JOMC 391.1 - Virtual Communities - Readings

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Required reading for this seminar:

Rheingold, Howard. The virtual community : homesteading on the electronic frontier. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2000.

Lin, Nan. Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge UP, 2001.

Preece, Jenny. Online Communities, Designing Usability, Supporting Sociability. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000.

Reporting and commenting on virtual communities:

Cohill, Andrew Michael, Andrea L. Kavanaugh, editors. Community networks : lessons from Blacksburg, Virginia. Boston : Artech House, c1997.
TK5105.83 .C66 1997

Hafner, Katie. The Well : a story of love, death, and real life in the seminal online community. New York : Carroll & Graf, 2001.
TK5105.875.W45 H34 2001

An Intentional Community and its influence:

Duberman, Martin. Black Mountain: An Exploration in Community. New York: E P Dutton, 1972.
LD451.B5682 D82 1972

Under the Influence: Celebrating the Legacy of Black Mountain College on the 50th Anniversary of John Cage's Theatre Piece No. 1
Dates: September 19-22 2002
Location: Asheville, Black Mountain, and Cullowhee, NC

"Traditional" communities in literature:

Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio; a group of tales of Ohio small town life. New York, The Modern library [1919]
PS3501.N4 W5 1919a

Lewis, Sinclair. Main Street & Babbitt. New York : Library of America, 1992.
PS3523.E94 M2 1992

Masters, Edgar Lee. Spoon River anthology. New York : Macmillan, 1944.
PS3525.A83 S5 1944

Plato. The Republic. Harmondsworth ; Baltimore : Penguin,1974.
translated [from the Greek] with an introduction by Desmond Lee.
JC71 .P35 1974

Thomas, Dylan. The Dylan Thomas omnibus ; Under milk wood ; Poems, stories, broadcasts. London : Phoenix, 1995.
PR6039.H52 A6 1995c

Wilder, Thornton. Our Town. New York: Harper, 1957.
PS3545.I345 A19 1957

More how to than why:

Kim, Amy Jo. Community building on the Web. Berkeley, Calif. : Peachpit Press, c2000.
TK5105.875.I57 K56 2000

Powazek, Derek. Design For Community: The Art of Connecting Real People in Virtual Places. New Riders, 2001.

Social Capital readings:

Alkalimat, A., & William, K. (2001). Social capital and cyberpower in the African American community. Alliance for Community Technology. Retrieved December 5, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Coleman, J. S. (1998). Social capital and the creation of human capital.
American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement), S95-S120.

Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues and thecreation of prosperity. New York: Free Press.

Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. International Monitary Fund. Retrieved December 7, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Putnam, R. D. (1998). Bowling alone: America's declining social capital.
Journal of Democracy, 1995(1), 65-78. Available online:

Social isolation:

Kraut, R., Lundmark, V., Patterson, M., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Sherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvment and psychological well-being? American Psychologist,
Retrieved December 7, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (in press). Internet Paradox revisited. Journal of Social Issues. Retrieved December 7, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

LaRose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Gregg, J. (2001). Reformulatingthe Internet paradox: Social cognitive explanations of Internet use and depression.
Journal of Online Behavior. Retrieved December 7, 2001, from the World
Wide Web:

from Andrew Perrin:

Nan Lin, _Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action_ (Cambridge UP, 2001)
(Lin is in sociology at Duke, and this represents the network-analysis take on social capital. Relatively technical, but very well grounded with important empirical repercussions.)

Portes, Alejandro. Social Capital: Its Origins and Applicationsin Modern Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24( 1998)
(An excellent overview of the history and use of the concept of social capital.)

Portes, Alejandro. "The Two Meanings of Social Capital."
Sociological Forum, 15(1):1-12. 2000
(Portes argues here that sociologists have used social capital in twovery different ways: one in which it is a resource that accrues to individuals, the other that accrues to groups and communities. Very useful, IMHO.)

