REALLOC_FUNC_PTR) (void *, size_t, size_t),
void (*FREE_FUNC_PTR) (void *, size_t))
Replace the current allocation functions from the arguments. If
an argument is `NULL', the corresponding default function is used.
These functions will be used for all memory allocation done by
GMP, apart from temporary space from `alloca' if that function is
available and GMP is configured to use it (*note Build Options::).
*Be sure to call `mp_set_memory_functions' only when there are no
active GMP objects allocated using the previous memory functions!
Usually that means calling it before any other GMP function.*
The functions supplied should fit the following declarations:
 Function: void * allocate_function (size_t ALLOC_SIZE)
Return a pointer to newly allocated space with at least ALLOC_SIZE
bytes.
 Function: void * reallocate_function (void *PTR, size_t OLD_SIZE,
size_t NEW_SIZE)
Resize a previously allocated block PTR of OLD_SIZE bytes to be
NEW_SIZE bytes.
The block may be moved if necessary or if desired, and in that
case the smaller of OLD_SIZE and NEW_SIZE bytes must be copied to
the new location. The return value is a pointer to the resized
block, that being the new location if moved or just PTR if not.
PTR is never `NULL', it's always a previously allocated block.
NEW_SIZE may be bigger or smaller than OLD_SIZE.
 Function: void free_function (void *PTR, size_t SIZE)
Deallocate the space pointed to by PTR.
PTR is never `NULL', it's always a previously allocated block of
SIZE bytes.
A "byte" here means the unit used by the `sizeof' operator.
The REALLOCATE_FUNCTION parameter OLD_SIZE and the FREE_FUNCTION
parameter SIZE are passed for convenience, but of course they can be
ignored if not needed by an implementation. The default functions
using `malloc' and friends for instance don't use them.
No error return is allowed from any of these functions, if they
return then they must have performed the specified operation. In
particular note that ALLOCATE_FUNCTION or REALLOCATE_FUNCTION mustn't
return `NULL'.
Getting a different fatal error action is a good use for custom
allocation functions, for example giving a graphical dialog rather than
the default print to `stderr'. How much is possible when genuinely out
of memory is another question though.
There's currently no defined way for the allocation functions to
recover from an error such as out of memory, they must terminate
program execution. A `longjmp' or throwing a C++ exception will have
undefined results. This may change in the future.
GMP may use allocated blocks to hold pointers to other allocated
blocks. This will limit the assumptions a conservative garbage
collection scheme can make.
Since the default GMP allocation uses `malloc' and friends, those
functions will be linked in even if the first thing a program does is an
`mp_set_memory_functions'. It's necessary to change the GMP sources if
this is a problem.
 Function: void mp_get_memory_functions (
void *(**ALLOC_FUNC_PTR) (size_t),
void *(**REALLOC_FUNC_PTR) (void *, size_t, size_t),
void (**FREE_FUNC_PTR) (void *, size_t))
Get the current allocation functions, storing function pointers to
the locations given by the arguments. If an argument is `NULL',
that function pointer is not stored.
For example, to get just the current free function,
void (*freefunc) (void *, size_t);
mp_get_memory_functions (NULL, NULL, &freefunc);
File: gmp.info, Node: Language Bindings, Next: Algorithms, Prev: Custom Allocation, Up: Top
14 Language Bindings
********************
The following packages and projects offer access to GMP from languages
other than C, though perhaps with varying levels of functionality and
efficiency.
C++
* GMP C++ class interface, *note C++ Class Interface::
Straightforward interface, expression templates to eliminate
temporaries.
* ALP `http://wwwsop.inria.fr/saga/logiciels/ALP/'
Linear algebra and polynomials using templates.
* Arithmos `http://cant.ua.ac.be/old/arithmos/'
Rationals with infinities and square roots.
* CLN `http://www.ginac.de/CLN/'
High level classes for arithmetic.
* LiDIA `http://www.cdc.informatik.tudarmstadt.de/TI/LiDIA/'
A C++ library for computational number theory.
* Linbox `http://www.linalg.org/'
Sparse vectors and matrices.
* NTL `http://www.shoup.net/ntl/'
A C++ number theory library.
Eiffel
* Eiffelroom `http://www.eiffelroom.org/node/442'
Fortran
* Omni F77 `http://phase.hpcc.jp/Omni/home.html'
Arbitrary precision floats.
Haskell
* Glasgow Haskell Compiler `http://www.haskell.org/ghc/'
Java
* Kaffe `http://www.kaffe.org/'
* Kissme `http://kissme.sourceforge.net/'
Lisp
* GNU Common Lisp `http://www.gnu.org/software/gcl/gcl.html'
* Librep `http://librep.sourceforge.net/'
* XEmacs (21.5.18 beta and up) `http://www.xemacs.org'
Optional big integers, rationals and floats using GMP.
M4
* GNU m4 betas `http://www.seindal.dk/rene/gnu/'
Optionally provides an arbitrary precision `mpeval'.
ML
* MLton compiler `http://mlton.org/'
Objective Caml
* MLGMP `http://www.di.ens.fr/~monniaux/programmes.html.en'
* Numerix `http://pauillac.inria.fr/~quercia/'
Optionally using GMP.
Oz
* Mozart `http://www.mozartoz.org/'
Pascal
* GNU Pascal Compiler `http://www.gnupascal.de/'
GMP unit.
* Numerix `http://pauillac.inria.fr/~quercia/'
For Free Pascal, optionally using GMP.
Perl
* GMP module, see `demos/perl' in the GMP sources (*note
Demonstration Programs::).
* Math::GMP `http://www.cpan.org/'
Compatible with Math::BigInt, but not as many functions as
the GMP module above.
* Math::BigInt::GMP `http://www.cpan.org/'
Plug Math::GMP into normal Math::BigInt operations.
Pike
* mpz module in the standard distribution,
`http://pike.ida.liu.se/'
Prolog
* SWI Prolog `http://www.swiprolog.org/'
Arbitrary precision floats.
Python
* GMPY `http://code.google.com/p/gmpy/'
Ruby
* http://rubygems.org/gems/gmp
Scheme
* GNU Guile (upcoming 1.8)
`http://www.gnu.org/software/guile/guile.html'
* RScheme `http://www.rscheme.org/'
* STklos `http://www.stklos.org/'
Smalltalk
* GNU Smalltalk
`http://www.smalltalk.org/versions/GNUSmalltalk.html'
Other
* Axiom `http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/axiom'
Computer algebra using GCL.
* DrGenius `http://drgenius.seul.org/'
Geometry system and mathematical programming language.
* GiNaC `http://www.ginac.de/'
C++ computer algebra using CLN.
* GOO `http://www.googoogaga.org/'
Dynamic object oriented language.
* Maxima `http://www.ma.utexas.edu/users/wfs/maxima.html'
Macsyma computer algebra using GCL.
* Q `http://qlang.sourceforge.net/'
Equational programming system.
* Regina `http://regina.sourceforge.net/'
Topological calculator.
* Yacas `yacas.sourceforge.net'
Yet another computer algebra system.
File: gmp.info, Node: Algorithms, Next: Internals, Prev: Language Bindings, Up: Top
15 Algorithms
*************
This chapter is an introduction to some of the algorithms used for
various GMP operations. The code is likely to be hard to understand
without knowing something about the algorithms.
Some GMP internals are mentioned, but applications that expect to be
compatible with future GMP releases should take care to use only the
documented functions.
* Menu:
* Multiplication Algorithms::
* Division Algorithms::
* Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms::
* Powering Algorithms::
* Root Extraction Algorithms::
* Radix Conversion Algorithms::
* Other Algorithms::
* Assembly Coding::
File: gmp.info, Node: Multiplication Algorithms, Next: Division Algorithms, Prev: Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.1 Multiplication
===================
NxN limb multiplications and squares are done using one of seven
algorithms, as the size N increases.
Algorithm Threshold
Basecase (none)
Karatsuba `MUL_TOOM22_THRESHOLD'
Toom3 `MUL_TOOM33_THRESHOLD'
Toom4 `MUL_TOOM44_THRESHOLD'
Toom6.5 `MUL_TOOM6H_THRESHOLD'
Toom8.5 `MUL_TOOM8H_THRESHOLD'
FFT `MUL_FFT_THRESHOLD'
Similarly for squaring, with the `SQR' thresholds.
NxM multiplications of operands with different sizes above
`MUL_TOOM22_THRESHOLD' are currently done by special Toominspired
algorithms or directly with FFT, depending on operand size (*note
Unbalanced Multiplication::).
* Menu:
* Basecase Multiplication::
* Karatsuba Multiplication::
* Toom 3Way Multiplication::
* Toom 4Way Multiplication::
* Higher degree Toom'n'half::
* FFT Multiplication::
* Other Multiplication::
* Unbalanced Multiplication::
File: gmp.info, Node: Basecase Multiplication, Next: Karatsuba Multiplication, Prev: Multiplication Algorithms, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.1 Basecase Multiplication

Basecase NxM multiplication is a straightforward rectangular set of
crossproducts, the same as long multiplication done by hand and for
that reason sometimes known as the schoolbook or grammar school method.
This is an O(N*M) algorithm. See Knuth section 4.3.1 algorithm M
(*note References::), and the `mpn/generic/mul_basecase.c' code.
Assembly implementations of `mpn_mul_basecase' are essentially the
same as the generic C code, but have all the usual assembly tricks and
obscurities introduced for speed.
A square can be done in roughly half the time of a multiply, by
using the fact that the cross products above and below the diagonal are
the same. A triangle of products below the diagonal is formed, doubled
(left shift by one bit), and then the products on the diagonal added.
This can be seen in `mpn/generic/sqr_basecase.c'. Again the assembly
implementations take essentially the same approach.
u0 u1 u2 u3 u4
++++++
u0  d     
++++++
u1   d    
++++++
u2    d   
++++++
u3     d  
++++++
u4      d 
++++++
In practice squaring isn't a full 2x faster than multiplying, it's
usually around 1.5x. Less than 1.5x probably indicates
`mpn_sqr_basecase' wants improving on that CPU.
On some CPUs `mpn_mul_basecase' can be faster than the generic C
`mpn_sqr_basecase' on some small sizes. `SQR_BASECASE_THRESHOLD' is
the size at which to use `mpn_sqr_basecase', this will be zero if that
routine should be used always.
File: gmp.info, Node: Karatsuba Multiplication, Next: Toom 3Way Multiplication, Prev: Basecase Multiplication, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.2 Karatsuba Multiplication

The Karatsuba multiplication algorithm is described in Knuth section
4.3.3 part A, and various other textbooks. A brief description is
given here.
The inputs x and y are treated as each split into two parts of equal
length (or the most significant part one limb shorter if N is odd).
high low
+++
 x1  x0 
+++
+++
 y1  y0 
+++
Let b be the power of 2 where the split occurs, i.e. if x0 is k
limbs (y0 the same) then b=2^(k*mp_bits_per_limb). With that x=x1*b+x0
and y=y1*b+y0, and the following holds,
x*y = (b^2+b)*x1*y1  b*(x1x0)*(y1y0) + (b+1)*x0*y0
This formula means doing only three multiplies of (N/2)x(N/2) limbs,
whereas a basecase multiply of NxN limbs is equivalent to four
multiplies of (N/2)x(N/2). The factors (b^2+b) etc represent the
positions where the three products must be added.
high low
+++ +++
 x1*y1   x0*y0 
+++ +++
+++
add  x1*y1 
+++
+++
add  x0*y0 
+++
+++
sub  (x1x0)*(y1y0) 
+++
The term (x1x0)*(y1y0) is best calculated as an absolute value,
and the sign used to choose to add or subtract. Notice the sum
high(x0*y0)+low(x1*y1) occurs twice, so it's possible to do 5*k limb
additions, rather than 6*k, but in GMP extra function call overheads
outweigh the saving.
Squaring is similar to multiplying, but with x=y the formula reduces
to an equivalent with three squares,
x^2 = (b^2+b)*x1^2  b*(x1x0)^2 + (b+1)*x0^2
The final result is accumulated from those three squares the same
way as for the three multiplies above. The middle term (x1x0)^2 is now
always positive.
A similar formula for both multiplying and squaring can be
constructed with a middle term (x1+x0)*(y1+y0). But those sums can
exceed k limbs, leading to more carry handling and additions than the
form above.
Karatsuba multiplication is asymptotically an O(N^1.585) algorithm,
the exponent being log(3)/log(2), representing 3 multiplies each 1/2
the size of the inputs. This is a big improvement over the basecase
multiply at O(N^2) and the advantage soon overcomes the extra additions
Karatsuba performs. `MUL_TOOM22_THRESHOLD' can be as little as 10
limbs. The `SQR' threshold is usually about twice the `MUL'.
The basecase algorithm will take a time of the form M(N) = a*N^2 +
b*N + c and the Karatsuba algorithm K(N) = 3*M(N/2) + d*N + e, which
expands to K(N) = 3/4*a*N^2 + 3/2*b*N + 3*c + d*N + e. The factor 3/4
for a means percrossproduct speedups in the basecase code will
increase the threshold since they benefit M(N) more than K(N). And
conversely the 3/2 for b means linear style speedups of b will increase
the threshold since they benefit K(N) more than M(N). The latter can
be seen for instance when adding an optimized `mpn_sqr_diagonal' to
`mpn_sqr_basecase'. Of course all speedups reduce total time, and in
that sense the algorithm thresholds are merely of academic interest.
File: gmp.info, Node: Toom 3Way Multiplication, Next: Toom 4Way Multiplication, Prev: Karatsuba Multiplication, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.3 Toom 3Way Multiplication

The Karatsuba formula is the simplest case of a general approach to
splitting inputs that leads to both Toom and FFT algorithms. A
description of Toom can be found in Knuth section 4.3.3, with an
example 3way calculation after Theorem A. The 3way form used in GMP
is described here.
The operands are each considered split into 3 pieces of equal length
(or the most significant part 1 or 2 limbs shorter than the other two).
high low
++++
 x2  x1  x0 
++++
++++
 y2  y1  y0 
++++
These parts are treated as the coefficients of two polynomials
X(t) = x2*t^2 + x1*t + x0
Y(t) = y2*t^2 + y1*t + y0
Let b equal the power of 2 which is the size of the x0, x1, y0 and
y1 pieces, i.e. if they're k limbs each then b=2^(k*mp_bits_per_limb).
With this x=X(b) and y=Y(b).
Let a polynomial W(t)=X(t)*Y(t) and suppose its coefficients are
W(t) = w4*t^4 + w3*t^3 + w2*t^2 + w1*t + w0
The w[i] are going to be determined, and when they are they'll give
the final result using w=W(b), since x*y=X(b)*Y(b)=W(b). The
coefficients will be roughly b^2 each, and the final W(b) will be an
addition like,
high low
+++
 w4 
+++
+++
 w3 
+++
+++
 w2 
+++
+++
 w1 
+++
+++
 w0 
+++
The w[i] coefficients could be formed by a simple set of cross
products, like w4=x2*y2, w3=x2*y1+x1*y2, w2=x2*y0+x1*y1+x0*y2 etc, but
this would need all nine x[i]*y[j] for i,j=0,1,2, and would be
equivalent merely to a basecase multiply. Instead the following
approach is used.
X(t) and Y(t) are evaluated and multiplied at 5 points, giving
values of W(t) at those points. In GMP the following points are used,
Point Value
t=0 x0 * y0, which gives w0 immediately
t=1 (x2+x1+x0) * (y2+y1+y0)
t=1 (x2x1+x0) * (y2y1+y0)
t=2 (4*x2+2*x1+x0) * (4*y2+2*y1+y0)
t=inf x2 * y2, which gives w4 immediately
At t=1 the values can be negative and that's handled using the
absolute values and tracking the sign separately. At t=inf the value
is actually X(t)*Y(t)/t^4 in the limit as t approaches infinity, but
it's much easier to think of as simply x2*y2 giving w4 immediately
(much like x0*y0 at t=0 gives w0 immediately).
Each of the points substituted into W(t)=w4*t^4+...+w0 gives a
linear combination of the w[i] coefficients, and the value of those
combinations has just been calculated.
W(0) = w0
W(1) = w4 + w3 + w2 + w1 + w0
W(1) = w4  w3 + w2  w1 + w0
W(2) = 16*w4 + 8*w3 + 4*w2 + 2*w1 + w0
W(inf) = w4
This is a set of five equations in five unknowns, and some
elementary linear algebra quickly isolates each w[i]. This involves
adding or subtracting one W(t) value from another, and a couple of
divisions by powers of 2 and one division by 3, the latter using the
special `mpn_divexact_by3' (*note Exact Division::).
The conversion of W(t) values to the coefficients is interpolation.
A polynomial of degree 4 like W(t) is uniquely determined by values
known at 5 different points. The points are arbitrary and can be
chosen to make the linear equations come out with a convenient set of
steps for quickly isolating the w[i].
Squaring follows the same procedure as multiplication, but there's
only one X(t) and it's evaluated at the 5 points, and those values
squared to give values of W(t). The interpolation is then identical,
and in fact the same `toom_interpolate_5pts' subroutine is used for
both squaring and multiplying.
Toom3 is asymptotically O(N^1.465), the exponent being
log(5)/log(3), representing 5 recursive multiplies of 1/3 the original
size each. This is an improvement over Karatsuba at O(N^1.585), though
Toom does more work in the evaluation and interpolation and so it only
realizes its advantage above a certain size.
Near the crossover between Toom3 and Karatsuba there's generally a
range of sizes where the difference between the two is small.
`MUL_TOOM33_THRESHOLD' is a somewhat arbitrary point in that range and
successive runs of the tune program can give different values due to
small variations in measuring. A graph of time versus size for the two
shows the effect, see `tune/README'.
At the fairly small sizes where the Toom3 thresholds occur it's
worth remembering that the asymptotic behaviour for Karatsuba and
Toom3 can't be expected to make accurate predictions, due of course to
the big influence of all sorts of overheads, and the fact that only a
few recursions of each are being performed. Even at large sizes
there's a good chance machine dependent effects like cache architecture
will mean actual performance deviates from what might be predicted.
The formula given for the Karatsuba algorithm (*note Karatsuba
Multiplication::) has an equivalent for Toom3 involving only five
multiplies, but this would be complicated and unenlightening.
An alternate view of Toom3 can be found in Zuras (*note
References::), using a vector to represent the x and y splits and a
matrix multiplication for the evaluation and interpolation stages. The
matrix inverses are not meant to be actually used, and they have
elements with values much greater than in fact arise in the
interpolation steps. The diagram shown for the 3way is attractive,
but again doesn't have to be implemented that way and for example with
a bit of rearrangement just one division by 6 can be done.
File: gmp.info, Node: Toom 4Way Multiplication, Next: Higher degree Toom'n'half, Prev: Toom 3Way Multiplication, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.4 Toom 4Way Multiplication

Karatsuba and Toom3 split the operands into 2 and 3 coefficients,
respectively. Toom4 analogously splits the operands into 4
coefficients. Using the notation from the section on Toom3
multiplication, we form two polynomials:
X(t) = x3*t^3 + x2*t^2 + x1*t + x0
Y(t) = y3*t^3 + y2*t^2 + y1*t + y0
X(t) and Y(t) are evaluated and multiplied at 7 points, giving
values of W(t) at those points. In GMP the following points are used,
Point Value
t=0 x0 * y0, which gives w0 immediately
t=1/2 (x3+2*x2+4*x1+8*x0) * (y3+2*y2+4*y1+8*y0)
t=1/2 (x3+2*x24*x1+8*x0) * (y3+2*y24*y1+8*y0)
t=1 (x3+x2+x1+x0) * (y3+y2+y1+y0)
t=1 (x3+x2x1+x0) * (y3+y2y1+y0)
t=2 (8*x3+4*x2+2*x1+x0) * (8*y3+4*y2+2*y1+y0)
t=inf x3 * y3, which gives w6 immediately
The number of additions and subtractions for Toom4 is much larger
than for Toom3. But several subexpressions occur multiple times, for
example x2+x0, occurs for both t=1 and t=1.
Toom4 is asymptotically O(N^1.404), the exponent being
log(7)/log(4), representing 7 recursive multiplies of 1/4 the original
size each.
File: gmp.info, Node: Higher degree Toom'n'half, Next: FFT Multiplication, Prev: Toom 4Way Multiplication, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.5 Higher degree Toom'n'half

The Toom algorithms described above (*note Toom 3Way Multiplication::,
*note Toom 4Way Multiplication::) generalizes to split into an
arbitrary number of pieces. In general a split of two equally long
operands into r pieces leads to evaluations and pointwise
multiplications done at 2*r1 points. To fully exploit symmetries it
would be better to have a multiple of 4 points, that's why for higher
degree Toom'n'half is used.
Toom'n'half means that the existence of one more piece is considered
for a single operand. It can be virtual, i.e. zero, or real, when the
two operand are not exactly balanced. By chosing an even r, Toomr+1/2
requires 2r points, a multiple of four.
The fourplets of points inlcude 0, inf, +1, 1 and +2^i, +2^i .
Each of them giving shortcuts for the evaluation phase and for some
steps in the interpolation phase. Further tricks are used to reduce the
memory footprint of the whole multiplication algorithm to a memory
buffer equanl in size to the result of the product.
Current GMP uses both Toom6'n'half and Toom8'n'half.
File: gmp.info, Node: FFT Multiplication, Next: Other Multiplication, Prev: Higher degree Toom'n'half, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.6 FFT Multiplication

At large to very large sizes a Fermat style FFT multiplication is used,
following Schnhage and Strassen (*note References::). Descriptions of
FFTs in various forms can be found in many textbooks, for instance
Knuth section 4.3.3 part C or Lipson chapter IX. A brief description
of the form used in GMP is given here.
The multiplication done is x*y mod 2^N+1, for a given N. A full
product x*y is obtained by choosing N>=bits(x)+bits(y) and padding x
and y with high zero limbs. The modular product is the native form for
the algorithm, so padding to get a full product is unavoidable.
The algorithm follows a split, evaluate, pointwise multiply,
interpolate and combine similar to that described above for Karatsuba
and Toom3. A k parameter controls the split, with an FFTk splitting
into 2^k pieces of M=N/2^k bits each. N must be a multiple of
(2^k)*mp_bits_per_limb so the split falls on limb boundaries, avoiding
bit shifts in the split and combine stages.
The evaluations, pointwise multiplications, and interpolation, are
all done modulo 2^N'+1 where N' is 2M+k+3 rounded up to a multiple of
2^k and of `mp_bits_per_limb'. The results of interpolation will be
the following negacyclic convolution of the input pieces, and the
choice of N' ensures these sums aren't truncated.