Ferdinand Tonnies's classic, _Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft_
(Community and Society) is out in a new translation on Cambridge
This is the classic sociological work on the distinction between community and society.

Benedict Anderson's classic _Imagined Communities_ isreally great for problematizing what communities are. One of the main findingsis that the invention of the newspaper is central to the invention of community,which might be particularly interesting for you. One way to look at thisbook is the claim that technologies -- newspapers, museums, censuses, maps--serve to construct the ways communities are imagined.

Ongoing work on communities:

Online Community Report

(2nd) Global Community Networking Congress

Barry Wellman, ed., Networks in the Global Village (WestviewPress, 1999).

Smith, Marc A. and Peter Kollock. Communities in cyberspace. London : Routledge, 1999.
HQ1178 .C65 1999 c.1

Werry, Chris and Miranda Mowbray, editors. Online communities : commerce, community action, and the virtual university. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall PTR, c2001.
TK5105.83 .O55 2001

from Serena Fenton

MAKING ART ONLINE. Volume 5 : Number 21. 1991 1991. FINEART Forum; November 1, 1991;. Available: Feb3 2002.

EverQuest Widows. 2000. Yahoo! Inc. Available: Feb 7 2002.

The Well - Community Guidelines. 2002. The Well. Available: Feb 7 3003.

The Well - Members' Guide, undated.

Agre, Phil. Designing Genres For New Media: Social Economicand Political Contexts. CyberSociety 2.0; Revisiting CMC and Community, Sage.Ed. Steve Jones, 1997.

Agre, Phil. Life After Cyberspace. EASST Review 18.2/3 (1999): 3-5.

Boyd, Danah. Sexing the Internet: Reflections on the Role of Identification in Online Communities. University of Surrey,, 2001.

Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn; What Happens AfterThey're Built. New York: Penguin Books, 1994.

Castronova, Edward. Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier. Vol. 2: Article 1 (2001).

Chris Werry, Miranda Mowbray, ed. Online Communities; Commerce, Community Action and The Virtual University. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Hewlett-Packard Professional Books, 2001.

CmdrTaco. Slashdot FAQ; Comments and Moderation. 6/19/00 2000. Slashdot.
Available: Feb 5 2002.

Dibbell, Julian. Rape in Cyberspace. Village Voice Vol.XXXVIII. No. 51 (1993).

DiMaggio, Paul, et al. Social Implications Of The Internet. Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 307-336.

Donath, Judith S. Visual Who; Animating the affinities and activities of an electronic community. San Francisco, California: Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM)., 1995.

Donath, Judith Stefania. Inhabiting the virtual city: The design of social environments for electronic communities. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996.

Dunn, Ahsley. Building Community in the Age of the Celebrity.New York Times August 20, 1997 1997.

Figallo, Cliff. The WELL: Small Town on the Internet Highway System. 1993.

Geoffroy, P., and (Wooly the racoon ). Wanna Join my Guild? February 18, 2001. Dragon's Eye Productions.
Available: Feb 72002.

Glaser, Barney, and Anselm Strauss. The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine, 1967.

Grudin, Jonathan. Why CSCW applications fail: problems in the design and evaluation of organization of organizational interfaces: ACM Press New York, NY, USA, 1988. 85-93.

Hafner, Katie, and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay Up Late. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Hafner, Katie. The Well: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2001.

Hamman, Robin. Introduction to Virtual Communities Researchand Cybersociology Magazine Issue Two. Issue Two - Nov. 1997. 1997. CybersociologyMagazine. Available: 12/06/012001.

Hauben, Ronda. The Evolution Of Usenet: The Poor Man's Arpanet. 1996. Columbia University. Available:

Haynes, Cynthia, Jan Rune Holmevik, and Mark Blanchard. LinguaMOO. 1995.
University of Texas at Dallas. Available: Feb 5 2002.