\ b
w[n] = / (1) * x[i] * y[j]

i+j==b*2^k+n
b=0,1
The points used for the evaluation are g^i for i=0 to 2^k1 where
g=2^(2N'/2^k). g is a 2^k'th root of unity mod 2^N'+1, which produces
necessary cancellations at the interpolation stage, and it's also a
power of 2 so the fast Fourier transforms used for the evaluation and
interpolation do only shifts, adds and negations.
The pointwise multiplications are done modulo 2^N'+1 and either
recurse into a further FFT or use a plain multiplication (Toom3,
Karatsuba or basecase), whichever is optimal at the size N'. The
interpolation is an inverse fast Fourier transform. The resulting set
of sums of x[i]*y[j] are added at appropriate offsets to give the final
result.
Squaring is the same, but x is the only input so it's one transform
at the evaluate stage and the pointwise multiplies are squares. The
interpolation is the same.
For a mod 2^N+1 product, an FFTk is an O(N^(k/(k1))) algorithm,
the exponent representing 2^k recursed modular multiplies each
1/2^(k1) the size of the original. Each successive k is an asymptotic
improvement, but overheads mean each is only faster at bigger and
bigger sizes. In the code, `MUL_FFT_TABLE' and `SQR_FFT_TABLE' are the
thresholds where each k is used. Each new k effectively swaps some
multiplying for some shifts, adds and overheads.
A mod 2^N+1 product can be formed with a normal NxN>2N bit multiply
plus a subtraction, so an FFT and Toom3 etc can be compared directly.
A k=4 FFT at O(N^1.333) can be expected to be the first faster than
Toom3 at O(N^1.465). In practice this is what's found, with
`MUL_FFT_MODF_THRESHOLD' and `SQR_FFT_MODF_THRESHOLD' being between 300
and 1000 limbs, depending on the CPU. So far it's been found that only
very large FFTs recurse into pointwise multiplies above these sizes.
When an FFT is to give a full product, the change of N to 2N doesn't
alter the theoretical complexity for a given k, but for the purposes of
considering where an FFT might be first used it can be assumed that the
FFT is recursing into a normal multiply and that on that basis it's
doing 2^k recursed multiplies each 1/2^(k2) the size of the inputs,
making it O(N^(k/(k2))). This would mean k=7 at O(N^1.4) would be the
first FFT faster than Toom3. In practice `MUL_FFT_THRESHOLD' and
`SQR_FFT_THRESHOLD' have been found to be in the k=8 range, somewhere
between 3000 and 10000 limbs.
The way N is split into 2^k pieces and then 2M+k+3 is rounded up to
a multiple of 2^k and `mp_bits_per_limb' means that when
2^k>=mp_bits_per_limb the effective N is a multiple of 2^(2k1) bits.
The +k+3 means some values of N just under such a multiple will be
rounded to the next. The complexity calculations above assume that a
favourable size is used, meaning one which isn't padded through
rounding, and it's also assumed that the extra +k+3 bits are negligible
at typical FFT sizes.
The practical effect of the 2^(2k1) constraint is to introduce a
stepeffect into measured speeds. For example k=8 will round N up to a
multiple of 32768 bits, so for a 32bit limb there'll be 512 limb
groups of sizes for which `mpn_mul_n' runs at the same speed. Or for
k=9 groups of 2048 limbs, k=10 groups of 8192 limbs, etc. In practice
it's been found each k is used at quite small multiples of its size
constraint and so the step effect is quite noticeable in a time versus
size graph.
The threshold determinations currently measure at the midpoints of
size steps, but this is suboptimal since at the start of a new step it
can happen that it's better to go back to the previous k for a while.
Something more sophisticated for `MUL_FFT_TABLE' and `SQR_FFT_TABLE'
will be needed.
File: gmp.info, Node: Other Multiplication, Next: Unbalanced Multiplication, Prev: FFT Multiplication, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.7 Other Multiplication

The Toom algorithms described above (*note Toom 3Way Multiplication::,
*note Toom 4Way Multiplication::) generalizes to split into an
arbitrary number of pieces, as per Knuth section 4.3.3 algorithm C.
This is not currently used. The notes here are merely for interest.
In general a split into r+1 pieces is made, and evaluations and
pointwise multiplications done at 2*r+1 points. A 4way split does 7
pointwise multiplies, 5way does 9, etc. Asymptotically an (r+1)way
algorithm is O(N^(log(2*r+1)/log(r+1))). Only the pointwise
multiplications count towards bigO complexity, but the time spent in
the evaluate and interpolate stages grows with r and has a significant
practical impact, with the asymptotic advantage of each r realized only
at bigger and bigger sizes. The overheads grow as O(N*r), whereas in
an r=2^k FFT they grow only as O(N*log(r)).
Knuth algorithm C evaluates at points 0,1,2,...,2*r, but exercise 4
uses r,...,0,...,r and the latter saves some small multiplies in the
evaluate stage (or rather trades them for additions), and has a further
saving of nearly half the interpolate steps. The idea is to separate
odd and even final coefficients and then perform algorithm C steps C7
and C8 on them separately. The divisors at step C7 become j^2 and the
multipliers at C8 become 2*t*jj^2.
Splitting odd and even parts through positive and negative points
can be thought of as using 1 as a square root of unity. If a 4th root
of unity was available then a further split and speedup would be
possible, but no such root exists for plain integers. Going to complex
integers with i=sqrt(1) doesn't help, essentially because in Cartesian
form it takes three real multiplies to do a complex multiply. The
existence of 2^k'th roots of unity in a suitable ring or field lets the
fast Fourier transform keep splitting and get to O(N*log(r)).
Floating point FFTs use complex numbers approximating Nth roots of
unity. Some processors have special support for such FFTs. But these
are not used in GMP since it's very difficult to guarantee an exact
result (to some number of bits). An occasional difference of 1 in the
last bit might not matter to a typical signal processing algorithm, but
is of course of vital importance to GMP.
File: gmp.info, Node: Unbalanced Multiplication, Prev: Other Multiplication, Up: Multiplication Algorithms
15.1.8 Unbalanced Multiplication

Multiplication of operands with different sizes, both below
`MUL_TOOM22_THRESHOLD' are done with plain schoolbook multiplication
(*note Basecase Multiplication::).
For really large operands, we invoke FFT directly.
For operands between these sizes, we use Toom inspired algorithms
suggested by Alberto Zanoni and Marco Bodrato. The idea is to split
the operands into polynomials of different degree. GMP currently
splits the smaller operand onto 2 coefficients, i.e., a polynomial of
degree 1, but the larger operand can be split into 2, 3, or 4
coefficients, i.e., a polynomial of degree 1 to 3.
File: gmp.info, Node: Division Algorithms, Next: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms, Prev: Multiplication Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.2 Division Algorithms
========================
* Menu:
* Single Limb Division::
* Basecase Division::
* Divide and Conquer Division::
* BlockWise Barrett Division::
* Exact Division::
* Exact Remainder::
* Small Quotient Division::
File: gmp.info, Node: Single Limb Division, Next: Basecase Division, Prev: Division Algorithms, Up: Division Algorithms
15.2.1 Single Limb Division

Nx1 division is implemented using repeated 2x1 divisions from high to
low, either with a hardware divide instruction or a multiplication by
inverse, whichever is best on a given CPU.
The multiply by inverse follows "Improved division by invariant
integers" by Mller and Granlund (*note References::) and is
implemented as `udiv_qrnnd_preinv' in `gmpimpl.h'. The idea is to
have a fixedpoint approximation to 1/d (see `invert_limb') and then
multiply by the high limb (plus one bit) of the dividend to get a
quotient q. With d normalized (high bit set), q is no more than 1 too
small. Subtracting q*d from the dividend gives a remainder, and
reveals whether q or q1 is correct.
The result is a division done with two multiplications and four or
five arithmetic operations. On CPUs with low latency multipliers this
can be much faster than a hardware divide, though the cost of
calculating the inverse at the start may mean it's only better on
inputs bigger than say 4 or 5 limbs.
When a divisor must be normalized, either for the generic C
`__udiv_qrnnd_c' or the multiply by inverse, the division performed is
actually a*2^k by d*2^k where a is the dividend and k is the power
necessary to have the high bit of d*2^k set. The bit shifts for the
dividend are usually accomplished "on the fly" meaning by extracting
the appropriate bits at each step. Done this way the quotient limbs
come out aligned ready to store. When only the remainder is wanted, an
alternative is to take the dividend limbs unshifted and calculate r = a
mod d*2^k followed by an extra final step r*2^k mod d*2^k. This can
help on CPUs with poor bit shifts or few registers.
The multiply by inverse can be done two limbs at a time. The
calculation is basically the same, but the inverse is two limbs and the
divisor treated as if padded with a low zero limb. This means more
work, since the inverse will need a 2x2 multiply, but the four 1x1s to
do that are independent and can therefore be done partly or wholly in
parallel. Likewise for a 2x1 calculating q*d. The net effect is to
process two limbs with roughly the same two multiplies worth of latency
that one limb at a time gives. This extends to 3 or 4 limbs at a time,
though the extra work to apply the inverse will almost certainly soon
reach the limits of multiplier throughput.
A similar approach in reverse can be taken to process just half a
limb at a time if the divisor is only a half limb. In this case the
1x1 multiply for the inverse effectively becomes two (1/2)x1 for each
limb, which can be a saving on CPUs with a fast half limb multiply, or
in fact if the only multiply is a half limb, and especially if it's not
pipelined.
File: gmp.info, Node: Basecase Division, Next: Divide and Conquer Division, Prev: Single Limb Division, Up: Division Algorithms
15.2.2 Basecase Division

Basecase NxM division is like long division done by hand, but in base
2^mp_bits_per_limb. See Knuth section 4.3.1 algorithm D, and
`mpn/generic/sb_divrem_mn.c'.
Briefly stated, while the dividend remains larger than the divisor,
a high quotient limb is formed and the Nx1 product q*d subtracted at
the top end of the dividend. With a normalized divisor (most
significant bit set), each quotient limb can be formed with a 2x1
division and a 1x1 multiplication plus some subtractions. The 2x1
division is by the high limb of the divisor and is done either with a
hardware divide or a multiply by inverse (the same as in *note Single
Limb Division::) whichever is faster. Such a quotient is sometimes one
too big, requiring an addback of the divisor, but that happens rarely.
With Q=NM being the number of quotient limbs, this is an O(Q*M)
algorithm and will run at a speed similar to a basecase QxM
multiplication, differing in fact only in the extra multiply and divide
for each of the Q quotient limbs.
File: gmp.info, Node: Divide and Conquer Division, Next: BlockWise Barrett Division, Prev: Basecase Division, Up: Division Algorithms
15.2.3 Divide and Conquer Division

For divisors larger than `DC_DIV_QR_THRESHOLD', division is done by
dividing. Or to be precise by a recursive divide and conquer algorithm
based on work by Moenck and Borodin, Jebelean, and Burnikel and Ziegler
(*note References::).
The algorithm consists essentially of recognising that a 2NxN
division can be done with the basecase division algorithm (*note
Basecase Division::), but using N/2 limbs as a base, not just a single
limb. This way the multiplications that arise are (N/2)x(N/2) and can
take advantage of Karatsuba and higher multiplication algorithms (*note
Multiplication Algorithms::). The two "digits" of the quotient are
formed by recursive Nx(N/2) divisions.
If the (N/2)x(N/2) multiplies are done with a basecase multiplication
then the work is about the same as a basecase division, but with more
function call overheads and with some subtractions separated from the
multiplies. These overheads mean that it's only when N/2 is above
`MUL_TOOM22_THRESHOLD' that divide and conquer is of use.
`DC_DIV_QR_THRESHOLD' is based on the divisor size N, so it will be
somewhere above twice `MUL_TOOM22_THRESHOLD', but how much above
depends on the CPU. An optimized `mpn_mul_basecase' can lower
`DC_DIV_QR_THRESHOLD' a little by offering a readymade advantage over
repeated `mpn_submul_1' calls.
Divide and conquer is asymptotically O(M(N)*log(N)) where M(N) is
the time for an NxN multiplication done with FFTs. The actual time is
a sum over multiplications of the recursed sizes, as can be seen near
the end of section 2.2 of Burnikel and Ziegler. For example, within
the Toom3 range, divide and conquer is 2.63*M(N). With higher
algorithms the M(N) term improves and the multiplier tends to log(N).
In practice, at moderate to large sizes, a 2NxN division is about 2 to
4 times slower than an NxN multiplication.
File: gmp.info, Node: BlockWise Barrett Division, Next: Exact Division, Prev: Divide and Conquer Division, Up: Division Algorithms
15.2.4 BlockWise Barrett Division

For the largest divisions, a blockwise Barrett division algorithm is
used. Here, the divisor is inverted to a precision determined by the
relative size of the dividend and divisor. Blocks of quotient limbs
are then generated by multiplying blocks from the dividend by the
inverse.
Our blockwise algorithm computes a smaller inverse than in the
plain Barrett algorithm. For a 2n/n division, the inverse will be just
ceil(n/2) limbs.
File: gmp.info, Node: Exact Division, Next: Exact Remainder, Prev: BlockWise Barrett Division, Up: Division Algorithms
15.2.5 Exact Division

A socalled exact division is when the dividend is known to be an exact
multiple of the divisor. Jebelean's exact division algorithm uses this
knowledge to make some significant optimizations (*note References::).
The idea can be illustrated in decimal for example with 368154
divided by 543. Because the low digit of the dividend is 4, the low
digit of the quotient must be 8. This is arrived at from 4*7 mod 10,
using the fact 7 is the modular inverse of 3 (the low digit of the
divisor), since 3*7 == 1 mod 10. So 8*543=4344 can be subtracted from
the dividend leaving 363810. Notice the low digit has become zero.
The procedure is repeated at the second digit, with the next
quotient digit 7 (7 == 1*7 mod 10), subtracting 7*543=3801, leaving
325800. And finally at the third digit with quotient digit 6 (8*7 mod
10), subtracting 6*543=3258 leaving 0. So the quotient is 678.
Notice however that the multiplies and subtractions don't need to
extend past the low three digits of the dividend, since that's enough
to determine the three quotient digits. For the last quotient digit no
subtraction is needed at all. On a 2NxN division like this one, only
about half the work of a normal basecase division is necessary.
For an NxM exact division producing Q=NM quotient limbs, the saving
over a normal basecase division is in two parts. Firstly, each of the
Q quotient limbs needs only one multiply, not a 2x1 divide and
multiply. Secondly, the crossproducts are reduced when Q>M to
Q*MM*(M+1)/2, or when Q<=M to Q*(Q1)/2. Notice the savings are
complementary. If Q is big then many divisions are saved, or if Q is
small then the crossproducts reduce to a small number.
The modular inverse used is calculated efficiently by `binvert_limb'
in `gmpimpl.h'. This does four multiplies for a 32bit limb, or six
for a 64bit limb. `tune/modlinv.c' has some alternate implementations
that might suit processors better at bit twiddling than multiplying.
The subquadratic exact division described by Jebelean in "Exact
Division with Karatsuba Complexity" is not currently implemented. It
uses a rearrangement similar to the divide and conquer for normal
division (*note Divide and Conquer Division::), but operating from low
to high. A further possibility not currently implemented is
"Bidirectional Exact Integer Division" by Krandick and Jebelean which
forms quotient limbs from both the high and low ends of the dividend,
and can halve once more the number of crossproducts needed in a 2NxN
division.
A special case exact division by 3 exists in `mpn_divexact_by3',
supporting Toom3 multiplication and `mpq' canonicalizations. It forms
quotient digits with a multiply by the modular inverse of 3 (which is
`0xAA..AAB') and uses two comparisons to determine a borrow for the next
limb. The multiplications don't need to be on the dependent chain, as
long as the effect of the borrows is applied, which can help chips with
pipelined multipliers.
File: gmp.info, Node: Exact Remainder, Next: Small Quotient Division, Prev: Exact Division, Up: Division Algorithms
15.2.6 Exact Remainder

If the exact division algorithm is done with a full subtraction at each
stage and the dividend isn't a multiple of the divisor, then low zero
limbs are produced but with a remainder in the high limbs. For
dividend a, divisor d, quotient q, and b = 2^mp_bits_per_limb, this
remainder r is of the form
a = q*d + r*b^n
n represents the number of zero limbs produced by the subtractions,
that being the number of limbs produced for q. r will be in the range
0<=rb*r+u2 condition appropriately relaxed.
File: gmp.info, Node: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms, Next: Powering Algorithms, Prev: Division Algorithms, Up: Algorithms
15.3 Greatest Common Divisor
============================
* Menu:
* Binary GCD::
* Lehmer's Algorithm::
* Subquadratic GCD::
* Extended GCD::
* Jacobi Symbol::
File: gmp.info, Node: Binary GCD, Next: Lehmer's Algorithm, Prev: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms, Up: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms
15.3.1 Binary GCD

At small sizes GMP uses an O(N^2) binary style GCD. This is described
in many textbooks, for example Knuth section 4.5.2 algorithm B. It
simply consists of successively reducing odd operands a and b using
a,b = abs(ab),min(a,b)
strip factors of 2 from a
The Euclidean GCD algorithm, as per Knuth algorithms E and A,
repeatedly computes the quotient q = floor(a/b) and replaces a,b by v,
u  q v. The binary algorithm has so far been found to be faster than
the Euclidean algorithm everywhere. One reason the binary method does
well is that the implied quotient at each step is usually small, so
often only one or two subtractions are needed to get the same effect as
a division. Quotients 1, 2 and 3 for example occur 67.7% of the time,
see Knuth section 4.5.3 Theorem E.
When the implied quotient is large, meaning b is much smaller than
a, then a division is worthwhile. This is the basis for the initial a
mod b reductions in `mpn_gcd' and `mpn_gcd_1' (the latter for both Nx1
and 1x1 cases). But after that initial reduction, big quotients occur
too rarely to make it worth checking for them.
The final 1x1 GCD in `mpn_gcd_1' is done in the generic C code as
described above. For two Nbit operands, the algorithm takes about
0.68 iterations per bit. For optimum performance some attention needs
to be paid to the way the factors of 2 are stripped from a.
Firstly it may be noted that in twos complement the number of low
zero bits on ab is the same as ba, so counting or testing can begin on
ab without waiting for abs(ab) to be determined.
A loop stripping low zero bits tends not to branch predict well,
since the condition is data dependent. But on average there's only a
few low zeros, so an option is to strip one or two bits arithmetically
then loop for more (as done for AMD K6). Or use a lookup table to get
a count for several bits then loop for more (as done for AMD K7). An
alternative approach is to keep just one of a or b odd and iterate
a,b = abs(ab), min(a,b)
a = a/2 if even
b = b/2 if even
This requires about 1.25 iterations per bit, but stripping of a
single bit at each step avoids any branching. Repeating the bit strip
reduces to about 0.9 iterations per bit, which may be a worthwhile
tradeoff.
Generally with the above approaches a speed of perhaps 6 cycles per
bit can be achieved, which is still not terribly fast with for instance
a 64bit GCD taking nearly 400 cycles. It's this sort of time which
means it's not usually advantageous to combine a set of divisibility
tests into a GCD.
Currently, the binary algorithm is used for GCD only when N < 3.
File: gmp.info, Node: Lehmer's Algorithm, Next: Subquadratic GCD, Prev: Binary GCD, Up: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms
15.3.2 Lehmer's algorithm

Lehmer's improvement of the Euclidean algorithms is based on the
observation that the initial part of the quotient sequence depends only
on the most significant parts of the inputs. The variant of Lehmer's
algorithm used in GMP splits off the most significant two limbs, as
suggested, e.g., in "A DoubleDigit LehmerEuclid Algorithm" by
Jebelean (*note References::). The quotients of two doublelimb inputs
are collected as a 2 by 2 matrix with singlelimb elements. This is
done by the function `mpn_hgcd2'. The resulting matrix is applied to
the inputs using `mpn_mul_1' and `mpn_submul_1'. Each iteration usually
reduces the inputs by almost one limb. In the rare case of a large
quotient, no progress can be made by examining just the most
significant two limbs, and the quotient is computed using plain
division.
The resulting algorithm is asymptotically O(N^2), just as the
Euclidean algorithm and the binary algorithm. The quadratic part of the
work are the calls to `mpn_mul_1' and `mpn_submul_1'. For small sizes,
the linear work is also significant. There are roughly N calls to the
`mpn_hgcd2' function. This function uses a couple of important
optimizations:
* It uses the same relaxed notion of correctness as `mpn_hgcd' (see
next section). This means that when called with the most
significant two limbs of two large numbers, the returned matrix
does not always correspond exactly to the initial quotient
sequence for the two large numbers; the final quotient may
sometimes be one off.
* It takes advantage of the fact the quotients are usually small.
The division operator is not used, since the corresponding
assembler instruction is very slow on most architectures. (This
code could probably be improved further, it uses many branches
that are unfriendly to prediction).
* It switches from doublelimb calculations to singlelimb
calculations halfway through, when the input numbers have been
reduced in size from two limbs to one and a half.
File: gmp.info, Node: Subquadratic GCD, Next: Extended GCD, Prev: Lehmer's Algorithm, Up: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms
15.3.3 Subquadratic GCD