Hoag, John David, Gail Ann Williams, and Michelle Fox. The Well Host Manual - Version 4.4. Version 4.4. 1996. The Well. Available:

Katz, Jon. Browsing Alone. 2002. Slashdot. Available: Feb 6 2002.

Knight, Will. Virtual Community Grows Real Economy. Jan 28, 2002 2002. Feb 4, 2001 2002.

Lin, Nan. Social Networks And Status Attainment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 467-487.

Malhotra, Arvind, Sanjay Gosain, and Alexander Hars. Evolution of a virtual community: understanding design issues through a longitudinalstudy: Association for Information Systems Atlanta, GA, USA, 1997. 59 - 74.

Maykut, Pamela, and Richard Morehouse. Beginning Qualitative Research, A Philosophic and Practical Guide. Washington, DC: The Palmer Press, 1994.

McPherson, Miller, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M Cook. BIRDS OF A FEATHER: Homophily in Social Networks.^Ô Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 415-444.

Neff, Maryl L. Comunity. 1996. UNiversity of Florida, College of Education. Available: Feb 3 2002.

Nichani, Maish. Communities of practice at the core. October 4, 2001 2001. Elearning Post. Available: Feb 5 2002.

O'Neil, Dara. Merging Theory with Practice: Toward an Evaluation Framework for Community Informatics. 2001. Available:

Oldenberg, Ray. The Great Good Place,. New York: Paragon House, 1989.

Perens, Bruce. The Open Source Definition.  Open Sources. Ed. Chris DiBona. Sebastopol: O'Reilly and Associates, 1999.

Portes, Alejandro, and Patricia Landolt. ^ÓUnsolved Mysteries: The Tocqueville Files II; The Downside of Social Capital.^Ô Volume 7. Issue 26 ( 1996).

Portes, Alejandro. SOCIAL CAPITAL: Its Origins and Applicationsin Modern Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 1998.24 (1998): 1-24.

Powazek, Derek. Design for Community. 2001.
Available: 10/30/01 2001.

Powazek, Derek. fray. 2001. Derek Powazek. Available:

Powazek, Derek. NERVOUS Industries. 2001. Available:

Preece, Jenny. Empathic communities: reaching out across the Web. Interactions; ACM Press New York, NY, USA Volume 5. Issue 2 , March/April 1998 (1998): 32 - 43.

Putnam, Robert D. The Prosperous Community - Social Capital and Public Life. The American Prospect Volume 4,. Issue 13 (1993).

Reid, Elizabeth M. Cultural Formations in Text-Based Virtual Realities. Master of Arts. University of Melbourne, 1994.

Rheingold, Howard. A Slice of Life in My Virtual Community. 1992. The Well. Available:
gopher:// Feb3 2002.

Rheingold, Howard. The Art of Hosting Good Conversations Online. 1998.
Rheingold Associates. Available: Feb 3 2002.

Schwienhorst, K. The "third place"- virtual reality applications for second language learning. ReCALL 10.1 (1998): 118-126.

Simpson, John. Oxford English Dictionary. 2002. Oxford University Press.
Available: Feb3 2002.

Sonnenwald, H., et al. Collaboration Services in a ParticipatoryDigital Library: An Emerging Design, 1999.

Sproull, Lee, and Samer Faraj. Some Consequences of Electronic Groups. Internet Dreams; Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors. Ed. Mark Stefik. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. 125-134.

Stallman, Richard. "The GNU Operating System and the Free Software Movement". Open Sources. Ed. Chris. 53 DiBona. Sebastopol: O'Reilly and Associates, 1999.

Talzhemir. Furcadia Virtual Community. 11 November 20012001. Dragon's Eye Productions. Available: Feb 7 2002.

Thomas, Eric. The History of LISTSERV. 1995. L-Soft international, Inc. Available: Feb 3 2002.

Tollmar, Konrad, Ovidiu Sandor, and Anna Schömer. Supporting Social
Awareness @Work; Design and Experience: ACM Press New York, NY, USA, 1996. 298-307.