For inputs larger than `GCD_DC_THRESHOLD', GCD is computed via the HGCD
(Half GCD) function, as a generalization to Lehmer's algorithm.
Let the inputs a,b be of size N limbs each. Put S = floor(N/2) + 1.
Then HGCD(a,b) returns a transformation matrix T with nonnegative
elements, and reduced numbers (c;d) = T^1 (a;b). The reduced numbers
c,d must be larger than S limbs, while their difference abs(cd) must
fit in S limbs. The matrix elements will also be of size roughly N/2.
The HGCD base case uses Lehmer's algorithm, but with the above stop
condition that returns reduced numbers and the corresponding
transformation matrix halfway through. For inputs larger than
`HGCD_THRESHOLD', HGCD is computed recursively, using the divide and
conquer algorithm in "On Schnhage's algorithm and subquadratic integer
GCD computation" by Mller (*note References::). The recursive
algorithm consists of these main steps.
* Call HGCD recursively, on the most significant N/2 limbs. Apply the
resulting matrix T_1 to the full numbers, reducing them to a size
just above 3N/2.
* Perform a small number of division or subtraction steps to reduce
the numbers to size below 3N/2. This is essential mainly for the
unlikely case of large quotients.
* Call HGCD recursively, on the most significant N/2 limbs of the
reduced numbers. Apply the resulting matrix T_2 to the full
numbers, reducing them to a size just above N/2.
* Compute T = T_1 T_2.
* Perform a small number of division and subtraction steps to
satisfy the requirements, and return.
GCD is then implemented as a loop around HGCD, similarly to Lehmer's
algorithm. Where Lehmer repeatedly chops off the top two limbs, calls
`mpn_hgcd2', and applies the resulting matrix to the full numbers, the
subquadratic GCD chops off the most significant third of the limbs (the
proportion is a tuning parameter, and 1/3 seems to be more efficient
than, e.g, 1/2), calls `mpn_hgcd', and applies the resulting matrix.
Once the input numbers are reduced to size below `GCD_DC_THRESHOLD',
Lehmer's algorithm is used for the rest of the work.
The asymptotic running time of both HGCD and GCD is O(M(N)*log(N)),
where M(N) is the time for multiplying two Nlimb numbers.
File: gmp.info, Node: Extended GCD, Next: Jacobi Symbol, Prev: Subquadratic GCD, Up: Greatest Common Divisor Algorithms
15.3.4 Extended GCD