Wellman, Barry, et al. "Computer Networks as Social Networks: Virtual Community, Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Telework". Annual Review of Sociology 22.Feb 1996 (1996): 213-38.

Wellman, Barry, and Keith Hampton. Living Networked On and Off Line. Contemporary Sociology 28.6; November 1999 (1999): 648-654.

Wellman, Barry. Must Community Have a Place? An Online Discussion. 2000. Community & Urban Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. Available: Feb 3 2002.

Wellman, Barry, and Kenneth Frank. "Network Capital in a Multi-Level World: Getting Support from Personal Communities". Social Capital: Theory and Research. Eds. Nan Lin, Karen Cook and Ronald Burt. Chicago:: Aldine DeGruyter, 2001.

Wellman, Barry. Physical Place and CyberPlace: The Rise of Personalized Networking. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 (2001).

Werry, Chris, and Miranda Mowbray, eds. Online Communities: Commerce, Community Action and the Virtual University. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Hewlett-Packard Company; Prentice Hall PTR, 2001.

Williams, Gail Ann. Online Moderator Guidelines and Community-Building Tips. 1997. The well. Available:

Williamson, Mary B., et al. Constructing Community inCyberspace: ACM Press New York, NY, USA, 1998. 84-85.

Woolley, David R. PLATO: The Emergence of Online Community. 1994. Thinofit  (David Woolley). Available:

neo-traditional communities and new urbanism (from Serena)

The paper that 'started it all' (1992 - though Seaside was 1982): The Second Coming of the American Small Town - from the Wilson Quarterly:

digital networking in Celebration Florida:

links page for a good overview of the New Urbanism:

web portal on urban planning:

New Urban News (a journal):

a long, but current links page on New Urbanism:


Seaside Institute:

New Urbanism in NC:
Vermillion (by Charlotte - won a Sierra Club award):

Southern Village:


Belmont, NC:

Douglas Frantz and Catherine Collins.  Celebration, U.S.A. : living in Disney's brave new town
Planning Library
HT165.C45 F73 1999

Andrew Ross . The celebration chronicles : life, liberty and the pursuit of property value in Disney's new town.
HT169.57.U62 C457 1999

cities of ideas

The report in the Austin American-Statesman is titled "Cities of Ideas: Prosperty and its price"

for the cover page and links (April 28, 2002). Much of this work comes from Richard Florida's book, "The Rise of the Creative Class, And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life" (Basic Books, May 2002).

The first installment of the report called "The Rise of the creative class" with a subtitle Artists, industry innovators dismantling community ties in Austin and other growing American cities research finds"
note that groovy info can be seen in the page name.

Robert Putnam replies:

But others have some things to say too:

Here is a list of researchers for the Austin newspaper piece:

Look for more at, in the Harvard Business Review, Wired, and Washington Monthly.

Netville studies by Keith Hampton at MIT:
Place-Based and IT Mediated "Community".
Living the Wired Life in the Wired Suburb: Netville, Glocalization andCivil Society.
The Not so Global Village of Netville
Capitalizing on the Internet: Network Capital, Participatory Capital,and a Sense of Community
Examining Community in the Digital Neighbourhood: Early Results from Canada's Wired Suburb
Netville On-Line and Off-Line: Observing and Surveying a Wired Suburb.
Computer Assisted Interviewing: The Design and Application of Survey Software to the Wired Suburb Project.

from Barbara Wildemuth

Abate, Anne K., and Rosemary Young. "Community Access Bulletin Boards: Cincinnati Librarians Become Involved." Special Libraries 83, no. 2 (1992): 113-17. Keywords: Electronic Bulletin Boards/ Librarians/ Community Information Call Number: On shelf

Baker, Sharon L, and Ellen Dew Ruey. "Information and Referral Services - Attitudes and Barriers: a Survey of North Carolina Public Libraries." RQ 28, no. 2 (1988): 243-? Keywords: Community Information/ Public Libraries Call Number: HELP - public libraries