The extended GCD function, or GCDEXT, calculates gcd(a,b) and also
cofactors x and y satisfying a*x+b*y=gcd(a,b). All the algorithms used
for plain GCD are extended to handle this case. The binary algorithm is
used only for singlelimb GCDEXT. Lehmer's algorithm is used for sizes
up to `GCDEXT_DC_THRESHOLD'. Above this threshold, GCDEXT is
implemented as a loop around HGCD, but with more bookkeeping to keep
track of the cofactors. This gives the same asymptotic running time as
for GCD and HGCD, O(M(N)*log(N))
One difference to plain GCD is that while the inputs a and b are
reduced as the algorithm proceeds, the cofactors x and y grow in size.
This makes the tuning of the choppingpoint more difficult. The current
code chops off the most significant half of the inputs for the call to
HGCD in the first iteration, and the most significant two thirds for
the remaining calls. This strategy could surely be improved. Also the
stop condition for the loop, where Lehmer's algorithm is invoked once
the inputs are reduced below `GCDEXT_DC_THRESHOLD', could maybe be
improved by taking into account the current size of the cofactors.
Local Variables:
coding: iso88591
End:
0707010001f194000081a400000000000000000000000152ce4291000014e80000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000001e00000000root/usr/local/share/info/dirThis is the file .../info/dir, which contains the
topmost node of the Info hierarchy, called (dir)Top.
The first time you invoke Info you start off looking at this node.
File: dir, Node: Top This is the top of the INFO tree
This (the Directory node) gives a menu of major topics.
Typing "q" exits, "?" lists all Info commands, "d" returns here,
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"mEmacs" visits the Emacs manual, etc.
In Emacs, you can click mouse button 2 on a menu item or cross reference
to select it.
* Menu:
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0707010001f18b000041ed00000000000000000000000252ce4467000000000000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000001700000000root/usr/local/include0707010001f18d000081a400000000000000000000000152ce42910001379f0000011200010050ffffffffffffffff0000001d00000000root/usr/local/include/gmp.h/* Definitions for GNU multiple precision functions. * mode: c *
Copyright 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.
This file is part of the GNU MP Library.
The GNU MP Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version.
The GNU MP Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public
License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
along with the GNU MP Library. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/. */
#ifndef __GMP_H__
#if defined (__cplusplus)
#include /* for std::istream, std::ostream, std::string */
#include
#endif
/* Instantiated by configure. */
#if ! defined (__GMP_WITHIN_CONFIGURE)
#define __GMP_HAVE_HOST_CPU_FAMILY_power 0
#define __GMP_HAVE_HOST_CPU_FAMILY_powerpc 0
#define GMP_LIMB_BITS 64
#define GMP_NAIL_BITS 0
#endif
#define GMP_NUMB_BITS (GMP_LIMB_BITS  GMP_NAIL_BITS)
#define GMP_NUMB_MASK ((~ __GMP_CAST (mp_limb_t, 0)) >> GMP_NAIL_BITS)
#define GMP_NUMB_MAX GMP_NUMB_MASK
#define GMP_NAIL_MASK (~ GMP_NUMB_MASK)
/* The following (everything under ifndef __GNU_MP__) must be identical in
gmp.h and mp.h to allow both to be included in an application or during
the library build. */
#ifndef __GNU_MP__
#define __GNU_MP__ 5
#define __need_size_t /* tell gcc stddef.h we only want size_t */
#if defined (__cplusplus)
#include /* for size_t */
#else
#include /* for size_t */
#endif
#undef __need_size_t
/* Instantiated by configure. */
#if ! defined (__GMP_WITHIN_CONFIGURE)
/* #undef _LONG_LONG_LIMB */
#define __GMP_LIBGMP_DLL 0
#endif
/* __GMP_DECLSPEC supports Windows DLL versions of libgmp, and is empty in
all other circumstances.
When compiling objects for libgmp, __GMP_DECLSPEC is an export directive,
or when compiling for an application it's an import directive. The two
cases are differentiated by __GMP_WITHIN_GMP defined by the GMP Makefiles
(and not defined from an application).
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX is similarly used for libgmpxx. __GMP_WITHIN_GMPXX
indicates when building libgmpxx, and in that case libgmpxx functions are
exports, but libgmp functions which might get called are imports.
Libtool DLL_EXPORT define is not used.
There's no attempt to support GMP built both static and DLL. Doing so
would mean applications would have to tell us which of the two is going
to be used when linking, and that seems very tedious and error prone if
using GMP by hand, and equally tedious from a package since autoconf and
automake don't give much help.
__GMP_DECLSPEC is required on all documented global functions and
variables, the various internals in gmpimpl.h etc can be left unadorned.
But internals used by the test programs or speed measuring programs
should have __GMP_DECLSPEC, and certainly constants or variables must
have it or the wrong address will be resolved.
In gcc __declspec can go at either the start or end of a prototype.
In Microsoft C __declspec must go at the start, or after the type like
void __declspec(...) *foo()". There's no __dllexport or anything to
guard against someone foolish #defining dllexport. _export used to be
available, but no longer.
In Borland C _export still exists, but needs to go after the type, like
"void _export foo();". Would have to change the __GMP_DECLSPEC syntax to
make use of that. Probably more trouble than it's worth. */
#if defined (__GNUC__)
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_EXPORT __declspec(__dllexport__)
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_IMPORT __declspec(__dllimport__)
#endif
#if defined (_MSC_VER)  defined (__BORLANDC__)
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_EXPORT __declspec(dllexport)
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_IMPORT __declspec(dllimport)
#endif
#ifdef __WATCOMC__
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_EXPORT __export
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_IMPORT __import
#endif
#ifdef __IBMC__
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_EXPORT _Export
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_IMPORT _Import
#endif
#if __GMP_LIBGMP_DLL
#ifdef __GMP_WITHIN_GMP
/* compiling to go into a DLL libgmp */
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC __GMP_DECLSPEC_EXPORT
#else
/* compiling to go into an application which will link to a DLL libgmp */
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC __GMP_DECLSPEC_IMPORT
#endif
#else
/* all other cases */
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC
#endif
#ifdef __GMP_SHORT_LIMB
typedef unsigned int mp_limb_t;
typedef int mp_limb_signed_t;
#else
#ifdef _LONG_LONG_LIMB
typedef unsigned long long int mp_limb_t;
typedef long long int mp_limb_signed_t;
#else
typedef unsigned long int mp_limb_t;
typedef long int mp_limb_signed_t;
#endif
#endif
typedef unsigned long int mp_bitcnt_t;
/* For reference, note that the name __mpz_struct gets into C++ mangled
function names, which means although the "__" suggests an internal, we
must leave this name for binary compatibility. */
typedef struct
{
int _mp_alloc; /* Number of *limbs* allocated and pointed
to by the _mp_d field. */
int _mp_size; /* abs(_mp_size) is the number of limbs the
last field points to. If _mp_size is
negative this is a negative number. */
mp_limb_t *_mp_d; /* Pointer to the limbs. */
} __mpz_struct;
#endif /* __GNU_MP__ */
typedef __mpz_struct MP_INT; /* gmp 1 source compatibility */
typedef __mpz_struct mpz_t[1];
typedef mp_limb_t * mp_ptr;
typedef const mp_limb_t * mp_srcptr;
#if defined (_CRAY) && ! defined (_CRAYMPP)
/* plain `int' is much faster (48 bits) */
#define __GMP_MP_SIZE_T_INT 1
typedef int mp_size_t;
typedef int mp_exp_t;
#else
#define __GMP_MP_SIZE_T_INT 0
typedef long int mp_size_t;
typedef long int mp_exp_t;
#endif
typedef struct
{
__mpz_struct _mp_num;
__mpz_struct _mp_den;
} __mpq_struct;
typedef __mpq_struct MP_RAT; /* gmp 1 source compatibility */
typedef __mpq_struct mpq_t[1];
typedef struct
{
int _mp_prec; /* Max precision, in number of `mp_limb_t's.
Set by mpf_init and modified by
mpf_set_prec. The area pointed to by the
_mp_d field contains `prec' + 1 limbs. */
int _mp_size; /* abs(_mp_size) is the number of limbs the
last field points to. If _mp_size is
negative this is a negative number. */
mp_exp_t _mp_exp; /* Exponent, in the base of `mp_limb_t'. */
mp_limb_t *_mp_d; /* Pointer to the limbs. */
} __mpf_struct;
/* typedef __mpf_struct MP_FLOAT; */
typedef __mpf_struct mpf_t[1];
/* Available random number generation algorithms. */
typedef enum
{
GMP_RAND_ALG_DEFAULT = 0,
GMP_RAND_ALG_LC = GMP_RAND_ALG_DEFAULT /* Linear congruential. */
} gmp_randalg_t;
/* Random state struct. */
typedef struct
{
mpz_t _mp_seed; /* _mp_d member points to state of the generator. */
gmp_randalg_t _mp_alg; /* Currently unused. */
union {
void *_mp_lc; /* Pointer to function pointers structure. */
} _mp_algdata;
} __gmp_randstate_struct;
typedef __gmp_randstate_struct gmp_randstate_t[1];
/* Types for function declarations in gmp files. */
/* ??? Should not pollute user name space with these ??? */
typedef const __mpz_struct *mpz_srcptr;
typedef __mpz_struct *mpz_ptr;
typedef const __mpf_struct *mpf_srcptr;
typedef __mpf_struct *mpf_ptr;
typedef const __mpq_struct *mpq_srcptr;
typedef __mpq_struct *mpq_ptr;
/* This is not wanted in mp.h, so put it outside the __GNU_MP__ common
section. */
#if __GMP_LIBGMP_DLL
#ifdef __GMP_WITHIN_GMPXX
/* compiling to go into a DLL libgmpxx */
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_XX __GMP_DECLSPEC_EXPORT
#else
/* compiling to go into a application which will link to a DLL libgmpxx */
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_XX __GMP_DECLSPEC_IMPORT
#endif
#else
/* all other cases */
#define __GMP_DECLSPEC_XX
#endif
#ifndef __MPN
#define __MPN(x) __gmpn_##x
#endif
/* For reference, "defined(EOF)" cannot be used here. In g++ 2.95.4,
defines EOF but not FILE. */
#if defined (FILE) \
 defined (H_STDIO) \
 defined (_H_STDIO) /* AIX */ \
 defined (_STDIO_H) /* glibc, Sun, SCO */ \
 defined (_STDIO_H_) /* BSD, OSF */ \
 defined (__STDIO_H) /* Borland */ \
 defined (__STDIO_H__) /* IRIX */ \
 defined (_STDIO_INCLUDED) /* HPUX */ \
 defined (__dj_include_stdio_h_) /* DJGPP */ \
 defined (_FILE_DEFINED) /* Microsoft */ \
 defined (__STDIO__) /* Apple MPW MrC */ \
 defined (_MSL_STDIO_H) /* Metrowerks */ \
 defined (_STDIO_H_INCLUDED) /* QNX4 */ \
 defined (_ISO_STDIO_ISO_H) /* Sun C++ */ \
 defined (__STDIO_LOADED) /* VMS */
#define _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE 1
#endif
/* In ISO C, if a prototype involving "struct obstack *" is given without
that structure defined, then the struct is scoped down to just the
prototype, causing a conflict if it's subsequently defined for real. So
only give prototypes if we've got obstack.h. */
#if defined (_OBSTACK_H) /* glibc */
#define _GMP_H_HAVE_OBSTACK 1
#endif
/* The prototypes for gmp_vprintf etc are provided only if va_list is
available, via an application having included or .
Usually va_list is a typedef so can't be tested directly, but C99
specifies that va_start is a macro (and it was normally a macro on past
systems too), so look for that.
will define some sort of va_list for vprintf and vfprintf, but
let's not bother trying to use that since it's not standard and since
application uses for gmp_vprintf etc will almost certainly require the
whole or anyway. */
#ifdef va_start
#define _GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST 1
#endif
/* Test for gcc >= maj.min, as per __GNUC_PREREQ in glibc */
#if defined (__GNUC__) && defined (__GNUC_MINOR__)
#define __GMP_GNUC_PREREQ(maj, min) \
((__GNUC__ << 16) + __GNUC_MINOR__ >= ((maj) << 16) + (min))
#else
#define __GMP_GNUC_PREREQ(maj, min) 0
#endif
/* "pure" is in gcc 2.96 and up, see "(gcc)Function Attributes". Basically
it means a function does nothing but examine its arguments and memory
(global or via arguments) to generate a return value, but changes nothing
and has no sideeffects. __GMP_NO_ATTRIBUTE_CONST_PURE lets
tune/common.c etc turn this off when trying to write timing loops. */
#if __GMP_GNUC_PREREQ (2,96) && ! defined (__GMP_NO_ATTRIBUTE_CONST_PURE)
#define __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE __attribute__ ((__pure__))
#else
#define __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE
#endif
/* __GMP_CAST allows us to use static_cast in C++, so our macros are clean
to "g++ Woldstylecast".
Casts in "extern inline" code within an extern "C" block don't induce
these warnings, so __GMP_CAST only needs to be used on documented
macros. */
#ifdef __cplusplus
#define __GMP_CAST(type, expr) (static_cast (expr))
#else
#define __GMP_CAST(type, expr) ((type) (expr))
#endif
/* An empty "throw ()" means the function doesn't throw any C++ exceptions,
this can save some stack frame info in applications.
Currently it's given only on functions which never dividebyzero etc,
don't allocate memory, and are expected to never need to allocate memory.
This leaves open the possibility of a C++ throw from a future GMP
exceptions scheme.
mpz_set_ui etc are omitted to leave open the lazy allocation scheme
described in doc/tasks.html. mpz_get_d etc are omitted to leave open
exceptions for float overflows.
Note that __GMP_NOTHROW must be given on any inlines the same as on their
prototypes (for g++ at least, where they're used together). Note also
that g++ 3.0 demands that __GMP_NOTHROW is before other attributes like
__GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE. */
#if defined (__cplusplus)
#define __GMP_NOTHROW throw ()
#else
#define __GMP_NOTHROW
#endif
/* PORTME: What other compilers have a useful "extern inline"? "static
inline" would be an acceptable substitute if the compiler (or linker)
discards unused statics. */
/* gcc has __inline__ in all modes, including strict ansi. Give a prototype
for an inline too, so as to correctly specify "dllimport" on windows, in
case the function is called rather than inlined.
GCC 4.3 and above with std=c99 or std=gnu99 implements ISO C99
inline semantics, unless fgnu89inline is used. */
#ifdef __GNUC__
#if (defined __GNUC_STDC_INLINE__)  (__GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ == 2) \
 (defined __GNUC_GNU_INLINE__ && defined __cplusplus)
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE extern __inline__ __attribute__ ((__gnu_inline__))
#else
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE extern __inline__
#endif
#define __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES 1
#endif
/* DEC C (eg. version 5.9) supports "static __inline foo()", even in std1
strict ANSI mode. Inlining is done even when not optimizing (ie. O0
mode, which is the default), but an unnecessary local copy of foo is
emitted unless O is used. "extern __inline" is accepted, but the
"extern" appears to be ignored, ie. it becomes a plain global function
but which is inlined within its file. Don't know if all old versions of
DEC C supported __inline, but as a start let's do the right thing for
current versions. */
#ifdef __DECC
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE static __inline
#endif
/* SCO OpenUNIX 8 cc supports "static inline foo()" but not in Xc strict
ANSI mode (__STDC__ is 1 in that mode). Inlining only actually takes
place under O. Without O "foo" seems to be emitted whether it's used
or not, which is wasteful. "extern inline foo()" isn't useful, the
"extern" is apparently ignored, so foo is inlined if possible but also
emitted as a global, which causes multiple definition errors when
building a shared libgmp. */
#ifdef __SCO_VERSION__
#if __SCO_VERSION__ > 400000000 && __STDC__ != 1 \
&& ! defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE static inline
#endif
#endif
/* Microsoft's C compiler accepts __inline */
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE __inline
#endif
/* Recent enough Sun C compilers want "inline" */
#if defined (__SUNPRO_C) && __SUNPRO_C >= 0x560 \
&& ! defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE inline
#endif
/* Somewhat older Sun C compilers want "static inline" */
#if defined (__SUNPRO_C) && __SUNPRO_C >= 0x540 \
&& ! defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE static inline
#endif
/* C++ always has "inline" and since it's a normal feature the linker should
discard duplicate noninlined copies, or if it doesn't then that's a
problem for everyone, not just GMP. */
#if defined (__cplusplus) && ! defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)
#define __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE inline
#endif
/* Don't do any inlining within a configure run, since if the compiler ends
up emitting copies of the code into the object file it can end up
demanding the various support routines (like mpn_popcount) for linking,
making the "alloca" test and perhaps others fail. And on hppa ia64 a
prerelease gcc 3.2 was seen not respecting the "extern" in "extern
__inline__", triggering this problem too. */
#if defined (__GMP_WITHIN_CONFIGURE) && ! __GMP_WITHIN_CONFIGURE_INLINE
#undef __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
/* By default, don't give a prototype when there's going to be an inline
version. Note in particular that Cray C++ objects to the combination of
prototype and inline. */
#ifdef __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#ifndef __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES
#define __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES 0
#endif
#else
#define __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES 1
#endif
#define __GMP_ABS(x) ((x) >= 0 ? (x) : (x))
#define __GMP_MAX(h,i) ((h) > (i) ? (h) : (i))
/* __GMP_USHRT_MAX is not "~ (unsigned short) 0" because short is promoted
to int by "~". */
#define __GMP_UINT_MAX (~ (unsigned) 0)
#define __GMP_ULONG_MAX (~ (unsigned long) 0)
#define __GMP_USHRT_MAX ((unsigned short) ~0)
/* __builtin_expect is in gcc 3.0, and not in 2.95. */
#if __GMP_GNUC_PREREQ (3,0)
#define __GMP_LIKELY(cond) __builtin_expect ((cond) != 0, 1)
#define __GMP_UNLIKELY(cond) __builtin_expect ((cond) != 0, 0)
#else
#define __GMP_LIKELY(cond) (cond)
#define __GMP_UNLIKELY(cond) (cond)
#endif
#ifdef _CRAY
#define __GMP_CRAY_Pragma(str) _Pragma (str)
#else
#define __GMP_CRAY_Pragma(str)
#endif
/* Allow direct user access to numerator and denominator of a mpq_t object. */
#define mpq_numref(Q) (&((Q)>_mp_num))
#define mpq_denref(Q) (&((Q)>_mp_den))
#if defined (__cplusplus)
extern "C" {
using std::FILE;
#endif
#define mp_set_memory_functions __gmp_set_memory_functions
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mp_set_memory_functions (void *(*) (size_t),
void *(*) (void *, size_t, size_t),
void (*) (void *, size_t)) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#define mp_get_memory_functions __gmp_get_memory_functions
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mp_get_memory_functions (void *(**) (size_t),
void *(**) (void *, size_t, size_t),
void (**) (void *, size_t)) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#define mp_bits_per_limb __gmp_bits_per_limb
__GMP_DECLSPEC extern const int mp_bits_per_limb;
#define gmp_errno __gmp_errno
__GMP_DECLSPEC extern int gmp_errno;
#define gmp_version __gmp_version
__GMP_DECLSPEC extern const char * const gmp_version;
/**************** Random number routines. ****************/
/* obsolete */
#define gmp_randinit __gmp_randinit
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randinit (gmp_randstate_t, gmp_randalg_t, ...);
#define gmp_randinit_default __gmp_randinit_default
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randinit_default (gmp_randstate_t);
#define gmp_randinit_lc_2exp __gmp_randinit_lc_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randinit_lc_2exp (gmp_randstate_t, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size __gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_randinit_lc_2exp_size (gmp_randstate_t, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define gmp_randinit_mt __gmp_randinit_mt
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randinit_mt (gmp_randstate_t);
#define gmp_randinit_set __gmp_randinit_set
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randinit_set (gmp_randstate_t, const __gmp_randstate_struct *);
#define gmp_randseed __gmp_randseed
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randseed (gmp_randstate_t, mpz_srcptr);
#define gmp_randseed_ui __gmp_randseed_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randseed_ui (gmp_randstate_t, unsigned long int);
#define gmp_randclear __gmp_randclear
__GMP_DECLSPEC void gmp_randclear (gmp_randstate_t);
#define gmp_urandomb_ui __gmp_urandomb_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long gmp_urandomb_ui (gmp_randstate_t, unsigned long);
#define gmp_urandomm_ui __gmp_urandomm_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long gmp_urandomm_ui (gmp_randstate_t, unsigned long);
/**************** Formatted output routines. ****************/
#define gmp_asprintf __gmp_asprintf
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_asprintf (char **, const char *, ...);
#define gmp_fprintf __gmp_fprintf
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_fprintf (FILE *, const char *, ...);
#endif
#define gmp_obstack_printf __gmp_obstack_printf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_OBSTACK)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_obstack_printf (struct obstack *, const char *, ...);
#endif
#define gmp_obstack_vprintf __gmp_obstack_vprintf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_OBSTACK) && defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_obstack_vprintf (struct obstack *, const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_printf __gmp_printf
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_printf (const char *, ...);
#define gmp_snprintf __gmp_snprintf
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_snprintf (char *, size_t, const char *, ...);
#define gmp_sprintf __gmp_sprintf
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_sprintf (char *, const char *, ...);
#define gmp_vasprintf __gmp_vasprintf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vasprintf (char **, const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_vfprintf __gmp_vfprintf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_FILE) && defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vfprintf (FILE *, const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_vprintf __gmp_vprintf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vprintf (const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_vsnprintf __gmp_vsnprintf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vsnprintf (char *, size_t, const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_vsprintf __gmp_vsprintf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vsprintf (char *, const char *, va_list);
#endif
/**************** Formatted input routines. ****************/
#define gmp_fscanf __gmp_fscanf
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_fscanf (FILE *, const char *, ...);
#endif
#define gmp_scanf __gmp_scanf
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_scanf (const char *, ...);
#define gmp_sscanf __gmp_sscanf
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_sscanf (const char *, const char *, ...);
#define gmp_vfscanf __gmp_vfscanf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_FILE) && defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vfscanf (FILE *, const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_vscanf __gmp_vscanf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vscanf (const char *, va_list);
#endif
#define gmp_vsscanf __gmp_vsscanf
#if defined (_GMP_H_HAVE_VA_LIST)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int gmp_vsscanf (const char *, const char *, va_list);
#endif
/**************** Integer (i.e. Z) routines. ****************/
#define _mpz_realloc __gmpz_realloc
#define mpz_realloc __gmpz_realloc
__GMP_DECLSPEC void *_mpz_realloc (mpz_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpz_abs __gmpz_abs
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_abs)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_abs (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpz_add __gmpz_add
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_add (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_add_ui __gmpz_add_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_add_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_addmul __gmpz_addmul
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_addmul (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_addmul_ui __gmpz_addmul_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_addmul_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_and __gmpz_and
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_and (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_array_init __gmpz_array_init
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_array_init (mpz_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_size_t);
#define mpz_bin_ui __gmpz_bin_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_bin_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_bin_uiui __gmpz_bin_uiui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_bin_uiui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_cdiv_q __gmpz_cdiv_q
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_cdiv_q (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_cdiv_q_2exp __gmpz_cdiv_q_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_cdiv_q_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_cdiv_q_ui __gmpz_cdiv_q_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_q_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_cdiv_qr __gmpz_cdiv_qr
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_cdiv_qr (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_cdiv_qr_ui __gmpz_cdiv_qr_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_qr_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_cdiv_r __gmpz_cdiv_r
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_cdiv_r (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_cdiv_r_2exp __gmpz_cdiv_r_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_cdiv_r_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_cdiv_r_ui __gmpz_cdiv_r_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_r_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_cdiv_ui __gmpz_cdiv_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_cdiv_ui (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_clear __gmpz_clear
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_clear (mpz_ptr);
#define mpz_clears __gmpz_clears
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_clears (mpz_ptr, ...);
#define mpz_clrbit __gmpz_clrbit
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_clrbit (mpz_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_cmp __gmpz_cmp
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_cmp (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_cmp_d __gmpz_cmp_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_cmp_d (mpz_srcptr, double) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define _mpz_cmp_si __gmpz_cmp_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC int _mpz_cmp_si (mpz_srcptr, signed long int) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define _mpz_cmp_ui __gmpz_cmp_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC int _mpz_cmp_ui (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_cmpabs __gmpz_cmpabs
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_cmpabs (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_cmpabs_d __gmpz_cmpabs_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_cmpabs_d (mpz_srcptr, double) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_cmpabs_ui __gmpz_cmpabs_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_cmpabs_ui (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_com __gmpz_com
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_com (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_combit __gmpz_combit
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_combit (mpz_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_congruent_p __gmpz_congruent_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_congruent_p (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_congruent_2exp_p __gmpz_congruent_2exp_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_congruent_2exp_p (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_congruent_ui_p __gmpz_congruent_ui_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_congruent_ui_p (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long, unsigned long) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_divexact __gmpz_divexact
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_divexact (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_divexact_ui __gmpz_divexact_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_divexact_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long);
#define mpz_divisible_p __gmpz_divisible_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_divisible_p (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_divisible_ui_p __gmpz_divisible_ui_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_divisible_ui_p (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_divisible_2exp_p __gmpz_divisible_2exp_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_divisible_2exp_p (mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_dump __gmpz_dump
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_dump (mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_export __gmpz_export
__GMP_DECLSPEC void *mpz_export (void *, size_t *, int, size_t, int, size_t, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_fac_ui __gmpz_fac_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fac_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_2fac_ui __gmpz_2fac_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_2fac_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_mfac_uiui __gmpz_mfac_uiui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_mfac_uiui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_primorial_ui __gmpz_primorial_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_primorial_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_fdiv_q __gmpz_fdiv_q
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fdiv_q (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_fdiv_q_2exp __gmpz_fdiv_q_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fdiv_q_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_fdiv_q_ui __gmpz_fdiv_q_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_q_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_fdiv_qr __gmpz_fdiv_qr
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fdiv_qr (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_fdiv_qr_ui __gmpz_fdiv_qr_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_qr_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_fdiv_r __gmpz_fdiv_r
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fdiv_r (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_fdiv_r_2exp __gmpz_fdiv_r_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fdiv_r_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_fdiv_r_ui __gmpz_fdiv_r_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_r_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_fdiv_ui __gmpz_fdiv_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_fdiv_ui (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_fib_ui __gmpz_fib_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fib_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_fib2_ui __gmpz_fib2_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_fib2_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_fits_sint_p __gmpz_fits_sint_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_fits_sint_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_fits_slong_p __gmpz_fits_slong_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_fits_slong_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_fits_sshort_p __gmpz_fits_sshort_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_fits_sshort_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_fits_uint_p __gmpz_fits_uint_p
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_uint_p)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_fits_uint_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_fits_ulong_p __gmpz_fits_ulong_p
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_ulong_p)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_fits_ulong_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_fits_ushort_p __gmpz_fits_ushort_p
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_ushort_p)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_fits_ushort_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_gcd __gmpz_gcd
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_gcd (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_gcd_ui __gmpz_gcd_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_gcd_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_gcdext __gmpz_gcdext
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_gcdext (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_get_d __gmpz_get_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC double mpz_get_d (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_get_d_2exp __gmpz_get_d_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC double mpz_get_d_2exp (signed long int *, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_get_si __gmpz_get_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC /* signed */ long int mpz_get_si (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_get_str __gmpz_get_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC char *mpz_get_str (char *, int, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_get_ui __gmpz_get_ui
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_get_ui)
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_get_ui (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_getlimbn __gmpz_getlimbn
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_getlimbn)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpz_getlimbn (mpz_srcptr, mp_size_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_hamdist __gmpz_hamdist
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpz_hamdist (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_import __gmpz_import
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_import (mpz_ptr, size_t, int, size_t, int, size_t, const void *);
#define mpz_init __gmpz_init
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_init (mpz_ptr);
#define mpz_init2 __gmpz_init2
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_init2 (mpz_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_inits __gmpz_inits
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_inits (mpz_ptr, ...);
#define mpz_init_set __gmpz_init_set
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_init_set (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_init_set_d __gmpz_init_set_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_init_set_d (mpz_ptr, double);
#define mpz_init_set_si __gmpz_init_set_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_init_set_si (mpz_ptr, signed long int);
#define mpz_init_set_str __gmpz_init_set_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_init_set_str (mpz_ptr, const char *, int);
#define mpz_init_set_ui __gmpz_init_set_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_init_set_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_inp_raw __gmpz_inp_raw
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpz_inp_raw (mpz_ptr, FILE *);
#endif
#define mpz_inp_str __gmpz_inp_str
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpz_inp_str (mpz_ptr, FILE *, int);
#endif
#define mpz_invert __gmpz_invert
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_invert (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_ior __gmpz_ior
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_ior (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_jacobi __gmpz_jacobi
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_jacobi (mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_kronecker mpz_jacobi /* alias */
#define mpz_kronecker_si __gmpz_kronecker_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_kronecker_si (mpz_srcptr, long) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_kronecker_ui __gmpz_kronecker_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_kronecker_ui (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_si_kronecker __gmpz_si_kronecker
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_si_kronecker (long, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_ui_kronecker __gmpz_ui_kronecker
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_ui_kronecker (unsigned long, mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_lcm __gmpz_lcm
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_lcm (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_lcm_ui __gmpz_lcm_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_lcm_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long);
#define mpz_legendre mpz_jacobi /* alias */
#define mpz_lucnum_ui __gmpz_lucnum_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_lucnum_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_lucnum2_ui __gmpz_lucnum2_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_lucnum2_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_millerrabin __gmpz_millerrabin
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_millerrabin (mpz_srcptr, int) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_mod __gmpz_mod
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_mod (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_mod_ui mpz_fdiv_r_ui /* same as fdiv_r because divisor unsigned */
#define mpz_mul __gmpz_mul
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_mul (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_mul_2exp __gmpz_mul_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_mul_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_mul_si __gmpz_mul_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_mul_si (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, long int);
#define mpz_mul_ui __gmpz_mul_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_mul_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_neg __gmpz_neg
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_neg)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_neg (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpz_nextprime __gmpz_nextprime
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_nextprime (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_out_raw __gmpz_out_raw
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpz_out_raw (FILE *, mpz_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpz_out_str __gmpz_out_str
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpz_out_str (FILE *, int, mpz_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpz_perfect_power_p __gmpz_perfect_power_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_perfect_power_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_perfect_square_p __gmpz_perfect_square_p
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_perfect_square_p)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_perfect_square_p (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_popcount __gmpz_popcount
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_popcount)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpz_popcount (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_pow_ui __gmpz_pow_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_pow_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_powm __gmpz_powm
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_powm (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_powm_sec __gmpz_powm_sec
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_powm_sec (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_powm_ui __gmpz_powm_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_powm_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_probab_prime_p __gmpz_probab_prime_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_probab_prime_p (mpz_srcptr, int) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_random __gmpz_random
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_random (mpz_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpz_random2 __gmpz_random2
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_random2 (mpz_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpz_realloc2 __gmpz_realloc2
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_realloc2 (mpz_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_remove __gmpz_remove
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpz_remove (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_root __gmpz_root
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_root (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_rootrem __gmpz_rootrem
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_rootrem (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_rrandomb __gmpz_rrandomb
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_rrandomb (mpz_ptr, gmp_randstate_t, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_scan0 __gmpz_scan0
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpz_scan0 (mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_scan1 __gmpz_scan1
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpz_scan1 (mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_set __gmpz_set
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_set (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_set_d __gmpz_set_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_set_d (mpz_ptr, double);
#define mpz_set_f __gmpz_set_f
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_set_f (mpz_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpz_set_q __gmpz_set_q
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_set_q)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_set_q (mpz_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpz_set_si __gmpz_set_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_set_si (mpz_ptr, signed long int);
#define mpz_set_str __gmpz_set_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_set_str (mpz_ptr, const char *, int);
#define mpz_set_ui __gmpz_set_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_set_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_setbit __gmpz_setbit
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_setbit (mpz_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_size __gmpz_size
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_size)
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpz_size (mpz_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpz_sizeinbase __gmpz_sizeinbase
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpz_sizeinbase (mpz_srcptr, int) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_sqrt __gmpz_sqrt
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_sqrt (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_sqrtrem __gmpz_sqrtrem
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_sqrtrem (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_sub __gmpz_sub
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_sub (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_sub_ui __gmpz_sub_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_sub_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_ui_sub __gmpz_ui_sub
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_ui_sub (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_submul __gmpz_submul
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_submul (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_submul_ui __gmpz_submul_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_submul_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_swap __gmpz_swap
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_swap (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#define mpz_tdiv_ui __gmpz_tdiv_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_ui (mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_tdiv_q __gmpz_tdiv_q
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_tdiv_q (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_tdiv_q_2exp __gmpz_tdiv_q_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_tdiv_q_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_tdiv_q_ui __gmpz_tdiv_q_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_q_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_tdiv_qr __gmpz_tdiv_qr
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_tdiv_qr (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_tdiv_qr_ui __gmpz_tdiv_qr_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_qr_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_tdiv_r __gmpz_tdiv_r
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_tdiv_r (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_tdiv_r_2exp __gmpz_tdiv_r_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_tdiv_r_2exp (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_tdiv_r_ui __gmpz_tdiv_r_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long int mpz_tdiv_r_ui (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_tstbit __gmpz_tstbit
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpz_tstbit (mpz_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpz_ui_pow_ui __gmpz_ui_pow_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_ui_pow_ui (mpz_ptr, unsigned long int, unsigned long int);
#define mpz_urandomb __gmpz_urandomb
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_urandomb (mpz_ptr, gmp_randstate_t, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpz_urandomm __gmpz_urandomm
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_urandomm (mpz_ptr, gmp_randstate_t, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpz_xor __gmpz_xor
#define mpz_eor __gmpz_xor
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpz_xor (mpz_ptr, mpz_srcptr, mpz_srcptr);
/**************** Rational (i.e. Q) routines. ****************/
#define mpq_abs __gmpq_abs
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpq_abs)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_abs (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpq_add __gmpq_add
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_add (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_canonicalize __gmpq_canonicalize
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_canonicalize (mpq_ptr);
#define mpq_clear __gmpq_clear
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_clear (mpq_ptr);
#define mpq_clears __gmpq_clears
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_clears (mpq_ptr, ...);
#define mpq_cmp __gmpq_cmp
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpq_cmp (mpq_srcptr, mpq_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define _mpq_cmp_si __gmpq_cmp_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC int _mpq_cmp_si (mpq_srcptr, long, unsigned long) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define _mpq_cmp_ui __gmpq_cmp_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC int _mpq_cmp_ui (mpq_srcptr, unsigned long int, unsigned long int) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpq_div __gmpq_div
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_div (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_div_2exp __gmpq_div_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_div_2exp (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpq_equal __gmpq_equal
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpq_equal (mpq_srcptr, mpq_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpq_get_num __gmpq_get_num
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_get_num (mpz_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_get_den __gmpq_get_den
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_get_den (mpz_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_get_d __gmpq_get_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC double mpq_get_d (mpq_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpq_get_str __gmpq_get_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC char *mpq_get_str (char *, int, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_init __gmpq_init
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_init (mpq_ptr);
#define mpq_inits __gmpq_inits
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_inits (mpq_ptr, ...);
#define mpq_inp_str __gmpq_inp_str
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpq_inp_str (mpq_ptr, FILE *, int);
#endif
#define mpq_inv __gmpq_inv
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_inv (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_mul __gmpq_mul
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_mul (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_mul_2exp __gmpq_mul_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_mul_2exp (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpq_neg __gmpq_neg
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpq_neg)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_neg (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpq_out_str __gmpq_out_str
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpq_out_str (FILE *, int, mpq_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpq_set __gmpq_set
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_set_d __gmpq_set_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_d (mpq_ptr, double);
#define mpq_set_den __gmpq_set_den
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_den (mpq_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpq_set_f __gmpq_set_f
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_f (mpq_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpq_set_num __gmpq_set_num
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_num (mpq_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpq_set_si __gmpq_set_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_si (mpq_ptr, signed long int, unsigned long int);
#define mpq_set_str __gmpq_set_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpq_set_str (mpq_ptr, const char *, int);
#define mpq_set_ui __gmpq_set_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_ui (mpq_ptr, unsigned long int, unsigned long int);
#define mpq_set_z __gmpq_set_z
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_set_z (mpq_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpq_sub __gmpq_sub
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_sub (mpq_ptr, mpq_srcptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpq_swap __gmpq_swap
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpq_swap (mpq_ptr, mpq_ptr) __GMP_NOTHROW;
/**************** Float (i.e. F) routines. ****************/
#define mpf_abs __gmpf_abs
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_abs (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_add __gmpf_add
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_add (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_add_ui __gmpf_add_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_add_ui (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_ceil __gmpf_ceil
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_ceil (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_clear __gmpf_clear
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_clear (mpf_ptr);
#define mpf_clears __gmpf_clears
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_clears (mpf_ptr, ...);
#define mpf_cmp __gmpf_cmp
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_cmp (mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_cmp_d __gmpf_cmp_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_cmp_d (mpf_srcptr, double) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_cmp_si __gmpf_cmp_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_cmp_si (mpf_srcptr, signed long int) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_cmp_ui __gmpf_cmp_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_cmp_ui (mpf_srcptr, unsigned long int) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_div __gmpf_div
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_div (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_div_2exp __gmpf_div_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_div_2exp (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpf_div_ui __gmpf_div_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_div_ui (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_dump __gmpf_dump
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_dump (mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_eq __gmpf_eq
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_eq (mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_fits_sint_p __gmpf_fits_sint_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_fits_sint_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_fits_slong_p __gmpf_fits_slong_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_fits_slong_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_fits_sshort_p __gmpf_fits_sshort_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_fits_sshort_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_fits_uint_p __gmpf_fits_uint_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_fits_uint_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_fits_ulong_p __gmpf_fits_ulong_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_fits_ulong_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_fits_ushort_p __gmpf_fits_ushort_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_fits_ushort_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_floor __gmpf_floor
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_floor (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_get_d __gmpf_get_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC double mpf_get_d (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_get_d_2exp __gmpf_get_d_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC double mpf_get_d_2exp (signed long int *, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_get_default_prec __gmpf_get_default_prec
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpf_get_default_prec (void) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_get_prec __gmpf_get_prec
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpf_get_prec (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_get_si __gmpf_get_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC long mpf_get_si (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_get_str __gmpf_get_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC char *mpf_get_str (char *, mp_exp_t *, int, size_t, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_get_ui __gmpf_get_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC unsigned long mpf_get_ui (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_init __gmpf_init
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_init (mpf_ptr);
#define mpf_init2 __gmpf_init2
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_init2 (mpf_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpf_inits __gmpf_inits
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_inits (mpf_ptr, ...);
#define mpf_init_set __gmpf_init_set
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_init_set (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_init_set_d __gmpf_init_set_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_init_set_d (mpf_ptr, double);
#define mpf_init_set_si __gmpf_init_set_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_init_set_si (mpf_ptr, signed long int);
#define mpf_init_set_str __gmpf_init_set_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_init_set_str (mpf_ptr, const char *, int);
#define mpf_init_set_ui __gmpf_init_set_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_init_set_ui (mpf_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_inp_str __gmpf_inp_str
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpf_inp_str (mpf_ptr, FILE *, int);
#endif
#define mpf_integer_p __gmpf_integer_p
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_integer_p (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_mul __gmpf_mul
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_mul (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_mul_2exp __gmpf_mul_2exp
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_mul_2exp (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpf_mul_ui __gmpf_mul_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_mul_ui (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_neg __gmpf_neg
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_neg (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_out_str __gmpf_out_str
#ifdef _GMP_H_HAVE_FILE
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpf_out_str (FILE *, int, size_t, mpf_srcptr);
#endif
#define mpf_pow_ui __gmpf_pow_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_pow_ui (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_random2 __gmpf_random2
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_random2 (mpf_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_exp_t);
#define mpf_reldiff __gmpf_reldiff
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_reldiff (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_set __gmpf_set
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_set_d __gmpf_set_d
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_d (mpf_ptr, double);
#define mpf_set_default_prec __gmpf_set_default_prec
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_default_prec (mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#define mpf_set_prec __gmpf_set_prec
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_prec (mpf_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t);
#define mpf_set_prec_raw __gmpf_set_prec_raw
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_prec_raw (mpf_ptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#define mpf_set_q __gmpf_set_q
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_q (mpf_ptr, mpq_srcptr);
#define mpf_set_si __gmpf_set_si
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_si (mpf_ptr, signed long int);
#define mpf_set_str __gmpf_set_str
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpf_set_str (mpf_ptr, const char *, int);
#define mpf_set_ui __gmpf_set_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_ui (mpf_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_set_z __gmpf_set_z
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_set_z (mpf_ptr, mpz_srcptr);
#define mpf_size __gmpf_size
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpf_size (mpf_srcptr) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpf_sqrt __gmpf_sqrt
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_sqrt (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_sqrt_ui __gmpf_sqrt_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_sqrt_ui (mpf_ptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_sub __gmpf_sub
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_sub (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_sub_ui __gmpf_sub_ui
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_sub_ui (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr, unsigned long int);
#define mpf_swap __gmpf_swap
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_swap (mpf_ptr, mpf_ptr) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#define mpf_trunc __gmpf_trunc
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_trunc (mpf_ptr, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_ui_div __gmpf_ui_div
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_ui_div (mpf_ptr, unsigned long int, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_ui_sub __gmpf_ui_sub
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_ui_sub (mpf_ptr, unsigned long int, mpf_srcptr);
#define mpf_urandomb __gmpf_urandomb
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpf_urandomb (mpf_t, gmp_randstate_t, mp_bitcnt_t);
/************ Low level positiveinteger (i.e. N) routines. ************/
/* This is ugly, but we need to make user calls reach the prefixed function. */