Bishop, Ann P., Tonyia J. Tidline, Susan Shoemaker, and Pamela Salela. "Public Libraries and Networked Information Services in Low-Income Communities." LISR 21, no. 3 (1999): 361-90. Keywords: Access to Information/ Public Libraries/ Economic Factors/ Community Information Call Number: On shelf Notes: INLS 105, module on access to info

Bishop, Ann Peterson, Susan Shoemaker, Tonyia J. Tidline, and Pamela Salela. "Information Exchange Networks in Low-Income Neighborhoods: Implications for Community Networking."ASIS '99: Proceedings of the 62nd ASIS Annual Meeting, Ed. Larry Woods, 443-49Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIS, 1999. Keywords: Community Information/ Information Systems/ Economic Factors Call Number: On shelf

Carroll, John M. "Community Computing As Human-Computer Interaction." Behaviour & Information Technology 20, no. 5 (2001): 307-14. Keywords: Community Information/ Human-Computer Interaction Call Number: On shelf, to read 1/02

Clark, Dawn E. "A Comparison of Health Information onFlorida's Free-Nets." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 85, no. 3 (1997): 239-44. Keywords: Community Information/ Internet/ Health InformationCall Number: SILS

Durrance, Joan C., and Karen G. Schneider. "Public LibraryCommunity Information Activities: Precursors of Community Networking Partnerships."CommunityNetworking '96Unpublished manuscript, 1996.
Keywords: Community Information/ Public Libraries Call Number: HELP -public libraries

Fietzer, William. "Only Connect: Community Networks, Libraries, and the Case of Charlotte's Web." Against the Grain 8, no. 5 (1996): 1,14,16,18. Keywords: Public Libraries/ Community Information Call Number: Public Libraries

Hampton, Keith. "Broadband Neighborhoods - Connected Communities."CHI 2001 Abstracts, 302-. Keywords: Community/ Community Information/ Computer-Assisted Communication Call Number: On shelf

Jones, Raymond B., Lynn M. Navin, and Keith J. Murray. "Use of a Community-Based Touch-Screen Public-Access Health Information System." Health Bulletin 51, no. 1 (1993): 34-42. Keywords: Literacy/ Community Information/ Health Information/ Touch Screens Call Number: INLS 257 - Low literacy

Facilitating Everyday Life Information-Seeking Using the 'Net: Findings From Case Studies of Three Public Library-Community Network Systems, Karen E. Pettigrew, and Joan C. Durrance. Unpublished draft, 2001. Keywords: Community Information/ Public Libraries/ Internet/ Information Seeking Call Number: HELP - public libraries

Pettigrew, Karen E., Joan C. Durrance, and Pertti Vakkari. "Approaches to Studying Public Library Networked Community Information Initiatives: a Review of the Literature and Overview of a Current Study." LISR 21, no. 3 (1999): 327-60. Keywords: Community Information/ Public Libraries/Research Methods/ Sense-Making Call Number: On shelf

Riedel, Eric , Marc J. Wagoner, Libby Dresel, John L. Sullivan, and Eugene Borgida. "Electronic Communities: Assessing Equality of Access in a Rural Minnesota Community." Social Dimensions of Information Technology: Issues for the New Millennium. Ed. G. David Garson, 86-108. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2000. Keywords: Community Information/ Community/ Computer-Assisted Communication/ Internet/ Social Behavior Call Number:HELP - internet applications; SILS - HM851 .S63 2000

Vaughan, Misha W., and Nancy Schwartz. "Jumpstarting the Information Design for a Community Network." JASIS 50, no. 7 (1999): 588-97.
Keywords: Systems Design/ World Wide Web/ Community Information Call Number: On shelf

About this Course Course Description Readings Schedule Grading Class Listserv - JoMC391 Listserv Archive and Settings