#define mpn_add __MPN(add)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_add)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_add (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#endif
#define mpn_add_1 __MPN(add_1)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_add_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_add_1 (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#endif
#define mpn_add_n __MPN(add_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_add_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_addmul_1 __MPN(addmul_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_addmul_1 (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t);
#define mpn_cmp __MPN(cmp)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_cmp)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpn_cmp (mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#endif
#define mpn_divexact_by3(dst,src,size) \
mpn_divexact_by3c (dst, src, size, __GMP_CAST (mp_limb_t, 0))
#define mpn_divexact_by3c __MPN(divexact_by3c)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_divexact_by3c (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t);
#define mpn_divmod_1(qp,np,nsize,dlimb) \
mpn_divrem_1 (qp, __GMP_CAST (mp_size_t, 0), np, nsize, dlimb)
#define mpn_divrem __MPN(divrem)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_divrem (mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_divrem_1 __MPN(divrem_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_divrem_1 (mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t);
#define mpn_divrem_2 __MPN(divrem_2)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_divrem_2 (mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr);
#define mpn_div_qr_2 __MPN(div_qr_2)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_div_qr_2 (mp_ptr, mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr);
#define mpn_gcd __MPN(gcd)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_size_t mpn_gcd (mp_ptr, mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_gcd_1 __MPN(gcd_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_gcd_1 (mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_gcdext_1 __MPN(gcdext_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_gcdext_1 (mp_limb_signed_t *, mp_limb_signed_t *, mp_limb_t, mp_limb_t);
#define mpn_gcdext __MPN(gcdext)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_size_t mpn_gcdext (mp_ptr, mp_ptr, mp_size_t *, mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_get_str __MPN(get_str)
__GMP_DECLSPEC size_t mpn_get_str (unsigned char *, int, mp_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_hamdist __MPN(hamdist)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpn_hamdist (mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_lshift __MPN(lshift)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_lshift (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, unsigned int);
#define mpn_mod_1 __MPN(mod_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_mod_1 (mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_mul __MPN(mul)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_mul (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_mul_1 __MPN(mul_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_mul_1 (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t);
#define mpn_mul_n __MPN(mul_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_mul_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_sqr __MPN(sqr)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_sqr (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_neg __MPN(neg)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_neg)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_neg (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#endif
#define mpn_com __MPN(com)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_com)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_com (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#endif
#define mpn_perfect_square_p __MPN(perfect_square_p)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpn_perfect_square_p (mp_srcptr, mp_size_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_perfect_power_p __MPN(perfect_power_p)
__GMP_DECLSPEC int mpn_perfect_power_p (mp_srcptr, mp_size_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_popcount __MPN(popcount)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpn_popcount (mp_srcptr, mp_size_t) __GMP_NOTHROW __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_pow_1 __MPN(pow_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_size_t mpn_pow_1 (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t, mp_ptr);
/* undocumented now, but retained here for upward compatibility */
#define mpn_preinv_mod_1 __MPN(preinv_mod_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_preinv_mod_1 (mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t, mp_limb_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_random __MPN(random)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_random (mp_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_random2 __MPN(random2)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_random2 (mp_ptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_rshift __MPN(rshift)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_rshift (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, unsigned int);
#define mpn_scan0 __MPN(scan0)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpn_scan0 (mp_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_scan1 __MPN(scan1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_bitcnt_t mpn_scan1 (mp_srcptr, mp_bitcnt_t) __GMP_ATTRIBUTE_PURE;
#define mpn_set_str __MPN(set_str)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_size_t mpn_set_str (mp_ptr, const unsigned char *, size_t, int);
#define mpn_sqrtrem __MPN(sqrtrem)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_size_t mpn_sqrtrem (mp_ptr, mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_sub __MPN(sub)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_sub)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_sub (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#endif
#define mpn_sub_1 __MPN(sub_1)
#if __GMP_INLINE_PROTOTYPES  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_sub_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_sub_1 (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t) __GMP_NOTHROW;
#endif
#define mpn_sub_n __MPN(sub_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_sub_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_submul_1 __MPN(submul_1)
__GMP_DECLSPEC mp_limb_t mpn_submul_1 (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_limb_t);
#define mpn_tdiv_qr __MPN(tdiv_qr)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_tdiv_qr (mp_ptr, mp_ptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_and_n __MPN(and_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_and_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_andn_n __MPN(andn_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_andn_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_nand_n __MPN(nand_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_nand_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_ior_n __MPN(ior_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_ior_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_iorn_n __MPN(iorn_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_iorn_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_nior_n __MPN(nior_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_nior_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_xor_n __MPN(xor_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_xor_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_xnor_n __MPN(xnor_n)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_xnor_n (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_copyi __MPN(copyi)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_copyi (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_copyd __MPN(copyd)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_copyd (mp_ptr, mp_srcptr, mp_size_t);
#define mpn_zero __MPN(zero)
__GMP_DECLSPEC void mpn_zero (mp_ptr, mp_size_t);
/**************** mpz inlines ****************/
/* The following are provided as inlines where possible, but always exist as
library functions too, for binary compatibility.
Within gmp itself this inlining generally isn't relied on, since it
doesn't get done for all compilers, whereas if something is worth
inlining then it's worth arranging always.
There are two styles of inlining here. When the same bit of code is
wanted for the inline as for the library version, then __GMP_FORCE_foo
arranges for that code to be emitted and the __GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
directive suppressed, eg. mpz_fits_uint_p. When a different bit of code
is wanted for the inline than for the library version, then
__GMP_FORCE_foo arranges the inline to be suppressed, eg. mpz_abs. */
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE) && ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_abs)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE void
mpz_abs (mpz_ptr __gmp_w, mpz_srcptr __gmp_u)
{
if (__gmp_w != __gmp_u)
mpz_set (__gmp_w, __gmp_u);
__gmp_w>_mp_size = __GMP_ABS (__gmp_w>_mp_size);
}
#endif
#if GMP_NAIL_BITS == 0
#define __GMPZ_FITS_UTYPE_P(z,maxval) \
mp_size_t __gmp_n = z>_mp_size; \
mp_ptr __gmp_p = z>_mp_d; \
return (__gmp_n == 0  (__gmp_n == 1 && __gmp_p[0] <= maxval));
#else
#define __GMPZ_FITS_UTYPE_P(z,maxval) \
mp_size_t __gmp_n = z>_mp_size; \
mp_ptr __gmp_p = z>_mp_d; \
return (__gmp_n == 0  (__gmp_n == 1 && __gmp_p[0] <= maxval) \
 (__gmp_n == 2 && __gmp_p[1] <= ((mp_limb_t) maxval >> GMP_NUMB_BITS)));
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_uint_p)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_uint_p)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
int
mpz_fits_uint_p (mpz_srcptr __gmp_z) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
__GMPZ_FITS_UTYPE_P (__gmp_z, __GMP_UINT_MAX);
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_ulong_p)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_ulong_p)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
int
mpz_fits_ulong_p (mpz_srcptr __gmp_z) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
__GMPZ_FITS_UTYPE_P (__gmp_z, __GMP_ULONG_MAX);
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_ushort_p)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_fits_ushort_p)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
int
mpz_fits_ushort_p (mpz_srcptr __gmp_z) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
__GMPZ_FITS_UTYPE_P (__gmp_z, __GMP_USHRT_MAX);
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_get_ui)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_get_ui)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
unsigned long
mpz_get_ui (mpz_srcptr __gmp_z) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
mp_ptr __gmp_p = __gmp_z>_mp_d;
mp_size_t __gmp_n = __gmp_z>_mp_size;
mp_limb_t __gmp_l = __gmp_p[0];
/* This is a "#if" rather than a plain "if" so as to avoid gcc warnings
about "<< GMP_NUMB_BITS" exceeding the type size, and to avoid Borland
C++ 6.0 warnings about condition always true for something like
"__GMP_ULONG_MAX < GMP_NUMB_MASK". */
#if GMP_NAIL_BITS == 0  defined (_LONG_LONG_LIMB)
/* limb==long and no nails, or limb==longlong, one limb is enough */
return (__gmp_n != 0 ? __gmp_l : 0);
#else
/* limb==long and nails, need two limbs when available */
__gmp_n = __GMP_ABS (__gmp_n);
if (__gmp_n <= 1)
return (__gmp_n != 0 ? __gmp_l : 0);
else
return __gmp_l + (__gmp_p[1] << GMP_NUMB_BITS);
#endif
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_getlimbn)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_getlimbn)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_limb_t
mpz_getlimbn (mpz_srcptr __gmp_z, mp_size_t __gmp_n) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
mp_limb_t __gmp_result = 0;
if (__GMP_LIKELY (__gmp_n >= 0 && __gmp_n < __GMP_ABS (__gmp_z>_mp_size)))
__gmp_result = __gmp_z>_mp_d[__gmp_n];
return __gmp_result;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE) && ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_neg)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE void
mpz_neg (mpz_ptr __gmp_w, mpz_srcptr __gmp_u)
{
if (__gmp_w != __gmp_u)
mpz_set (__gmp_w, __gmp_u);
__gmp_w>_mp_size =  __gmp_w>_mp_size;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_perfect_square_p)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_perfect_square_p)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
int
mpz_perfect_square_p (mpz_srcptr __gmp_a)
{
mp_size_t __gmp_asize;
int __gmp_result;
__gmp_asize = __gmp_a>_mp_size;
__gmp_result = (__gmp_asize >= 0); /* zero is a square, negatives are not */
if (__GMP_LIKELY (__gmp_asize > 0))
__gmp_result = mpn_perfect_square_p (__gmp_a>_mp_d, __gmp_asize);
return __gmp_result;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_popcount)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_popcount)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_bitcnt_t
mpz_popcount (mpz_srcptr __gmp_u) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
mp_size_t __gmp_usize;
mp_bitcnt_t __gmp_result;
__gmp_usize = __gmp_u>_mp_size;
__gmp_result = (__gmp_usize < 0 ? __GMP_ULONG_MAX : 0);
if (__GMP_LIKELY (__gmp_usize > 0))
__gmp_result = mpn_popcount (__gmp_u>_mp_d, __gmp_usize);
return __gmp_result;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_set_q)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_set_q)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
void
mpz_set_q (mpz_ptr __gmp_w, mpq_srcptr __gmp_u)
{
mpz_tdiv_q (__gmp_w, mpq_numref (__gmp_u), mpq_denref (__gmp_u));
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_size)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpz_size)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
size_t
mpz_size (mpz_srcptr __gmp_z) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
return __GMP_ABS (__gmp_z>_mp_size);
}
#endif
/**************** mpq inlines ****************/
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE) && ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpq_abs)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE void
mpq_abs (mpq_ptr __gmp_w, mpq_srcptr __gmp_u)
{
if (__gmp_w != __gmp_u)
mpq_set (__gmp_w, __gmp_u);
__gmp_w>_mp_num._mp_size = __GMP_ABS (__gmp_w>_mp_num._mp_size);
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE) && ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpq_neg)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE void
mpq_neg (mpq_ptr __gmp_w, mpq_srcptr __gmp_u)
{
if (__gmp_w != __gmp_u)
mpq_set (__gmp_w, __gmp_u);
__gmp_w>_mp_num._mp_size =  __gmp_w>_mp_num._mp_size;
}
#endif
/**************** mpn inlines ****************/
/* The comments with __GMPN_ADD_1 below apply here too.
The test for FUNCTION returning 0 should predict well. If it's assumed
{yp,ysize} will usually have a random number of bits then the high limb
won't be full and a carry out will occur a good deal less than 50% of the
time.
ysize==0 isn't a documented feature, but is used internally in a few
places.
Producing cout last stops it using up a register during the main part of
the calculation, though gcc (as of 3.0) on an "if (mpn_add (...))"
doesn't seem able to move the true and false legs of the conditional up
to the two places cout is generated. */
#define __GMPN_AORS(cout, wp, xp, xsize, yp, ysize, FUNCTION, TEST) \
do { \
mp_size_t __gmp_i; \
mp_limb_t __gmp_x; \
\
/* ASSERT ((ysize) >= 0); */ \
/* ASSERT ((xsize) >= (ysize)); */ \
/* ASSERT (MPN_SAME_OR_SEPARATE2_P (wp, xsize, xp, xsize)); */ \
/* ASSERT (MPN_SAME_OR_SEPARATE2_P (wp, xsize, yp, ysize)); */ \
\
__gmp_i = (ysize); \
if (__gmp_i != 0) \
{ \
if (FUNCTION (wp, xp, yp, __gmp_i)) \
{ \
do \
{ \
if (__gmp_i >= (xsize)) \
{ \
(cout) = 1; \
goto __gmp_done; \
} \
__gmp_x = (xp)[__gmp_i]; \
} \
while (TEST); \
} \
} \
if ((wp) != (xp)) \
__GMPN_COPY_REST (wp, xp, xsize, __gmp_i); \
(cout) = 0; \
__gmp_done: \
; \
} while (0)
#define __GMPN_ADD(cout, wp, xp, xsize, yp, ysize) \
__GMPN_AORS (cout, wp, xp, xsize, yp, ysize, mpn_add_n, \
(((wp)[__gmp_i++] = (__gmp_x + 1) & GMP_NUMB_MASK) == 0))
#define __GMPN_SUB(cout, wp, xp, xsize, yp, ysize) \
__GMPN_AORS (cout, wp, xp, xsize, yp, ysize, mpn_sub_n, \
(((wp)[__gmp_i++] = (__gmp_x  1) & GMP_NUMB_MASK), __gmp_x == 0))
/* The use of __gmp_i indexing is designed to ensure a compile time src==dst
remains nice and clear to the compiler, so that __GMPN_COPY_REST can
disappear, and the load/add/store gets a chance to become a
readmodifywrite on CISC CPUs.
Alternatives:
Using a pair of pointers instead of indexing would be possible, but gcc
isn't able to recognise compiletime src==dst in that case, even when the
pointers are incremented more or less together. Other compilers would
very likely have similar difficulty.
gcc could use "if (__builtin_constant_p(src==dst) && src==dst)" or
similar to detect a compiletime src==dst. This works nicely on gcc
2.95.x, it's not good on gcc 3.0 where __builtin_constant_p(p==p) seems
to be always false, for a pointer p. But the current code form seems
good enough for src==dst anyway.
gcc on x86 as usual doesn't give particularly good flags handling for the
carry/borrow detection. It's tempting to want some multi instruction asm
blocks to help it, and this was tried, but in truth there's only a few
instructions to save and any gain is all too easily lost by register
juggling setting up for the asm. */
#if GMP_NAIL_BITS == 0
#define __GMPN_AORS_1(cout, dst, src, n, v, OP, CB) \
do { \
mp_size_t __gmp_i; \
mp_limb_t __gmp_x, __gmp_r; \
\
/* ASSERT ((n) >= 1); */ \
/* ASSERT (MPN_SAME_OR_SEPARATE_P (dst, src, n)); */ \
\
__gmp_x = (src)[0]; \
__gmp_r = __gmp_x OP (v); \
(dst)[0] = __gmp_r; \
if (CB (__gmp_r, __gmp_x, (v))) \
{ \
(cout) = 1; \
for (__gmp_i = 1; __gmp_i < (n);) \
{ \
__gmp_x = (src)[__gmp_i]; \
__gmp_r = __gmp_x OP 1; \
(dst)[__gmp_i] = __gmp_r; \
++__gmp_i; \
if (!CB (__gmp_r, __gmp_x, 1)) \
{ \
if ((src) != (dst)) \
__GMPN_COPY_REST (dst, src, n, __gmp_i); \
(cout) = 0; \
break; \
} \
} \
} \
else \
{ \
if ((src) != (dst)) \
__GMPN_COPY_REST (dst, src, n, 1); \
(cout) = 0; \
} \
} while (0)
#endif
#if GMP_NAIL_BITS >= 1
#define __GMPN_AORS_1(cout, dst, src, n, v, OP, CB) \
do { \
mp_size_t __gmp_i; \
mp_limb_t __gmp_x, __gmp_r; \
\
/* ASSERT ((n) >= 1); */ \
/* ASSERT (MPN_SAME_OR_SEPARATE_P (dst, src, n)); */ \
\
__gmp_x = (src)[0]; \
__gmp_r = __gmp_x OP (v); \
(dst)[0] = __gmp_r & GMP_NUMB_MASK; \
if (__gmp_r >> GMP_NUMB_BITS != 0) \
{ \
(cout) = 1; \
for (__gmp_i = 1; __gmp_i < (n);) \
{ \
__gmp_x = (src)[__gmp_i]; \
__gmp_r = __gmp_x OP 1; \
(dst)[__gmp_i] = __gmp_r & GMP_NUMB_MASK; \
++__gmp_i; \
if (__gmp_r >> GMP_NUMB_BITS == 0) \
{ \
if ((src) != (dst)) \
__GMPN_COPY_REST (dst, src, n, __gmp_i); \
(cout) = 0; \
break; \
} \
} \
} \
else \
{ \
if ((src) != (dst)) \
__GMPN_COPY_REST (dst, src, n, 1); \
(cout) = 0; \
} \
} while (0)
#endif
#define __GMPN_ADDCB(r,x,y) ((r) < (y))
#define __GMPN_SUBCB(r,x,y) ((x) < (y))
#define __GMPN_ADD_1(cout, dst, src, n, v) \
__GMPN_AORS_1(cout, dst, src, n, v, +, __GMPN_ADDCB)
#define __GMPN_SUB_1(cout, dst, src, n, v) \
__GMPN_AORS_1(cout, dst, src, n, v, , __GMPN_SUBCB)
/* Compare {xp,size} and {yp,size}, setting "result" to positive, zero or
negative. size==0 is allowed. On random data usually only one limb will
need to be examined to get a result, so it's worth having it inline. */
#define __GMPN_CMP(result, xp, yp, size) \
do { \
mp_size_t __gmp_i; \
mp_limb_t __gmp_x, __gmp_y; \
\
/* ASSERT ((size) >= 0); */ \
\
(result) = 0; \
__gmp_i = (size); \
while (__gmp_i >= 0) \
{ \
__gmp_x = (xp)[__gmp_i]; \
__gmp_y = (yp)[__gmp_i]; \
if (__gmp_x != __gmp_y) \
{ \
/* Cannot use __gmp_x  __gmp_y, may overflow an "int" */ \
(result) = (__gmp_x > __gmp_y ? 1 : 1); \
break; \
} \
} \
} while (0)
#if defined (__GMPN_COPY) && ! defined (__GMPN_COPY_REST)
#define __GMPN_COPY_REST(dst, src, size, start) \
do { \
/* ASSERT ((start) >= 0); */ \
/* ASSERT ((start) <= (size)); */ \
__GMPN_COPY ((dst)+(start), (src)+(start), (size)(start)); \
} while (0)
#endif
/* Copy {src,size} to {dst,size}, starting at "start". This is designed to
keep the indexing dst[j] and src[j] nice and simple for __GMPN_ADD_1,
__GMPN_ADD, etc. */
#if ! defined (__GMPN_COPY_REST)
#define __GMPN_COPY_REST(dst, src, size, start) \
do { \
mp_size_t __gmp_j; \
/* ASSERT ((size) >= 0); */ \
/* ASSERT ((start) >= 0); */ \
/* ASSERT ((start) <= (size)); */ \
/* ASSERT (MPN_SAME_OR_SEPARATE_P (dst, src, size)); */ \
__GMP_CRAY_Pragma ("_CRI ivdep"); \
for (__gmp_j = (start); __gmp_j < (size); __gmp_j++) \
(dst)[__gmp_j] = (src)[__gmp_j]; \
} while (0)
#endif
/* Enhancement: Use some of the smarter code from gmpimpl.h. Maybe use
mpn_copyi if there's a native version, and if we don't mind demanding
binary compatibility for it (on targets which use it). */
#if ! defined (__GMPN_COPY)
#define __GMPN_COPY(dst, src, size) __GMPN_COPY_REST (dst, src, size, 0)
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_add)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_add)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_limb_t
mpn_add (mp_ptr __gmp_wp, mp_srcptr __gmp_xp, mp_size_t __gmp_xsize, mp_srcptr __gmp_yp, mp_size_t __gmp_ysize)
{
mp_limb_t __gmp_c;
__GMPN_ADD (__gmp_c, __gmp_wp, __gmp_xp, __gmp_xsize, __gmp_yp, __gmp_ysize);
return __gmp_c;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_add_1)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_add_1)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_limb_t
mpn_add_1 (mp_ptr __gmp_dst, mp_srcptr __gmp_src, mp_size_t __gmp_size, mp_limb_t __gmp_n) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
mp_limb_t __gmp_c;
__GMPN_ADD_1 (__gmp_c, __gmp_dst, __gmp_src, __gmp_size, __gmp_n);
return __gmp_c;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_cmp)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_cmp)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
int
mpn_cmp (mp_srcptr __gmp_xp, mp_srcptr __gmp_yp, mp_size_t __gmp_size) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
int __gmp_result;
__GMPN_CMP (__gmp_result, __gmp_xp, __gmp_yp, __gmp_size);
return __gmp_result;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_sub)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_sub)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_limb_t
mpn_sub (mp_ptr __gmp_wp, mp_srcptr __gmp_xp, mp_size_t __gmp_xsize, mp_srcptr __gmp_yp, mp_size_t __gmp_ysize)
{
mp_limb_t __gmp_c;
__GMPN_SUB (__gmp_c, __gmp_wp, __gmp_xp, __gmp_xsize, __gmp_yp, __gmp_ysize);
return __gmp_c;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_sub_1)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_sub_1)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_limb_t
mpn_sub_1 (mp_ptr __gmp_dst, mp_srcptr __gmp_src, mp_size_t __gmp_size, mp_limb_t __gmp_n) __GMP_NOTHROW
{
mp_limb_t __gmp_c;
__GMPN_SUB_1 (__gmp_c, __gmp_dst, __gmp_src, __gmp_size, __gmp_n);
return __gmp_c;
}
#endif
#if defined (__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE)  defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_neg)
#if ! defined (__GMP_FORCE_mpn_neg)
__GMP_EXTERN_INLINE
#endif
mp_limb_t
mpn_neg (mp_ptr __gmp_rp, mp_srcptr __gmp_up, mp_size_t __gmp_n)
{
mp_limb_t __gmp_ul, __gmp_cy;
__gmp_cy = 0;
do {
__gmp_ul = *__gmp_up++;
*__gmp_rp++ = __gmp_ul  __gmp_cy;
__gmp_cy = __gmp_ul != 0;
} while (__gmp_n != 0);
return __gmp_cy;
}
#endif
#if defined (__cplusplus)
}
#endif
/* Allow faster testing for negative, zero, and positive. */
#define mpz_sgn(Z) ((Z)>_mp_size < 0 ? 1 : (Z)>_mp_size > 0)
#define mpf_sgn(F) ((F)>_mp_size < 0 ? 1 : (F)>_mp_size > 0)
#define mpq_sgn(Q) ((Q)>_mp_num._mp_size < 0 ? 1 : (Q)>_mp_num._mp_size > 0)
/* When using GCC, optimize certain common comparisons. */
#if defined (__GNUC__) && __GNUC__ >= 2
#define mpz_cmp_ui(Z,UI) \
(__builtin_constant_p (UI) && (UI) == 0 \
? mpz_sgn (Z) : _mpz_cmp_ui (Z,UI))
#define mpz_cmp_si(Z,SI) \
(__builtin_constant_p (SI) && (SI) == 0 ? mpz_sgn (Z) \
: __builtin_constant_p (SI) && (SI) > 0 \
? _mpz_cmp_ui (Z, __GMP_CAST (unsigned long int, SI)) \
: _mpz_cmp_si (Z,SI))
#define mpq_cmp_ui(Q,NUI,DUI) \
(__builtin_constant_p (NUI) && (NUI) == 0 \
? mpq_sgn (Q) : _mpq_cmp_ui (Q,NUI,DUI))
#define mpq_cmp_si(q,n,d) \
(__builtin_constant_p ((n) >= 0) && (n) >= 0 \
? mpq_cmp_ui (q, __GMP_CAST (unsigned long, n), d) \
: _mpq_cmp_si (q, n, d))
#else
#define mpz_cmp_ui(Z,UI) _mpz_cmp_ui (Z,UI)
#define mpz_cmp_si(Z,UI) _mpz_cmp_si (Z,UI)
#define mpq_cmp_ui(Q,NUI,DUI) _mpq_cmp_ui (Q,NUI,DUI)
#define mpq_cmp_si(q,n,d) _mpq_cmp_si(q,n,d)
#endif
/* Using "&" rather than "&&" means these can come out branchfree. Every
mpz_t has at least one limb allocated, so fetching the low limb is always
allowed. */
#define mpz_odd_p(z) (((z)>_mp_size != 0) & __GMP_CAST (int, (z)>_mp_d[0]))
#define mpz_even_p(z) (! mpz_odd_p (z))
/**************** C++ routines ****************/
#ifdef __cplusplus
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX std::ostream& operator<< (std::ostream &, mpz_srcptr);
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX std::ostream& operator<< (std::ostream &, mpq_srcptr);
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX std::ostream& operator<< (std::ostream &, mpf_srcptr);
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX std::istream& operator>> (std::istream &, mpz_ptr);
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX std::istream& operator>> (std::istream &, mpq_ptr);
__GMP_DECLSPEC_XX std::istream& operator>> (std::istream &, mpf_ptr);
#endif
/* Sourcelevel compatibility with GMP 2 and earlier. */
#define mpn_divmod(qp,np,nsize,dp,dsize) \
mpn_divrem (qp, __GMP_CAST (mp_size_t, 0), np, nsize, dp, dsize)
/* Sourcelevel compatibility with GMP 1. */
#define mpz_mdiv mpz_fdiv_q
#define mpz_mdivmod mpz_fdiv_qr
#define mpz_mmod mpz_fdiv_r
#define mpz_mdiv_ui mpz_fdiv_q_ui
#define mpz_mdivmod_ui(q,r,n,d) \
(((r) == 0) ? mpz_fdiv_q_ui (q,n,d) : mpz_fdiv_qr_ui (q,r,n,d))
#define mpz_mmod_ui(r,n,d) \
(((r) == 0) ? mpz_fdiv_ui (n,d) : mpz_fdiv_r_ui (r,n,d))
/* Useful synonyms, but not quite compatible with GMP 1. */
#define mpz_div mpz_fdiv_q
#define mpz_divmod mpz_fdiv_qr
#define mpz_div_ui mpz_fdiv_q_ui
#define mpz_divmod_ui mpz_fdiv_qr_ui
#define mpz_div_2exp mpz_fdiv_q_2exp
#define mpz_mod_2exp mpz_fdiv_r_2exp
enum
{
GMP_ERROR_NONE = 0,
GMP_ERROR_UNSUPPORTED_ARGUMENT = 1,
GMP_ERROR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO = 2,
GMP_ERROR_SQRT_OF_NEGATIVE = 4,
GMP_ERROR_INVALID_ARGUMENT = 8
};
/* Define CC and CFLAGS which were used to build this version of GMP */
#define __GMP_CC "cc m64"
#define __GMP_CFLAGS "xO3 m64"
/* Major version number is the value of __GNU_MP__ too, above and in mp.h. */
#define __GNU_MP_VERSION 5
#define __GNU_MP_VERSION_MINOR 1
#define __GNU_MP_VERSION_PATCHLEVEL 1
#define __GNU_MP_RELEASE (__GNU_MP_VERSION * 10000 + __GNU_MP_VERSION_MINOR * 100 + __GNU_MP_VERSION_PATCHLEVEL)
#define __GMP_H__
#endif /* __GMP_H__ */
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1389249168 0 0 0 916 `
lt11fits_sint.o/
lt12fits_slong.o/
lt13fits_sshort.o/
lt14fits_uint.o/
lt15fits_ulong.o/
lt16fits_ushort.o/
lt18get_d_2exp.o/
lt29iset_str.o/
lt32mul_2exp.o/
lt35nextprime.o/
lt51urandomb.o/
invert_limb_table.o/
nussbaumer_mul.o/
mulmid_basecase.o/
toom42_mulmid.o/
lt91popcount.o/
gcd_subdiv_step.o/
gcdext_lehmer.o/
matrix22_mul1_inverse_vector.o/
mullo_basecase.o/
toom_couple_handling.o/
toom_eval_dgr3_pm1.o/
toom_eval_dgr3_pm2.o/
toom_eval_pm1.o/
toom_eval_pm2.o/
toom_eval_pm2exp.o/
toom_eval_pm2rexp.o/
toom_interpolate_5pts.o/
toom_interpolate_6pts.o/
toom_interpolate_7pts.o/
toom_interpolate_8pts.o/
toom_interpolate_12pts.o/
toom_interpolate_16pts.o/
div_qr_2n_pi1.o/
div_qr_2u_pi1.o/
sbpi1_divappr_q.o/
dcpi1_divappr_q.o/
sbpi1_bdiv_qr.o/
dcpi1_bdiv_qr.o/
lt102divexact.o/
lt104powm_sec.o/
sb_div_qr_sec.o/
sbpi1_div_qr_sec.o/
sbpi1_div_r_sec.o/
addaddmul_1msb0.o/
replvsnprintf.o/
assert.o/ 1389249159 0 0 100644 3564 `
ELF>( @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.rodata1.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabassert.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_assert_headerfprintf__gmp_assert_failabort__iob.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATHDHt=:t8HH5HH3AtH5HAH3A\[A\[fDfDUHSHHH=H5HH3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16%s:GNU MP assertion failed: %s
%d: x
$$TAC
AB$L/AC
Aanotate`0T/ assert.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c assert.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
assert.cDD%
T`/!,9,Kmt{(P` 8P`pJ@( p#)15:p8pDxN Z 2fRthxh0 `
0
compat.o/ 1389249160 0 0 100644 3380 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabcompat.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpn_divexact_by3__gmpn_bdiv_dbm1c__gmpn_divmod_1__gmpn_divrem_1__gmpz_legendre__gmpz_jacobi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHUUUUUUUUM3HÐUHLHLH3IH@UHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
$LAC
$t
AC
anotateJHZ"
compat.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c compat.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
compat.cDD%s}~
@
8F(P x@ 8P h@7E@H J#)1p;pEQ2]:kP`H
H
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70
errno.o/ 1389249160 0 0 100644 3444 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtaberrno.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_exception__gmp_errnoabort__gmp_sqrt_of_negative__gmp_divide_by_zero__gmp_0__gmp_junk.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUH =5@
@t
ffffffUHfUHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$EAC
$LAC
$tAC
anotatehnHE
BBerrno.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c errno.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
errno.cDD%s{}~
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$``
30
extractdbl.o/ 1389249161 0 0 100644 3020 `
ELF>H@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabextractdbl.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_extract_double.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHfWf.
EEHH%H+UHHHHHuHHHHHtH?HA?HHIHL@uHWHL@@+HHHGHHHIcH3HHG3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8
extractdbl.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c extractdbl.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3+!
extractdbl.cDD% }
( 8@ @#)1pH;XPE
Q7]ko u 0 0
invalid.o/ 1389249161 0 0 100644 2868 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabinvalid.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_invalid_operationraiseabort.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8Binvalid.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c invalid.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
invalid.cDD%s}~
( 8@ Pc^^#^)^1p`H;PEQ3]kD0
<
T0
0
memory.o/ 1389249162 0 0 100644 4220 `
ELF>x@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.rodata1.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmemory.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_default_allocatemallocfprintfabort__gmp_default_reallocaterealloc__gmp_default_freefree__gmp_free_func__gmp_reallocate_func__gmp_allocate_func__iob.rela.text.rela.data.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHHHtH[HH
HHHH3UHSATLHHHtA\[HH
HHIHH3ffUHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16GNU MP: Cannot reallocate memory (old_size=%lu new_size=%lu)
GNU MP: Cannot allocate memory (size=%lu)
x
$$AAC
A$LFAC
AB$t
AC
anotatexHAF
memory.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c memory.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
memory.cDD%
APF
)?S
'<8=ary(PPx 8PPh@ #)1k:pDN8Z82fjtY8 d@
Ho
H ~
x
H0
mp_bpl.o/ 1389249162 0 0 100644 2148 `
ELF> @@
.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmp_bpl.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_junk__gmp_0__gmp_bits_per_limb.rela.debug_infoacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16@mp_bpl.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mp_bpl.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
mp_bpl.cDD%_hijkvw
@ #)1=2IBWX0
mp_clz_tab.o/ 1389249163 0 0 100644 2228 `
ELF>p@@
.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmp_clz_tab.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpn_clz_tab.rela.debug_infoacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16 mp_clz_tab.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mp_clz_tab.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3*
mp_clz_tab.cDD%_lmnoz{
@ #)1=6IWh@0
mp_dv_tab.o/ 1389249163 0 0 100644 2572 `
ELF>@@
.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmp_dv_tab.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_digit_value_tab.rela.debug_infoacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16
!"#
!"#
!"#$%&'()*+,./0123456789:;<=mp_dv_tab.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mp_dv_tab.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
mp_dv_tab.cDD%_klmnyz
@ #)1=5IW4h0mp_minv_tab.o/ 1389249164 0 0 100644 2228 `
ELF>p@@
.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmp_minv_tab.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_binvert_limb_table.rela.debug_infoacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ͷ9=)5ይ kwcgKmWCeGɳ+M7#Eoq'_a%OQ{s?A
y/1[}iSu!Y;]I3Ump_minv_tab.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mp_minv_tab.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3+!
mp_minv_tab.cDD%_mnop{
@ #)1
=7IWh@0
mp_get_fns.o/ 1389249164 0 0 100644 3004 `
ELF><@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmp_get_fns.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_get_memory_functions__gmp_allocate_func__gmp_reallocate_func__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHt
HHHt
HHHt
HHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$3AC
anotate833mp_get_fns.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mp_get_fns.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3*
mp_get_fns.cDD%s
3*( 8@= 3#)1pH;PEHQP6]kH
0
,0
mp_set_fns.o/ 1389249165 0 0 100644 3228 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabmp_set_fns.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_set_memory_functions__gmp_default_allocate__gmp_default_reallocate__gmp_default_free__gmp_allocate_func__gmp_reallocate_func__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHuH=HuH5HuHH=H5Hacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$?AC
anotate8??mp_set_fns.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mp_set_fns.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3*
mp_set_fns.cDD%s
? 6$+29( 8@ ?#)1pH;HPEQ6]k(F
Q
`0
o0
version.o/ 1389249165 0 0 100644 2284 `
ELF>,@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.rodata1.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabversion.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_version.rela.rodata.rela.debug_infoacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/165.1.1version.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c version.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
version.cDD%hrstu
@ #)1:F3RK`d0 nextprime.o/ 1389249166 0 0 100644 4596 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.tbss.tdata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabnextprime.cTtdata.dataDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodataTtbss.bss__gmp_nextprime__gmp_init_primesieve_memset.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLMMI]IMMIMHA
tH8uI;I}HHu3HLEHuLEMMII}IEHHHIH;wHHLLLHL;vM]HGLIHHIHHRL+t
HILKQIBHLFLM;II+HVUUUUUUUHH?H+HM;HHGH]AABABAB ABABABABABABABAB!AB$AB'AB*ABI0M;vM;w
AIM;vI}HGLIHHIHHL+t
HILJOIAHLFLM;II+HgfffffffHH?HH+HM;HHGHQAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA#AA(AAAA2AA7Ip@xHhR ^& 5j[ xox @00
%8H40
primesieve.o/ 1389249167 0 0 100644 5772 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabprimesieve.cid_to_nn_to_bitfirst_block_primesieveblock_resieveDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_primesieve__gmpn_popcount.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHHHHDÐUHHHHHHHÐUHSATAUAVAWH(H}HHHH?HHIHHHHHHjLEHHHNH=AH3IIHIHIHIH IH(IH0IH8I@HH}H~vIIHHaHUHuH3H<H3H
HJHJHJHJ HJ(HJ0HJ8H@HHHtH3H
HHH;uHiɔ2HUH
HNH?H#y
HHHHtHHcHHMH @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabtalreent.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmp_allocate_func__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATLH^HH3%HXI$HI$HA\[ÐUHSHHtHHwH3%HHuH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$3AC
AB$L.AC
Aanotatehn03.
talreent.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1 /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c talreent.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
talreent.cDD%s
3@.
[
(P@ 8P@pxX@> n#)1pp;`EQ5]k40
D0
tx
0
init.o/ 1389249094 0 0 100644 2996 `
ELF>0@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabinit.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHHH=CHC;HHH3%HCH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$@AC
AanotateH@@
init.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c init.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3$
init.cDD%sz{}
@1
( 8X.@" p@#)1pH;`EX
Qb0]kp0
H
0
init2.o/ 1389249095 0 0 100644 3060 `
ELF>0@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabinit2.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init2__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHHH5H5HBHHCHC3HHHH3%HCH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$SAC
AanotateHSSinit2.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c init2.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
init2.cDD% }
SD
( 8XA@ PS#)1pH;`EHQT1]ko uH 0
inits.o/ 1389249096 0 0 100644 3140 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabinits.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_inits__gmpf_init.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHLH H(H0H8L@LHt))P)`)p)])e)m)u)}H H]EE0HMHMHEMt1I(~HKHAHCHKHȃLMuH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
Aanotate8Jinits.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c inits.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
inits.cDD%}
( 8@ P#)1pH;`PEQ1]ko u( 0 P0
set.o/ 1389249096 0 0 100644 3060 `
ELF>0@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHƋLcLc@IHIHHOHpI;~
I+H4IH@HGM}HHHGHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$WAC
anotateHWW set.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
set.cDD% }
WS( 8XR@ PW#)1pH;`EPQX/]ko uH 0
set_ui.o/ 1389249097 0 0 100644 2708 `
ELF>P@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabset_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_ui.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHGH0HGHcHGacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$ AC
anotate8 set_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
set_ui.cDD%s}~
( 8@ 0 PKK#K)K1pPH;PEQ2](k@
0
0
set_si.o/ 1389249097 0 0 100644 2740 `
ELF>p@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabset_si.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_si.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHH} H3H+HOHHHHGHHGH0HHHGGacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$CAC
anotate8CCset_si.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_si.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
set_si.cDD%s}~
C( 8@ 0Csnn#n)n1ppH;PEQ2]Hk`
0
@0
set_str.o/ 1389249098 0 0 100644 7532 `
ELF>(@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.tbss.tdata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_str.cmpn_pow_1_highpartTtdata.dataDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodataTtbss.bss__gmpn_sqr__gmpn_mul_1__gmpn_copyi__gmpf_set_strnl_langinfo__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpn_set_str__gmpn_mul__gmpn_lshift__gmpn_divrem__gmpn_clz_tab__ctype__gmp_digit_value_tab__gmpn_bases.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH8LHuHUHMLEIULmIH3H3H8HcHUHHHu HHwHHHHcHEHHH+HAHcA>D+MHMItIIMKHL+HH3HEL;~IH+IH+LMIHEHHMHt/ItIIHMMMKDHHLH3AEhHEL;~L+IOlLItH}IHEHIH8A_A^A]A\[ÐUHSATAUAVAWHhH}Lڿ'LfIIt(AIHfo
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HHH HHHH4HrH}HUHMHUHMLH+HLIHUHIՋLMHEM;~M+L}O4MH}LmAMHH+HHHL+IMHxH
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H+pLIHIHHID$HEJ4eHHr+H}HuHMHEH}HuHMLH+HHeH+HLHcH}HuMHMJ4;HuHHsH+HLH}LI;IIIHMLIHuHIMHEIHH+HEH]H]HI;[I+MlLeJL;AHsHHsH+HLH}LHI+HxHkIHHHHNH<H3HHFHFHFHF HF(HF0HF8H@HH}H~{HHHHfIHxHuH3H<H3HHHHHHHHH HH(HH0HH8H@HHHtH3HHHH;uIH+HIH+IIHxH)EMLHEHDHHupH8HcHHHHu HHwHJHHcHHH+H@LcHuHHAIIIAHtKIHuHHrH}LH+HLIH+HELeIH+IIILELHMHH]H+]HHt
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0o2f set_str.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_str.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
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ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_d.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_d__gmp_extract_double__gmp_invalid_operation.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHHf(UE%=tnfWf.
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$$AC
Aanotate8Jset_d.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_d.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
set_d.cDD% }
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set_z.o/ 1389249099 0 0 100644 3060 `
ELF>0@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_z.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_z__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHLcHcNHHHHHGHvHWI;~
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anotateHPP set_z.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_z.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
set_z.cDD% }
PL( 8XK@ PP#)1pH;`EHQT1]ko uH 0
iset.o/ 1389249100 0 0 100644 3300 `
ELF> @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabiset.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init_set__gmpn_copyi__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVLHL5MnJ<H3%ID$E4$HcKHHHHI$HsI;~
I+H4IHCID$H}HHHAD$A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBanotateX iset.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c iset.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3$
iset.cDD% }
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iset_ui.o/ 1389249101 0 0 100644 3012 `
ELF>D@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabiset_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init_set_ui__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATLHH=A<$HHH3%ID$HHHAD$ID$A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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ABanotateHJJiset_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c iset_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
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iset_si.o/ 1389249101 0 0 100644 3044 `
ELF>d@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabiset_si.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init_set_si__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATLHH=A<$HHH3%ID$H}H3H+HHID$HHHHID$AD$A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$iAC
ABanotateHiiiset_si.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c iset_si.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
iset_si.cDD%s}~
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iset_str.o/ 1389249102 0 0 100644 3140 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabiset_str.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init_set_str__gmpf_set_str__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUHLLH=AEIEA}HHH3%IEIIHA]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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ABBanotateX\\ iset_str.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c iset_str.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3(
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iset_d.o/ 1389249103 0 0 100644 3244 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabiset_d.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_init_set_d__gmpf_set_d__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision__gmp_allocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHHEH=;HHH3%HCHEH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$BAC
AanotateXBB
iset_d.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c iset_d.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
iset_d.cDD%}
B'
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clear.o/ 1389249103 0 0 100644 2908 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabclear.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_clear__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHGHcHH3$%acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$ AC
anotateX
clear.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c clear.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
clear.cDD%s{}~
( 8Xh@ @ `[[#[)[1p`H;pEQ$1]Ukl
4
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clears.o/ 1389249104 0 0 100644 3140 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabclears.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_clears__gmpf_clear.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHLH H(H0H8L@LHt))P)`)p)])e)m)u)}H H]EE0HMHMHEMt1I(~HKHAHCHKHȃLMuH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
Aanotate8Jclears.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c clears.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
clears.cDD%}
( 8@
P#)1pH;`PEQ2]ko u( 0 P0
get_str.o/ 1389249105 0 0 100644 7380 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.rodata1.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabget_str.cmpn_pow_1_highpartDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpn_sqr__gmpn_mul_1__gmpn_copyi__gmpf_get_str__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_tdiv_qr__gmpn_get_str__gmpn_mul__gmpn_copyd__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpn_clz_tab__gmpn_bases__gmp_allocate_func__gmp_reallocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH8LHuHULLEMLmM@HEIEIH3H3H8HcIHHHu HHwHHHHcIHHH+HAHcA>D+ItIILULUMKHL+HH3HEL;~IH+IH+LIIIHHMLt1ItIIHMLULUKDHHLH3AE`HEL;~L+IOlLItH}H;tIHEHHIEHHLIH8A_A^A]A\[UHSATAUAVAWHLHuDLLxI@HEA@HHcI@HEE},AAA
A$
HHEAM3AA
HE#A$HE~HHEA>iIcL @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.tbss.tdata.rodata1.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabdump.cTtdata.dataDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodataTtbss.bss__gmpf_dump__gmpf_get_strprintf__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHLHuH3
H3H;tH=HUHH3H=HsHUH3fHHt'HHfoftfHJ#ufoftfHtH+HtHH3%H[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/160.%se%ld
0.%se%ld
x
$$AC
AanotateHJdump.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c dump.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3$
dump.cDD%
+:CS
( 8X@N QLL#L)L1L7L>PGppHQ`[
g"0sRoh p.H=0
size.o/ 1389249106 0 0 100644 2804 `
ELF>p@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabsize.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_size.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHGHHcacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8
size.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c size.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3$
size.cDD% }
( 8@ 0C>>#>)>1p@H;PE
Q0]ko( uH0 @0
eq.o/ 1389249106 0 0 100644 3420 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabeq.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_eq__gmpn_clz_tab.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSLWLFHcGHcNLL3MHHM;LILHHHLLHHGNL^K@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabreldiff.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_reldiff__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpf_sub__gmpf_div__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpf_set_ui.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUH8HLLAMtH3HEHHcEHHHrH}H+HHHEH}IIEċHȉMHuHIHEH8Ht:3AD$
HHHeA]A\[HeA]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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ABBanotateH reldiff.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c reldiff.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
reldiff.cDD% }
Ij( 8X@V {vv#v)v1pxP;`E(Q83]kko u(x'H6`H E0
sqrt.o/ 1389249107 0 0 100644 3724 `
ELF> @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabsqrt.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_sqrt__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_sqrtrem__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmp_sqrt_of_negative.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLLcfMHEHFIcULvHHHH+AUHHH?HHIMH4HsH+HLH}LL;HI+HHuHH+I+I@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabrandom2.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_random2__gmpn_random2__gmp_randinit_mt_noseed__gmp_rands_initialized__gmp_rands.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVHLLHIHIHIc$HuID$AD$HH;LLLI$I=uH=H
H=HuH@H3QHHHHHH4MHEH;r H3HHH+ID$IHMLLEt$HA^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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ABBBanotateHrandom2.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c random2.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
random2.cDD% }
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inp_str.o/ 1389249108 0 0 100644 3860 `
ELF>
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabinp_str.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_inp_strgetcungetc__gmpf_set_str__iob__gmp_allocate_func__ctype__gmp_reallocate_func__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH8H}LUMuLHdH3%HEH3IDHMcAuM3HEdHuL;sAteAuV9HvHHEH}HHEH3%HEAt:Au+HEF< IIDMcAIH4AIHHuL;rHvHHUH}H3%HEHuB&H}ȋUDH}HuH3%AtIH3H8A_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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ABBBBanotate`jj inp_str.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c inp_str.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
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out_str.o/ 1389249109 0 0 100644 4628 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.tbss.tdata.rodata1.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabout_str.cTtdata.dataDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodataTtbss.bss__gmpf_out_str__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpf_get_strfputcnl_langinfoputcfwritefprintf__gmp_tmp_reentrant_freeferror__gmpn_bases__iob.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(HLLH3HE
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ABBBBanotate8vv bout_str.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c out_str.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
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add.o/ 1389249110 0 0 100644 5756 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabadd.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_add__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_add_n__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpf_sub__gmpf_set.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHxLLcFHcBLMHIH3HsHEIH?ɉMHNHzLH;}LcBHcFLrLHHIHLMHHHHHMyHBHpID$HEMc$IH+M;~
M+O@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabadd_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_add_ui__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_copyd__gmpf_set_ui__gmpf_sub_ui.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHXLLLINHMM$Ic4$I^IcFHEH6MHLIL;cHMHH+LBL;~$H+HEHDHEH+HHMHH+LBHuL;t$IHULEHUL}HULEL}MHEIIrH+HH+MHIHNH<H3HHHHHHHHH HH(HH0HH8H@II}M~tHHIM_IMuH3H<H3HHHHHHHHH HH(HH0HH8H@IIMtH3HHIL;uM,ED$ID$M/AD$ID$H;LHUH;HMH;~H+HEHHEHuHuL;tHUH+IL}L}HH+EHIH+HMH+HIHI;/H;H{HH}IHHH+HHHHHH;IHCHL;~H3HxLKHHHDHDHDHDHDHDHD HD HD(HD(HD0HD08HD8HD8H@IM;~L;@HHHIL;~'HH?HHHH#yHHLL+MHIHIPHH?HHHIMHHNHzIBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IM;~M; BofBfBDIIM;~L;JHHHIL;~H3kHHH;THLCIH9HH>HMIHu
L;H;L; II+H3NJJH+HHHHHH; M;M;JHGM;~H3HxH{HHHDHDHDHDHDHDHD HD HD(HD(HD0HD0HD8HD8H@IL;~M;/HHHIM;~HWHH?HHIL#yIII+IHHI+HH?HHHL;~H3HzHGBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IL;~L; BofBfBDIIL;~M;JHHHIM;~H3HEIHAD$HI\$HH+HIH+HuM/HEHH+HIWHqHuHHH+IHHHHNH<H3HHBHBHBHB HB(HB0HB8H@HH}H~uHHHH`HHuH3H<H3HHBHBHBHB HB(HB0HB8H@HHHtH3HHHH;uA\$I\$M;t~HFHMH;HHLHH+HHuH+IHA\$IFID$@HuIIHXA_A^A]A\[HHuEH]HMIIA\$HXA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBBanotateH add_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c add_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
add_ui.cDD% }
(&b( 8X@3 E
@@#@)@1p@P;`EQ2]0
koH
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sub.o/ 1389249113 0 0 100644 11612 `
ELF>(@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabsub.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_sub__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_sub_1__gmpn_sub_n__gmpn_copyi__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpf_add__gmpf_set__gmpf_neg.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHHHc~HcBLH
HHH3HHEHH?ɉhLVLBMM;}hHczHcFLbLHMHHLLHLILHMIL`LjH{HcII+HHt@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabsub_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_sub_ui__gmpf_sub__gmpf_set.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHH0Ht&HEHUHUEHEHEacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$;AC
anotateH;; sub_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c sub_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
sub_ui.cDD%s}~
;5( 8X4@ P;#)1pH;`E0Q>2]pkP0
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ui_sub.o/ 1389249115 0 0 100644 9716 `
ELF>0!@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabui_sub.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_ui_sub__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_sub_1__gmpn_sub_n__gmpn_copyi__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpf_add_ui__gmpf_set_ui__gmpf_neg.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHHpHHcBHH~HJHEHMLbIVHHHHLzHpHHHXHcH`HI+HhEIILuLLILHLrHpHHHXHcH`ID$HhEHL}HhIKHIHH4H;4uHIMtHt?HtZ
IHt)MuKIDIu>HHIHt/H8t'Mt"KDKuIHIMtH8tH`L;~
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H+MH+HHHHI; H;H;H<H;~H3HIUA>I>HhH99ID>HD9ID>HD9ID>HD9ID> HD9 ID>(HD9(ID>0HD90ID>8HD98H@HH;~H;SI>HhH9HHH;~3HH?HHHH#yHHH+HxHHUHHHxHHH?HHHH;~H3HHEHA>Ao>Hhf9fD99AoD>fD9fD9AoD> fD9 fD9(AoD>0fD90fD98H@HH;~H;%Ao>Hhf8fD8HHH;~H;#HIHhHHHH;~HHHPHHrH4Hw?HI~2HHhH4
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IH+H+HUHHIHEHHHHHhLIH+H`IIHHt4HH;` IHQHhHHHHtHhI; H`HqH; H+HQH7HHUH<HI>H+HHHHH;U H;H;E HH;~H3HH`HAIHhHILHLILHLILHLIL HL IL(HL(IL0HL0IL8HL8H@HH;~H;IHhHHHH;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+HLBHHHH?HHHI;~H3HxHA>Ao>Hhf8fD88AoD>fD8fD8AoD> fD8 fD8(AoD>0fD80fD88H@HH;~I;%Ao>Hhf8fD8HHI;~H;HIHhHHHH;~]L;L;IH+HIH+IEHQJI4H<H;uHHH}.H;F~HHIIIHHIIIuIH+HIH+MEMJH:H;uHIM}H;FʅIHHHHHEHH}HHHH;MHHEHHH;~H3HHEHLHA8I?HI8IL?HIL8IL?HIL8IL?HIL8IL? HIL8 IL?(HIL8(IL?0HIL80A?8IL?8HIL88H@HH;pH;I?HHHH9HHH;~HIHHHHNHHHHBKHJKLHJLKLHJLKLHJLKL HJL KL(HJL(KL0HJL0C8KL8HJL8I@HH;pH;KHHHJIHH;~HUHHHHHhIIIHEHHHHrH4Hw?HI~2HHhH4
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HHHH;sI;LHI+HUHHIHuHHHHIIIuLaHI+HIH+HCHHH4I<H;uHHH}H;FIH+HhIHHHHHVHH}HH*I+HHHHHH;HHhHH;~H3HHHhHHLHA8I>HI8IL>HIL8IL>HIL8IL>HIL8IL> HIL8 IL>(HIL8(IL>0HIL80A>8IL>8HIL88H@HH;pH;
I>HHHH9HHH;~HHHHHNHHHHLHAIHIIDHIDIDHIDIDHIDID HID ID(HID(ID0HID0A8ID8HID8H@HH;pH;IHHHHHHH;~HhHHHHH`IIHHHHhHHrH4Hw?HH~2HH`H4
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HHHH;sH;Ճu9IH+HUHHIHuHHHHIIHMt)HHJLJuIHIMtH9tHXHHIJHXIHuL/HXIIL;HtHXIIIH}LEHpDhL`H}Hte^HHuEHBHEHBHEHpH3HpHHeA_A^A]A\[HHeA_A^A]A\[HeA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBBanotateP ui_sub.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c ui_sub.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
ui_sub.cDD% }
+9.9Y)
9V( 8X`@~ #)1pP;hExQ2]ko upD`(O ^ ` m!0
mul.o/ 1389249115 0 0 100644 3564 `
ELF>( @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabmul.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_mul__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_mul__gmpn_copyi__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHHLHuHUIc$H3HEHcFHcJHH3H}LILHLILHHNLzL;~
L+JLL;~
L+O@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabmul_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_mul_ui__gmpn_mul_1c.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(HHuHHcFHEHHHHLLHHcHEHvHIHEM3HL`L\HDILM#H LM#LI IILMIHH IMLM;s
HHMI LI L#MIIMIHH#H HILMILI MIII;s
IILI INL;HLH HH#LImHEH4LeLkIIKDHHHMHIHHKIHHH}HLCCHCH(A_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBBanotate8Zmul_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mul_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
mul_ui.cDD% }
( 8@ P,''#')'1p(P;xPEQ2]ko u@ 80 h0
div.o/ 1389249116 0 0 100644 4052 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabdiv.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_div__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_div_q__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmp_divide_by_zero.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHXHHc~HcBHHHH3HMHHHHHHLLHHEHFH+BHHELkH~LrHcHEHPHUIH+HHTL;tOHHHH#HHUH+HMHHHsH+HLkH}HLWHHHH?HH#HH+HML0J4HuHHHsH+HLH}HULELEHULMIIkIMHIHNH<H3HHGHGHGHG HG(HG0HG8H@HH}H~wHHHHbIIMuH3H<H3HHHHHHHHH HH(HH0HH8H@HHHtH3HHHH;uL}K
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabdiv_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_div_ui__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_divrem_1__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmp_divide_by_zero.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH8LLMIcEHLILHHEHOHMIUH}Lc?HEI_J4HsH+HLuLH}HULuLHUL;II+HFHHHiMHHHNH=AH3II@I@I@I@ I@(I@0I@8I@HH}H~uIIHH`IHuH3H<H3HHAHAHAHA HA(HA0HA8H@HHHtH3HHHH;uI
L+JLIHIH}H3IHLEHEJ<HHH+IUH+H+H}HLHEHHPH}HtGHGHeA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$ AC
ABBBBanotate8 Zdiv_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c div_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
div_ui.cDD% }
( 8@b #)1pP; PEpQ~2]ko u(( x3 B 0 Q 0
cmp.o/ 1389249118 0 0 100644 3244 `
ELF>(@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmp.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_cmp.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHLOLVLcGHcNIH3H}MLMHmMLM;jM;GIHIHLILHHHvH?u
HHH?tH>u
HIH>tI;L;KHJH;HLLM;uHHH}M;Fх3HI+HH+HJH7HLLM;uHHH}M;FхuTuHIHHHIHH\JM;uHHH}9M;Fхt%مNMHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8cmp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
cmp.cDD% }
( 8@ 0#)1pH;@PEQ/]ko u0 0
cmp_d.o/ 1389249118 0 0 100644 3316 `
ELF>0@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmp_d.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_cmp_d__gmp_extract_double__gmpf_cmp__gmp_invalid_operation.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHHHEEtgfWf.
tPHEHEf/sEf/f(
fWEf/H}HcHEHuH'C"%HMufWf/ȸFHH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
Aanotate8cmp_d.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp_d.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
cmp_d.cDD% }
Vp( 8@3 <@P#P)P1pPH;PEQ1]%ko@ u`X`0 "0
cmp_ui.o/ 1389249119 0 0 100644 2804 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabcmp_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_cmp_ui.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHOHcGHkHt[HNH~BHOHTHH;w*H;rH9u
HHH9tH,%Hacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8cmp_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
cmp_ui.cDD%s}~
( 8@ 0#)1pH;PEHQV2]k8
P0
0
cmp_si.o/ 1389249119 0 0 100644 3012 `
ELF>@@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmp_si.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_cmp_si.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHLGHcOHH?HH?:tHɸLHHtqHɸLHHHHH} H3HHIYM~:HOHHH;wCH;r H9u
HHH9tHҹNHHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8cmp_si.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp_si.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
cmp_si.cDD% }
( 8@ @
#)1pH;PPEQ2]ko u0 0
mul_2exp.o/ 1389249120 0 0 100644 3404 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabmul_2exp.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_mul_2exp__gmpn_lshift__gmpn_rshift__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(LHMoIcHEHFHELcvMMIMHHvHH?HUL;$IILuLuKDHHLI}L+J4H@H+LHEHELuHMHMLuIEHEIHLHH]HIG2HEHL;~
L+J4LL;tIIHH]I_IHMLLEgAGIGH(A_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$CAC
ABBBBanotate8CCmul_2exp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c mul_2exp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3(
mul_2exp.cDD% }
Cf( 8 @* pC#)1pP;PEPQb4]ko uH
(0 X0
div_2exp.o/ 1389249120 0 0 100644 3388 `
ELF>x@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabdiv_2exp.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_div_2exp__gmpn_lshift__gmpn_rshift__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(LHMoIcHFHELcvMMIMHHvHH?L;0H@H+IIHEHEKDHH4I}L+J4LHEHEHUIEHEIHLHHEH+HDIG1HL;~
L+J4LL;tIIHHEH+IGIHMLLEgAGIGH(A_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$3AC
ABBBBanotate833div_2exp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c div_2exp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3(
div_2exp.cDD% }
3n( 8 @* p3#)1pP;PE@QR4]ko uH
0 H0
abs.o/ 1389249121 0 0 100644 3044 `
ELF> @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtababs.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_abs__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUHLHދKHLcL;t2A$HcI$HsL;~
L+J4LIHCID$El$HA]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$gAC
ABBanotate8ggabs.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c abs.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
abs.cDD% }
gJ( 8@ Pg#)1pP;PEXQ`/]ko u0 0
neg.o/ 1389249121 0 0 100644 3060 `
ELF>0@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabneg.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_neg__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVLHދCLcL;tOA$HcIHLMHI$HsL;~
L+J4LIHCID$M}MIMEl$A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,${AC
ABBBanotate8{{neg.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c neg.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
neg.cDD% }
{P( 8@ P{#)1pP;PEhQp/]ko u0 0
set_q.o/ 1389249100 0 0 100644 3860 `
ELF>P
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_q.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_q__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_tdiv_qr__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHhLcNHc^MiHEHcHEH}LgMIMHLEHVLvIH+LMHqHxHpHuLL+MMLH4HsH+HHeH}HULELEHUHEILM+\J4HHsH+HHe%H}HULELuLuLEHUHEHEL@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabget_d.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_get_d__gmpn_get_d.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcWHufWHHHHHOH+HHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$4AC
anotateH44
get_d.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c get_d.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
get_d.cDD% }
4.( 8X@ P4#)1pH;`E(Q41]eko uhH 0
get_d_2exp.o/ 1389249122 0 0 100644 3228 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabget_d_2exp.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_get_d_2exp__gmpn_get_d__gmpn_clz_tab.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHLIcAHtzMQHHHHIDH8HcLIIHu HHwHLIHcHHL+IAIcIAHH+HHHH+IH3HfWacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotateH
get_d_2exp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c get_d_2exp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3*
get_d_2exp.cDD% }
X
( 8X
@! p#)1pH;P`EQ6]ko u80H`H 0
set_dfl_prec.o/ 1389249123 0 0 100644 3028 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_dfl_prec.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_default_prec__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHH5H5HBHHH=acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$$AC
anotate8$$
set_dfl_prec.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_dfl_prec.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3,"
set_dfl_prec.cDD% }
$( 8@ p$#)1pH;PE0QJ8]ko u
0 0
set_prc.o/ 1389249124 0 0 100644 3244 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_prc.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_prec__gmpn_copyi__gmp_reallocate_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVHH5H5HBHHLc+I;tt3LfHcKHHHHLsI;~3H}HH+ỈKH+HIH+IIIJ4JIH3%HCA^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBanotateHset_prc.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_prc.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
set_prc.cDD% }
y
( 8X@# p#)1pP;h`EQ3]ko( uH(0XpH 0
set_prc_raw.o/ 1389249124 0 0 100644 2860 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabset_prc_raw.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_set_prec_raw.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHH5H5HBHH7acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8set_prc_raw.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c set_prc_raw.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3+!
set_prc_raw.cDD% }
( 8@ @_ZZ#Z)Z1p`H;PEQ7]Gko` u0H0 x0
get_dfl_prec.o/ 1389249125 0 0 100644 2884 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabget_dfl_prec.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_get_default_prec__gmp_default_fp_limb_precision.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHHHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8get_dfl_prec.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c get_dfl_prec.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3,"
get_dfl_prec.cDD%s
( 8@" p#)1pH;PEQ28]jk0
H
`0
0
get_prc.o/ 1389249125 0 0 100644 2692 `
ELF>D@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabget_prc.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_get_prec.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcHHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotate8
get_prc.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c get_prc.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
get_prc.cDD%s}~
( 8@ 0A<<#<)<1p@H;PEQ3]k4
0
0
ui_div.o/ 1389249126 0 0 100644 3908 `
ELF>
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabui_div.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_ui_div__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_tdiv_qr__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmp_divide_by_zero.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHXLHHcBHEH^H4HEHHLLHHEHH+BHEID$HEHJHMMc4$LuIVHUMH;t2Kt5HHsH+HLH}LKWKt5IHHrH}LH+HLKHEJ @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabsqrt_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_sqrt_ui__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_sqrtrem__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLLMWHEMc,$OtI^INH4HsH+HHH}HMHMHIHHhHHHHNH<H3H0HpHpHpHp Hp(Hp0Hp8H@HH}H~uHHHH`HIuH3H<H3H0HpHpHpHp Hp(Hp0Hp8H@HHHtH3H0HHH;uNI$H3El$ID$H}HtAD$ID$HeA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBBanotate8 sqrt_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c sqrt_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3'
sqrt_ui.cDD% }
aUq( 8@A (####)#1p(P;xPEQ3]ko( uH@H!0 00
ceilfloor.o/ 1389249130 0 0 100644 4868 `
ELF>@@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabceilfloor.c__gmpf_ceil_or_floorDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpn_copyi__gmpf_ceil__gmpf_floor.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVLcNMLGHFH[HGLVIHIHH;HL7HcH;LLLI4JH+HcI3HL;ISIH+HHHII:uIL;uHHIHI;IH}IHhJH;IICHL;~H3HyI[AHIHDIDHDIDHDIDHD ID HD(ID(HD0ID08HD8ID8H@IL;~L;HIHIL;~HH?HHHH#yHHML+IZIHIJHH?HHHIHHHNHzIB.Bo.fC(fCD(C(BoD.fCD(fCD(BoD. fCD( fCD((BoD.0fCD(0fCD(8I@IM;~L; Bo.fC(fCD(IIL;~L;JHIHIL;~uIOHHHHIHLHHu
I;I;0I;'HH+H3L,K(N.I+LILHHL; H;H;HHH;~H3HyMSHIAHDIDHDIDHDIDHD ID HD(ID(HD0ID0HD8ID8H@HI;~H;MHIHHH;~4LPIH?IHIM#yIII+IHHH+LI?LIIH;~M3IzHHB.Bo.fC(fCD(C(BoD.fCD(fCD(BoD. fCD( fCD((BoD.0fCD(0fCD(8I@HH;~H; Bo.fC(fCD(IHH;~H;:HHIHHH;~HIHGHIHGIHMLLD_XM}IHIÉGL;t@IIA^A]A\[HcI3HHIHGWGHGA^A]A\[fDUH1UH!acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBB$TAC
$AC
anotateH ceilfloor.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c ceilfloor.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
ceilfloor.cDD% }
(X 8Ph@ pOJJ#J)J1pP;E Q
5]
ko
u
H
h
0
trunc.o/ 1389249131 0 0 100644 3108 `
ELF>`@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabtrunc.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_trunc__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHFLcFMt`H~[HvHGIHIHH;HLHcH;HLH4HH+HGM}HHHʉOH;tHGHGacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotateH trunc.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c trunc.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
trunc.cDD% }
m( 8Xl@ P#)1pH;`ExQ1]ko uH 00
pow_ui.o/ 1389249127 0 0 100644 3324 `
ELF>x@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabpow_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_pow_ui__gmpf_get_prec__gmpf_init2__gmpf_set__gmpf_set_ui__gmpf_mul__gmpf_clear.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUH(LLHIH}HH}IHuIHIIHt.LmIIIHtIIIHuH}H(A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBanotate8pow_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c pow_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
pow_ui.cDD%s}~
&2JWn( 8@@ "#)1p P;pPEQ2]k(@
0
/H0
urandomb.o/ 1389249127 0 0 100644 3172 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtaburandomb.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_urandomb__gmpn_lshift.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLHMuHX?HMceM$I;@Ht;HNHIHLH3QI?tH@I+ċIIHH3OIHH@HUHNHIIH3QHEH?tH@H+ȋIIIH3It"IDIuHHHHtH8tIMA]HA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBBanotatePurandomb.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c urandomb.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3(
urandomb.cDD%s~
h( 8XI` @ PIDD#D)D1pHP;hEQ4]Fk\0
<
T`
0
swap.o/ 1389249128 0 0 100644 2724 `
ELF>`@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabswap.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_swap.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHFONGHFHOHNHGHFHOHNHGacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$:AC
anotate8::swap.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c swap.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3$
swap.cDD%sz{}
:( 8@ 0:jee#e)e1phH;PE
Q
0]:kP
0
00
fits_sint.o/ 1389249131 0 0 100644 2916 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabfits_sint.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_fits_sint_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcOHtPHWH~@HwHHHHHu(HTHHHHLH;3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$dAC
anotate8dd
fits_sint.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c fits_sint.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
fits_sint.cDD% }
d( 8@ @d#)1pH;PE8QL5]ko uh0 0
fits_slong.o/ 1389249132 0 0 100644 2932 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabfits_slong.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_fits_slong_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcOHtSHWH~CHwHHHHHu+HTHHHHLH;3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$gAC
anotate8gg
fits_slong.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c fits_slong.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3*
fits_slong.cDD% }
g( 8
@ @g#)1pH;PE@QV6]ko ux0 0
fits_sshort.o/ 1389249132 0 0 100644 2924 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabfits_sshort.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_fits_sshort_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcOHtMHWH~=HwHHHHHu%HTHHHHLH;3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$aAC
anotate8aa
fits_sshort.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c fits_sshort.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3+!
fits_sshort.cDD% }
a( 8@ @a#)1pH;PE8QP7]ko up0 0
fits_uint.o/ 1389249133 0 0 100644 2756 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabfits_uint.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_fits_uint_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcWH~5HGH~%HOHt3'HH;D Hacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$MAC
anotate8MM
fits_uint.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c fits_uint.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
fits_uint.cDD%s
M( 8@ 0M}xx#x)x1pxH;PEQ$5]Ykp
0
P0
fits_ulong.o/ 1389249133 0 0 100644 2764 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabfits_ulong.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_fits_ulong_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcWH~,HGH~HOHt3H Hacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$DAC
anotate8DD
fits_ulong.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c fits_ulong.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3*
fits_ulong.cDD%s
D( 8
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,0
\0
fits_ushort.o/ 1389249134 0 0 100644 2780 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabfits_ushort.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_fits_ushort_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcWH~/HGH~HOHt3!H Hacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$GAC
anotate8GG
fits_ushort.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c fits_ushort.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3+!
fits_ushort.cDD%s
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80
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get_si.o/ 1389249128 0 0 100644 2908 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabget_si.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_get_si.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHGLcGHwH~IIHIHH3H;H+HMHHH#HH+HH#H3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$cAC
anotate8cc
get_si.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c get_si.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
get_si.cDD% }
c( 8@ @c#)1pH;PE8QF2]xko u`x0 0
get_ui.o/ 1389249129 0 0 100644 2860 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabget_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_get_ui.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHOHcWHH3H3H;~HHHHH;H+Hacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$3AC
anotate833
get_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c get_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
get_ui.cDD% }
3( 8@ @3snn#n)n1ppH;PEQ2]Hko` u0H0 x0
int_p.o/ 1389249130 0 0 100644 2900 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabint_p.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpf_integer_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcGHtEHOH~8HHHHH+HOH3H~H9uHHH;3 3acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$YAC
anotate8YY
int_p.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpf /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c int_p.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
int_p.cDD% }
Y( 8@ @Y#)1pH;PE0Q<1]mko uXp0 0
lt1abs.o/ 1389248983 0 0 100644 3100 `
ELF>X@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtababs.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_abs__gmpz_realloc__gmpn_copyi.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVLLAM؋HLcM;t*Ic$L;I$IIHIuIA\$A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$^AC
ABBBanotate8^^abs.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c abs.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
abs.cDD% }
^=L( 8@ `^#)1pP;PE`Qh/]ko u00 (0
lt2add.o/ 1389248982 0 0 100644 4796 `
ELF>
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabadd.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_add__gmpz_realloc__gmpn_add_n__gmpn_sub_n.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLHc~HcJHHHHHHHHLLLH;}LHLHLHIvIcH;M`'ILmHMLMMIHMLLmMHRI3HHtSIIHLmMMLmHt2HI;}IHIHHHtH"M;I~I; IH+HBH3LH4I4I7H+HHHHI; H;H;HH;~H3HzIVAIIAIDIDIDIDIDIDID ID ID(ID(ID0ID0ID8ID8H@HH;~H;IIHHH;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+HLIHHHH?HHHI;~H3HzHA7Ao7fA4fAD4A4AoD7fAD4fAD4AoD7 fAD4 fAD4(AoD70fAD40fAD48H@HH;~I; Ao7fA4fAD4HHI;~H;HIIHHH;~H3KLMeI]L;HtJIIHLmMMLmHt)HI;7IHQIHHHtM;I~I; IH+HBH3LH4I4I7H+HHHHI; H;H;HH;~H3HzIVAIIAIDIDIDIDIDIDID ID ID(ID(ID0ID0ID8ID8H@HH;~H;IIHHH;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+HLIHHHH?HHHI;~H3HzHA7Ao7fA4fAD4A4AoD7fAD4fAD4AoD7 fAD4 fAD4(AoD70fAD40fAD48H@HH;~I; Ao7fA4fAD4HHI;~H;HIIHHH;~M~KDH8uHIMMIINHxJHK\I4H<H;uHHH}LH;F}8IHIIMMM~H;uHIMM=I8IIIILM~KDH8uHIMM}IEpHA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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add.cDD% }
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lt3add_ui.o/ 1389248983 0 0 100644 5516 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabadd_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_add_ui__gmpz_realloc.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLLLMc}IHIHHsIcH;IFII}H MHHu I;HI+HI;0H;HsH{H}IHdHH+HHHHHH;IHKHL;~H3HxLKHHHLHLHLHLHLHLHL HL HL(HL(HL0HL08HL8HL8H@IM;~L;HHHIL;~HH?HHHH#yHHLL+MHIHIPHH?HHHIMHHNHzIBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IM;~M; BofBfBDIIM;~L;JHHHIL;~bIHQHHHrH4HMHMHH;s
L;H;LSL;II+H3NJJ4H+HHHHHH; M;M;JHM;~H3HxHsHHHLHLHLHLHLHLHL HL HL(HL(HL0HL0HL8HL8H@IL;~M;.HHHIM;~HQHH?HHIL#yIII+IHHI+HH?HHHL;~H3HzHQBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IL;~L; BofBfBDIIL;~M;JHHHIM;~HHH+L+L HHIHI;/H;HsHH}IHHH+HHHHHH;IHKHL;~H3HxLKHHHLHLHLHLHLHLHL HL HL(HL(HL0HL08HL8HL8H@IM;~L;@HHHIL;~'HH?HHHH#yHHLL+MHIHIPHH?HHHIMHHNHzIBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IM;~M; BofBfBDIIM;~L;JHHHIL;~H3dHHSHLCIH7HH0HMIHu
L;H;L;II+H3NJJ4H+HHHHHH; M;M;JHM;~H3HxHsHHHLHLHLHLHLHLHL HL HL(HL(HL0HL0HL8HL8H@IL;~M;/HHHIM;~HQHH?HHIL#yIII+IHHI+HH?HHHL;~H3HzHQBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IL;~L; BofBfBDIIL;~M;JHHHIM;~H3HHAFL MAFHA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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add_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c add_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
add_ui.cDD% }
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aorsmul.o/ 1389248984 0 0 100644 5740 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabaorsmul.c__gmpz_aorsmulDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_realloc__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_mul__gmpn_sub_n__gmpn_add_n__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpz_aorsmul_1__gmpz_addmul__gmpz_submul.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHHLLLcFIcD$LIM=H4HHHHIHIHH;~MLHIHH3HHHHHHEIcUHUH3H3HMHHHHHMH4HuH;HLHIcEH;M}ILH};HEHuHHrH}HEHEHMHMHE
H+HHeIvIL$H}HULHHHMH+LH}MH]H;IH;uWHCHNHIHuH4H;uHHH}'H;ָF}H]LuIL}LeMt@IIHUIHt)JL;7IHQIHIHtM;HsL; HI+HBH3LJ<I?I>H+HHHHI; I;L;JL;~H3HzHSAIIAIDIDIDIDIDIDID ID ID(ID(ID0ID0ID8ID8H@IL;~L;IIHIL;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+J"LAHHHH?HHHM;~H3HzHA>Ao>fA?fAD?A?AoD>fAD?fAD?AoD> fAD? fAD?(AoD>0fAD?0fAD?8H@IL;~M; Ao>fA?fAD?HIM;~L;JIIHIL;~HIDH8HHHMHEHH;}LuHL}LHMMtIIIHUIHt2JL;}IHIHIHtH"M;HsL; HI+HBH3LJ<I?I>H+HHHHI; I;L;JL;~H3HzHAIIAIDIDIDIDIDIDID ID ID(ID(ID0ID0ID8ID8H@IL;~L;IIHIL;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+J"LAHHHH?HHHM;~H3HzHA>Ao>fA?fAD?A?AoD>fAD?fAD?AoD> fAD? fAD?(AoD>0fAD?0fAD?8H@IL;~M; Ao>fA?fAD?HIM;~L;JIIHIL;~H3HEIHHHHHH}HLA]H}Htf_IvIL$IHULHHHMHH+H+H}HLAU!ID$HIIHeA_A^A]A\[HeA_A^A]A\[DUHH3sUHH_acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
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ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabaorsmul_i.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_aorsmul_1__gmpn_submul_1__gmpn_com__gmpz_realloc__gmpn_addmul_1__gmpn_mul_1c__gmpn_mul_1__gmpz_addmul_ui__gmpz_submul_ui.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHHLLLIcFHMHH3LILHIcL$HHH3HHHHHEL;IHLHsHuIc$H;I$H}IvHuHEI;MLLHHMIILHUI;nHuHH3HuHEHEHEHEHMHHHAIHUHMHMHEIvHuHUI;MLLH}H}HuHMIH}IHMLEJ4I<0H}HuIH+HUHaH}}iI+HMKHKH;rH3MHHH~9HMHHHHHHHuH;uH3H}ILHMHUHHHH=HHMIHEILHUI;HEI;tgHMJ@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtaband.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_and__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpz_realloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_ior_n__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpn_andn_n__gmpn_and_n.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH8HH3H}HcFHcJHvLbHELH;
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cfdiv_q_2exp.o/ 1389248993 0 0 100644 3980 `
ELF>
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcfdiv_q_2exp.c__gmpz_cfdiv_q_2expDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_realloc__gmpn_copyi__gmpn_rshift__gmpz_cdiv_q_2exp__gmpz_fdiv_q_2exp.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(LLDIcXLIHHHHLM+MSIwIcEH;~IHULELEHUIpIcH3H0HEH3MI~$HL!HHI;}MtHEM3I}H}HH?uJ4H}IMuRJ4IH}HMHMHMJHL+H#EItqMuHHIYHEHHHHvH37HHI~#HHHHHHHuI;H3HEJLIHHLLE}$IEHHtIcH3H}3DEeH(A_A^A]A\[fDfDUH!UHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBB$TAC
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anotateH" cfdiv_q_2exp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cfdiv_q_2exp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3,"
cfdiv_q_2exp.cDD% }
W(X 8Ph@Y #)1p;0EQ8]ko0 uP(x H* H9
H
0
cfdiv_r_2exp.o/ 1389248994 0 0 100644 4324 `
ELF> @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcfdiv_r_2exp.c__gmpz_cfdiv_r_2expDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_realloc__gmpn_com__gmpn_copyi__gmpz_cdiv_r_2exp__gmpz_fdiv_r_2exp.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(LHuLcfMHHH?HUMIMHHuHVHcI3HHHMHHL;~'H3H~HH>uHHH;HnHsIcEH;M}IHuHuLHEHPL;LMIHIH3L;HI+HHHH?HHHH#yHHH+J40H~HKHHH?HHHL;~H3HLHfoffBfBfBfB fB(fB0fB8H@IL;~L;foffBHIL;~L;KHHIL;~IHIHw IOIGHIGuHHHHtIfAEL;tKHsL;ILHuIcEH;M}IHUHULIHHUL;EedL;~_M}HHcMHHII#IuHHHH9t
AEHHHMHLA]AEH(A_A^A]A\[UH!UHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$AC
ABBBB$TAC
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anotateH cfdiv_r_2exp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cfdiv_r_2exp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3,"
cfdiv_r_2exp.cDD% }
O8N(X 8Ph@V #)1p;@EQ8]*ko@ u`(
'H6` E0
lt4clear.o/ 1389248994 0 0 100644 2908 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabclear.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_clear__gmp_free_func.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHGHcHH3$%acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
anotateX
clear.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c clear.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
clear.cDD%s{}~
( 8Xh@ @^YY#Y)Y1p`H;pEQ$1]Ukl
4
L`
0
lt5clears.o/ 1389248995 0 0 100644 3140 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabclears.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_clears__gmpz_clear.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSHLH H(H0H8L@LHt))P)`)p)])e)m)u)}H H]EE0HMHMHEMt1I(~HKHAHCHKHȃLMuH[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$AC
Aanotate8Jclears.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c clears.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
clears.cDD%}
( 8@
P#)1pH;`PEQ2]ko u( 0 P0
clrbit.o/ 1389248995 0 0 100644 3580 `
ELF>8 @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabclrbit.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_clrbit__gmpz_realloc.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLHIcT$ID$HHHH?LIHLIH3H8uHHHH:tH;H;L<HHLIL,MIvIc$H;ID$IJLHLHHLHw"IHLHHLuIIHItN4IEt$TI;HsIc$H;~IHH+AL$HI+JH;}9IHH#@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmp.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmp.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHLcGHcFIH+u^HWHvIHIHHx3H3HLLM;uHHH}M;ʹFȋMLHcacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$wAC
anotate8wwcmp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
cmp.cDD% }
w( 8@ 0w#)1pH;PE@QH/]wko u`x0 0
lt7cmp_d.o/ 1389248996 0 0 100644 3500 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmp_d.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmp_d__gmp_extract_double__gmp_invalid_operation.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUH(HEȋE̋*LccfWf.
MM}(f/sf(
fWIAAf/A
f/HMHHcL;tAL;DLHCJLHUH;tAH;DBItGJLHUHH;tAH;DBoIL$HJDH8uZHHH}E3GHEH8uE38A3A+Mc&%HMu'fWf/ȸDDFAH(A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16?x
,$AC
ABBanotate8Jcmp_d.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp_d.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3%
cmp_d.cDD% }
a ( 8@( p#)1pP;hPEQ1]ko u0`p0 0
lt8cmp_si.o/ 1389248997 0 0 100644 2780 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.symtabcmp_si.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmp_si.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHcGH3H~ HHH3HHHH;tH+Hc)Ht"HOH H;tH;wHHcHc33acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$hAC
anotate8hhcmp_si.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp_si.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
cmp_si.cDD%s}~
h( 8@ 0h#)1pH;PE0Q>2]pk
80
h0
lt9cmp_ui.o/ 1389248998 0 0 100644 2900 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmp_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmp_ui.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHGHcOHt9HtHɸN,HH;wH;ƸBHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$WAC
anotate8WWcmp_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmp_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
cmp_ui.cDD% }
W( 8@ @W#)1pH;PE0Q>2]pko uXp0 0
cmpabs.o/ 1389248998 0 0 100644 2924 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmpabs.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmpabs.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHGHHcыFHHcHH+uHHOHvHz3H8HLLM;uHHH}M;FHcacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$sAC
anotate8sscmpabs.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmpabs.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3&
cmpabs.cDD% }
s( 8@ @s#)1pH;PEHQV2]ko up0 0
cmpabs_d.o/ 1389248999 0 0 100644 3484 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmpabs_d.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmpabs_d__gmp_extract_double__gmp_invalid_operation.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATH HE؋E܋*HcCfWf.
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HEHHcL;tL;LHCJLHUH;tH;ʸBItQJLHUHH;tH;ʸBiIL$H JDH8uHHH}?3;HEH8D$H%HMuH A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16?x
$$wAC
ABanotate8wwJcmpabs_d.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmpabs_d.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3(
cmpabs_d.cDD% }
wgs s( 8 @. pw#)1pH;PPEQ4]ko u ``x0 0
cmpabs_ui.o/ 1389248999 0 0 100644 2908 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcmpabs_ui.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_cmpabs_ui.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHHWHcGHt8HHHHHu!HH;wH;ƸBHacomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$VAC
anotate8VVcmpabs_ui.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cmpabs_ui.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
cmpabs_ui.cDD% }
V( 8@ @V#)1pH;PE0QD5]yko u`x0 0
com.o/ 1389249000 0 0 100644 5532 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcom.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_com__gmpz_realloc.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUHHLMceMIHcL;HCHIMUI
HQHH4L;It$IH}HHjHI+HHHHJH;HIL$HH;~H3HzMD$IHILHLILHLILHLIL HL IL(HL(IL0HL0A8IL8HL8H@HI;~H;IHHHH;~HH?HHHH#yHHIH+LGIHHWHH?HHHIMHHNHzHCCofBfBDBCoDfBDfBDCoD fBD fBD(CoD0fBD0fBD8I@IL;~M; CofBfBDIIM;~L;JI
HHIL;~eIITHI
HrH4HIHLOH;s
M; L;MD$M; II+H3NJK4H+HHHHHH; M;M;JHM;~H3HzIt$AIHILHLILHLILHLIL HL IL(HL(IL0HL0IL8HL8H@IL;~M;.IHHIM;~HQHH?HHIL#yIII+HHHI+HH?HHHL;~H3HzHQCCofBfBDBCoDfBDfBDCoD fBD fBD(CoD0fBD0fBD8I@IL;~L; CofBfBDIIL;~M;JI
HHIM;~JHL+DcMIt$HcH;HCHI}HHHH2H;!It$IH}IHHH+HHHHJH;IIL$HL;~H3HyML$HHHLHLHLHLHLHLHL HL HL(HL(HL0HL08HL8HL8H@IM;~L;@HHHIL;~'HH?HHHH#yHHML+MHIHIPHH?HHHIMHHNHzIBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IM;~M; BofBfBDIIM;~L;JHHHIL;~H3fHIUHMD$IH7HH0HMIHu
M;H;M; II+H3NJJ4H+HHHHHH; M;M;JHM;~H3HyIt$HHHLHLHLHLHLHLHL HL HL(HL(HL0HL0HL8HL8H@IL;~M;/HHHIM;~HQHH?HHIL#yIII+IHHI+HH?HHHL;~H3HzHQBBofBfBDBBoDfBDfBDBoD fBD fBD(BoD0fBD0fBD8I@IL;~L; BofBfBDIIL;~M;JHHHIM;~H3JHHIH؉CHCHCHA]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$
AC
ABBanotate8
com.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c com.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3#
com.cDD% }
8%( 8@ P
]XX#X)X1pXP;PEQ/]/koH uh00`x0 0
combit.o/ 1389249001 0 0 100644 3700 `
ELF> @@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcombit.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_combit__gmpz_realloc.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWHLHIc$ID$LIHH?LII]H;LIM;}=IMHJTH:u)HHH}JHJ4MFInLILHM;Ic$H;~IHII+J@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcong.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_congruent_p__gmp_tmp_reentrant_alloc__gmpn_add_n__gmpn_sub_n__gmpn_divisible_p__gmp_tmp_reentrant_free__gmpn_modexact_1c_odd__gmpn_mod_1__gmpz_cmp__gmpn_clz_tab.rela.text.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATAUAVAWH(HcBH5 HHLLHLrHDJDVAAHAAH;}DRDNHHMcIcML3IHIHLHLILHHVIHM&IHI#LVHHMHLH+It3Iu"IIuMt
I~I;HEHsHHsH+HL"H}HULMMMLMHULMMtMIIILELEHt2JL;}IHIHIHtH"M;H{L; HI+HBH3LJ4I4I7H+HHHHI; I;L;JL;~H3HzHSAIIAIDIDIDIDIDIDID ID ID(ID(ID0ID0ID8ID8H@IL;~L;IIHIL;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+J*LIHHHH?HHHM;~H3HzHA7Ao7fA4fAD4A4AoD7fAD4fAD4AoD7 fAD4 fAD4(AoD70fAD40fAD48H@IL;~M; Ao7fA4fAD4HIM;~L;JIIHIL;~H3IHHHI;\HCHSHI4H<
H;uHHH}0H;F}IHIHMMhMtDIIILELEHt)JL;7IHQIHIHtM;H{L; HI+HBH3LJ4I4I7H+HHHHI; I;L;JL;~H3HzHSAIIAIDIDIDIDIDIDID ID ID(ID(ID0ID0ID8ID8H@IL;~L;IIHIL;~HH?HHHH#yHHH+J*LIHHHH?HHHM;~H3HzHA7Ao7fA4fAD4A4AoD7fAD4fAD4AoD7 fAD4 fAD4(AoD70fAD40fAD48H@IL;~M; Ao7fA4fAD4HIM;~L;JIIHIL;~H~IDH8uHHHIHIIH}HIHIHHκHumHHκHu[HHκHuIHHκHu7HHκ&Hu%HHκ.HuH6Hu>HHH#
HI@+HLM}dI;vYH8HcIHHHu HHwHJHHcIHHH+H@IHH;vHHHHIHIIHIHHʿHumHHʿHu[HHʿHuIHHʿHu7HHʿ&Hu%HHʿ.HuH6Hu>HHH#IHI#IIHIHHI;lIHIHHI;rI;rH3HIHH;7H;,IHIIHeA_A^A]A\[؋HeA_A^A]A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
,$q AC
ABBBBanotateHq q cong.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cong.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3$
cong.cDD% }
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cong_2exp.o/ 1389249002 0 0 100644 3364 `
ELF>@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abbrev.SUNW_cap.symtabcong_2exp.cDdata.dataBbss.bssDrodata.rodata__gmpz_congruent_2exp_p.rela.eh_frame.rela.annotate.rela.debug_infoUHSATDWDFAAHAAHL;}DGDVLHLIH?HHHHI[L^IcHHHHIcLILHHSH3HM3H3L;I;IM;HIHMtIxM;}ENJOJLM;}HuIIL;~3)H#HI;SM;}JH9uHIM;3t!I;tJHH#333H#HM;IILHQH;HH<MI;uHHH}I;Fʅt3SM;=I;~M;}JH9uHIM;3(J#I;JK+H#A\[acomp: Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16iropt: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ir2hf: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16ube: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16as: Sun Compiler Common 12.3 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16x
$$"AC
ABanotate8""cong_2exp.c/var/tmp/gmp5.1.1/mpz /opt/solarisstudio12.3/prod/bin/cc m64 DHAVE_CONFIG_H I. I.. D__GMP_WITHIN_GMP I.. I/usr/local/include xO3 m64 c cong_2exp.cXa;O;R=Sun C 5.12 SunOS_i386 2011/11/16;backend;raw;cd;DBG_GEN 5.3.3)
cong_2exp.cDD% }
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cong_ui.o/ 1389249003 0 0 100644 3868 `
ELF>
@@.strtab.text.comment.data.bss.bssf.rodata.eh_frame.annotate.debug_info.debug_line.debug_abb